Skip to main content

Full text of "Comedies of Aristophanes v.3"

See other formats



VOL. Ill 












G. BELL AND SONS, Limited 




The spring of the year b. c. 421 found Athens and Sparta alike weary of 
the long continuance of the Peloponnesian War, and alike disposed to put 
an end to the conflict upon any fair and honourable terms. The War had 
now lasted exactly ten years : and as its fortunes alternated from side 
to side, Athens at one time, and Sparta at another, had been reduced to 
offer conditions of peace ; but hitherto the very events, which had caused 
the offer to be made by one combatant, had themselves ensured its rejection 
by the other. Now, for the first time, the wishes of both coincided ; both 
felt that they had far more to lose than to gain by a further prolongation of 
hostilities ; both were therefore eager to terminate the War, and the desire 
of Peace was as ardent and as genuine on the one side as on the other. 

The Lacedaemonians had commenced the war with the reputation of 
invincible prowess, and with the general sympathy of Hellas strongly 
manifested in their favour. And notwithstanding the warnings of their, 
wiser and more experienced counsellors, they had imagined that it would 
be but an easy task for their great Confederacy to chastise and humble 
the Imperial Republic which had dared to subjugate, and was holding in 
tributary vassalage, so many Hellenic cities, formerly as free and inde- 
pendent as herself. They looked forward to a few * short and decisive cam- 
paigns which would win them immortal glory, and the thanks and gratitude 
of a liberated Hellas. These visions had been rudely and completely dis- 
pelled. The Peloponnesian vessels had been swept from the seas by the 

1 cdovto oXlycov iroav K.a6aipr]cr€iv rqv tgov ' Adrjvaioov 8vvafj.iv, el tt)v yrjv T€jjlvol€V. — 
Thuc. v. 14. So Brasidas says to the people of Acanthus, e H p.h €K7T€p-^is pov kol 
rrjs OTTpaTias vtto AaKebaipovlcav 9 <*> 'AklivOioi, yeykvryrai ttjv alriav tTraXrjBevovo'a, fjv 
dpxdfievoi tov TroXepov irpoe'nvopev 'AdrjvaiOLS iXevOepovvTes rrjv 'EXXafoi TroXeprjareiv' et 8e 
Xpw<p inrjXSofiev, aC^aXevres rrjs anb tov emu iroXepov $6£r)s, f] dia rdxovs avrol avev tov 
vptTepov Kivbvvov rfkiriarapev^ AOqvaiovs KadaipT\creiv, prjdels p.ep(pOfj' vvv yap, ot€ 7rape'(r\;ez>, 
d(j)iypevoL kol fi€Ta vpcov ireipao-opzda Karepyd^arQai avrovs. — Id. iv. 85. 


Athenian navy : the Peloponnesian army had found no enemy to encounter, 
no fame to acquire: its main occupation had consisted in ravaging the 
harvests, and despoiling the homesteads, of Attica; an occupation in- 
glorious in itself, and unlikely, as it seemed, to be productive of any 
substantial effect upon the ultimate issue of the War. No doubt much 
suffering and many losses were inflicted upon the Athenian people by this 
series of devastations; but these were speedily and amply avenged by 
incessant x and destructive descents upon the Peloponnesian coasts, ex- 
tending even into the proper territories of Sparta herself. Far from 
crumbling to pieces before the imposing forces of the Peloponnesian 
Confederacy, the Republic of Athens, when once she had shaken off the 
despondency occasioned in the earlier stages of the War by the pestilence 
and the invasions, seemed to gather fresh elasticity from the dangers 
which environed her, and almost to vindicate her right to empire, by the 
intrepid activity with which she carried the War into the enemies' country, 
assailing them on every side with strokes so nimble and rapid, as completely 
to baffle and confound the proverbial slowness of the Spartan operations. 
During the seventh, and the greater part of the eighth, years of the War, 
the tide was setting strongly and steadily against the Lacedaemonian 
cause. The happy audacity of the Athenian Demosthenes in occupying 
and fortifying Pylus, was rewarded by the unlooked-for capture of the 
Spartan troops upon the islet of Sphacteria, a disaster which shook the 
Spartan reputation throughout Hellas, and inspired the numerous families, 

1 The annals of the War are full of such expressions as the following, with 
respect to the operations of the Athenian fleets : a\\a re itcaKovp irepiirkeovTes kcu is 
MtOoavrjp k.t.X. — idyovv rrjp yr\v eVi dvo r]p,epas. — irapairkeva-avres iiri aXka ^oopta eoyovv. 
Thuc. ii. 25. d<pLKop.€POi is ''Embavpov erepov rrjs yrjs rrjv 7ro\\r}V. — erepov rr\v re 
Tpoi£rjvl8a yr\v kol rqv 'AXidba kol rrjv 'EpjutowSa. — afyUovTO is Ilpcurias, Kai rrjs re yijs 
€T€p,ov kol avTO to Trokurpa elXou kol iir6p6r](Tav. Id. 56. 7rapa7r\iov(Tai al vrjes rrjs 
AaK.copLKrjs ra ini6a\ao-<ria x(opla iiropOrjcrav. iii. 7. rrjp TrcpLoiKida avrcov \rcov Aa.Kebaip,ovL(*>v\ 
TTOpBovorai. Id. 16. eVXeucrai/ es re ' 'Acriprjv kol "E\os kol to. 7r\eiara tcov Trep\ Oakaao-av 
Kai dnoftdcreis Troiovfisvoi idrjovv rrjv yrjv f)p,epas pdXiara kirrd. iv. 54. The Liaconian 
farmers would never be safe from these sudden and unexpected forays ; whilst the 
Athenians would be sure to hear of the gathering Peloponnesian host long before 
it crossed their frontier and commenced its work of devastation. 


who were in any way connected with the captives, with a personal interest 
in the restoration of Peace. Henceforth the one idea of the Lacedaemonian 
Government was to get rid of the War, and recover the captives. 
Embassy after embassy was sent, to solicit peace from Athens : embassy 
after embassy returned, to report that no peace could be obtained. The 
Athenians declared that, if a Spartan army again crossed the borders of 
Attica, the captives should at once be led out to execution ; and having 
thus secured immunity for their own country, they proceeded to assail and 
ravage the coasts of Peloponnesus more incessantly and more system- 
atically than ever. Towards the close of the eighth year of the War we 
find Athens the undisputed mistress of the seas ; her triremes infesting the 
whole Peloponnesian seaboard ; her garrisons established in strongholds 
commanding the peninsula on every side, at Nisaea, Methone, Cythera, 
Pylus. We find peaceful Laconian towns surprised and sacked by her 
flying detachments ; the Aeginetans pursued into their Laconian asylum, 
and massacred to a man; the Messenians, the deadliest enemies of the 
Spartan name, firmly planted at Pylus ; the Helots deserting in numbers ; 
Ionian trophies erected on the very soil of Laconia itself ; and the scattered 
Spartan garrisons unable successfully to cope with their nimble and 
ubiquitous adversaries. No wonder that the Lacedaemonians were dis- 
tressed and bewildered, when they found themselves x hemmed in on every 
side by a system of warfare so novel and unexpected : whilst their own 
prestige had suffered, and their high position been perceptibly lowered, 
even amongst their own allies. 

In this strait a diversion was made in their favour by the brilliant 
exploits of Brasidas towards the close of the eighth year of the War. 
Throwing himself boldly into the midst of the Athenian dependencies on 
the north-west shores of the Aegean, he detached city after city from the 
Athenian empire, as much by his wise and conciliatory policy, his winning 
and attractive character, and the confidence which his presence everywhere 
inspired, as by his consummate military skill. But his countrymen, 

1 In the 5 5th chapter of his fourth Book, Thucydides paints in very forcible language 
the anxiety and humiliation of the Spartans. 


TroXefjioov hia-novTicdv airetpoi 1 ) were unable to appreciate his schemes and 
combinations, which passed far beyond the contracted horizon of their own 
narrow political traditions : it was mainly as affording* an outlet for their 
discontented and unoccupied soldiery, and as drawing out of the country 
the most daring, and therefore the most dangerous, of the Helots, that 
they had originally encouraged, or rather, perhaps, acquiesced in, his 
adventurous enterprise : and his unlooked-for success was welcomed, not 
for its own sake, but because it seemed to open a prospect of at length 
recovering the Sphacterian captives. And hence it was that they were 
unwilling to rely too much on the chances of war. Successes so easily 
obtained might perhaps be as easily lost : Perdiccas, who had originally 
invited their troops, had fallen off again to the Athenian alliance : 
the passage through Thessaly was barred to reinforcements : and the 
Spartans were eager to conclude a Peace while yet they had a fair 
equivalent to offer in exchange for the captives. 

There was yet another circumstance which rendered the Spartan 
Government peculiarly anxious at this moment to be at peace with 
Athens. Their treaty with Argos, which had lasted for thirty years, 
was on the eve of expiring, and grave apprehensions were entertained lest 
the Argives were preparing to seize the opportunity of regaining, with 
the assistance of Athens, their old traditionary predominance amongst the 
Dorians of the Peloponnesus. 

The Athenians, on their part, were equally desirous of effecting a 
termination of hostilities. They had nothing to gain from the War, 
which had, in fact, been forced upon them, and in which the struggle on 
their side had been commenced merely to maintain, and not to extend, 
their existing empire. At the first their hope had only been that they 
might come out of the conflict with undiminished power and importance : 
they had entered upon it with undisguised reluctance, and, indeed, a large 
and powerful party had always been opposed to its continuance. And the 
War had, from the outset, entailed upon them great and peculiar sacrifices . 
The surrender of all the local institutions and country homes to which they,, 

1 Thuc. i. 141, 


beyond all other Hellenic peoples, had from time immemorial been devotedly 
attached : the spectacle which met their eyes, as they gazed from their city 
walls, of a rude and hostile soldiery pillaging their farms and vineyards, 
hacking down their olives and fig-trees, and destroying all that they held 
most dear : the exchange of the ease and freedom, the thousand pleasures 
of a country life for stifling huts and cells, or rather for any hastily 
extemporized shelter which they could find or construct (for there were no 
roofs to accommodate the multitudes which kept pressing into the city) : 
and above all, the appalling visitation of the Pestilence which burst forth 
with unprecedented fury amidst these overcrowded immigrants, cooped and 
penned together in their miserable dwellings, so that " they died like sheep," 
says the historian, " corpses piled on corpses about the wells, and in the open 
spaces of the city": such were to Athens the immediate results of the 
declaration of War. Her spirit sank before these accumulated calamities, 
and she attempted to open negotiations for Peace. But her offers were 
rejected : and stricken by disease, not only in the city but also in her fleets 
and armies, she was compelled to carry on the War with an impoverished 
treasury and a desponding population. Her energy, however, remained 
unabated : and gradually the pestilence wore itself out ; the Peloponnesian 
invasions lost, by repetition, much of their terrors ; and the Athenians, at 
length, found their gallantry and perseverance rewarded by a series of 
successes, culminating in that great and astonishing event — the capture 
of the Spartan troops upon the islet of Sphacteria. 

The surrender of a Spartan army, an event unprecedented in History, 
created a profound sensation throughout Hellas, and seems to have 
stimulated to a prodigious degree the hopes and aspirations of Athens ; her 
ambition began to take a wider flight (h€l(6vcov vpiyovro) 1 : and whereas 
she had hitherto sought merely to maintain and secure her maritime 
empire, she appears now for the moment to have conceived the idea of estab- 
lishing her supremacy over the Hellenic race as well by land as by sea. 

An invasion of Boeotia was the natural stepping-stone to the accom- 
plishment of these high designs. It was not the first time that Athens 

1 Thuc. iv. 21, 41. 


had cast a longing eye upon those rich pasturages, those lakes and plains 
swarmino* with fish and fowl ; and she had on one occasion succeeded in 
acquiring; and actually maintained for nearly ten years, an ascendancy over 
the whole Boeotian territory. The Boeotians, always inert and sluggish, 
had never attempted to retaliate : they were content to repel, as best 
they might, the efforts made for their subjugation, and never thought of 
overstepping their own frontiers to carry on an aggressive warfare against 
their active and enterprising enemy. And the Athenians, therefore, now 
proposed, by a vigorous attempt, to reduce Boeotia wholly beneath their 
influence and control. But their scheme, however well conceived, was ill 
carried into execution ; the various detachments failed to co-operate with 
each other, and the ambitious hopes of Athens were at once dashed to 
the ground by the signal overthrow which the Boeotians gave to the whole 
Athenian army among the deep x ravines and sloping shrub-covered hills 
over which the modern traveller passes as he journeys from Delium to 
Oropus. All the military forces of Athens (excepting such as were at the 
moment actually engaged on foreign service) seem to have been present 
on that fatal field : and all were overcome and borne down by the sturdy 
Boeotians, whose habit of gross and heavy eating (a8rj<£ayia) 2 dulled, in- 

1 "We begin to ascend over wild and uncultivated hills, overgrown with low 
shrubs, and broken into deep furrows by the torrents which plough their way from 
the higher mountains on our right in their course into the sea. It was an evening 
in this season, at the beginning of winter, when the battle of Delium was fought. 
It took place at about a mile to the south of the village from which it was named. 
One of these sloping hills (X6cj)os) covered the Boeotian forces from the sight of 
their Athenian antagonists. These abrupt gullies (pvaices) channelled in the soil 
by the autumnal rain impeded the conflict of the two armies." — Wordsworth's 
"Athens and Attica," chap. i. 

2 tovs yap Boicotovs fjfxas ol 'Attikoi ml 7ra^el? ml dvaio-drjTOvs ml tjXlOlovs /uxXiora 
Slci tcis ddrjcpaylas 7rpoorr)y6p€vov, says Plutarch of Chaeronea, De Esu Carnium, i. 6. 4. 
Athenaeus, x, chap. 11, collects a multitude of passages bearing on the voracity of the 
Boeotians : ml tQm\ 8e 6'Xa eh irokvfyayiav e/eajuadetro* cos to Boicotov. Eu/3ot>Xo9 yovv 

iv ' Avrumr] (j>r}cr\ 9 

ttovciv filv appes feat cpayeiv fxdk' avSpucol 
ical KCLpTepijcrai' rol 5' 'AOrjvaioi Xeyciv 
zeal fii/epa faySp-ev* toi Se ®7]&a?oi ptya. 


deed; their mental faculties ; but endowed their bodies with a weight and 
strength which rendered them almost irresistible in the push of shields 
(toOuriJLds ao-TTibav) w T ith which Hellenic armies closed. Delium was the 
grave of those splendid hopes to which Sphacteria had given birth. So 
great and irreparable an overthrow not only 2 destroyed the newly-gained 
reputation of the Athenian arms, but seems also to have given rise for the 
first time to painful and distressing apprehensions at Athens 2 , lest the 
Boeotians, flushed with success, should throw off the singular reluctance 
which they had hitherto always displayed to cross their own frontier (and 
which had even wellnigh withheld them from attacking the invading 
Athenian host on that border-land whereon the battle of Delium was fought) 
and should lead their victorious forces into the defenceless fields of Attica. 
And it would seem that the Athenian army became, to a certain extent, 
demoralized 3 by its defeat, and lost those habits of obedience and discipline 
which still distinguished the efficient and well-trained Athenian navy. 

KCU ip ~Evp031T7) 9 

KCU iv *l(OVl, 

ip be HepK&yjn, 
And so on. 


avhpwv dpiffTcov eoOLeiv hi* fjpepas. 

ovtco o<po§p earl tovs rporrovs Bohjqtios 
&gt ovhe henrvcav, <hs Xeyova, kpnTipurkaTat.. 

fxera ravra ®i]$as rjXOov, ov tt)v vvx^' o\rjv 
rrjv 0' -qpkpav hei-nvovcri. 

1 T&v 7 Adrjpa'icap KciTaCJ)povovp.ev(QP bta rqv ire pi to AtjXiop crvfi^opav. — Diod. Sic. xii, 
cap. 75. 

2 Xenophon records a very remarkable conversation, which must have taken place 
about this time, between Socrates and the younger Pericles, then one of the Athenian 
Generals. 6pa$, says Pericles, ort d(j)' ov fj re crvp ToXp-Lbr] tcop ;\;iXiW iv Aeftabeia 
o~vpL(f)opa iyepero, kcu f} fie#' 'lirTTOKpaTOVs iirl Ar)\icp t ck tovtcop rera7reiix»rai pep rj tcdv 
7 Adrjvaicov bo£-a rrpos tovs Boiootovs, eVfjprat be to t&v Qrjfiaicov (ppovrjfxa 7Tpos tovs 
' Adrjvaiovs ; &are BolcotoI fiep, ol irpoaOep ovb' iv Trj eavTcop ToXfJLcopTes 'ASqvawis cipev 
ActKebaipLOpicop re kol tcdv aWop TleXojropprjcrioiiP aPTiTaTTeadai, vvv cmeikovaip avrol kuS' 
iavTOvs ipfiaXeiv els tt]P 'Attiktjp* 'AOtjpcuoi be, ol irpoTepov, ore Bota>rol fiovot, iyepoPTO i 
TropdovPTes ttjv Boiam'ai', (froftovvTaL p.}) BoioTOi drjGHTGHTi tt]V ' Attiktjp. Kai 6 SeaKparq?, 
«AX' alo-Odpofiai pep, e<j)7], TavTa ovtcos eyopTa. — Xen. Mem. iii, cap. 5, §§ 4 and 5. 

3 In the Dialogue from which the foregoing note is taken, Pericles goes on to 


A still heavier blow was awaiting the Athenians. Brasidas was in 
the midst of their invaluable possessions on the north-west coast of the 
Aegean : city after city was falling away to him, each wishing to be the 
first to revolt; Acanthus, Stagirus, the great and important town of 
Amphipolis, Torone, Scione, Mende, were already in his hands ; the whole 
fabric of their empire was shaken to its centre. The flower of the 
Athenian army was dispatched, under Cleon, to recapture Amphipolis ; 
but the troops were disorganized^ the leader was incompetent, and they 
were totally routed under the walls of Amphipolis, almost without striking 
a blow. What effect this crushing defeat might have upon the Athenian 
allies, it was of course impossible to conjecture; and Athens began to 
repent that she had not, while yet on the vantage-ground of success, 
accepted the favourable terms which the Sparfcans had then been ready 
to give. 

Thucydides 1 tells us that the two chief obstacles to peace had been Cleon, 
the Athenian demagogue, and Brasidas, the Spartan general : Brasidas, 
because of the success and the glory which he was gaining in the War ; 
Cleon, because in quiet times his malpractices would be more apparent and 
his calumnies less easily believed. It was, indeed, chiefly through the 
restless activity of Brasidas that the armistice for one year, which had been 
concluded in the spring of B.C. 423 (very shortly after the battle of 
Delium), had been rendered abortive; nor can we wonder if, with the 
brilliant career which was then opening before him, he strained every 
nerve to prevent its being closed by the ill-timed advent of Peace. The 
battle of Amphipolis removed both these obstacles : Cleon was slain by 

lament the absence of order and sound discipline in the Athenian commonwealth : 
e£ hv, says he, ttoWy] fiev dncLpLa kcli Kaida rfj irokei i/jLCpverai, 7roXXr) de eX@P a KaL A" " 09 
dXXrjXcjv rots ttoXltclis iyyiyverai' hi a eye/aye fxd\a (fioftovpai del p,rj tl fteZfov fj mare 
(pepeiv bvvaaBai kclkov rrj rroXet crvpftfj. Mr]8aixcos, ecprj 6 2(OKpdrr]s, a> IlepLKXeis, ovrtos 
rjyov dvr}K€OTo& 7rovr)pla voo-elv 'AOrjvaiovs. ovx opas a>s evraKroi elaiv iv rols vclvtikoIs ; 
. . . Tovro yap tol, ecpr) [6 IIepiK\?}s] kcli BavfxacrTov ecrn to tovs pxv tolovtovs irei6apx*lv 
rols ifacrTooo-i, rovs §e 67r\iras Kcti rovs iTTTTels, ot doKovat KaXoKayadia irpoK€K.pi&6ca todp 
ttoXitcov, dTTeideo-Tdrovs elvai iravrodv. — Xen. Mem. iii, cap. 5, §§ 17—19. 
1 Thuc. v. 14-16. 


a Myrcinian targeteer as he fled from the field of combat : Brasidas was 
one of the seven who fell on the Lacedaemonian side. 

And now arose throughout Hellas an earnest and impatient yearning 
after the Peace which, it was obvious, could not be long withheld 1 . So 
strong was the feeling that the War was about to determine, that hostili- 
ties were suspended by tacit consent, and the Spartan reinforcements^ 
under Rhamphias, turned back from Thessaly of their own accord : 
partly, no doubt, for other reasons, but 2 "chiefly/'' says Thucydides, 
" because they knew that, when they left Sparta, their Government was 
bent upon making a peace." 

It was at this moment, when the prospect of the restoration of Peace 
to Hellas was the one great topic which engrossed all hearts and tongues, 
that Aristophanes composed the Comedy which, from its subject, he 
named cc The Peace." It was exhibited 3 at the great city Dionysia, in 
the archonship of Alcaeus, March, B.C. 421. And hardly had it been 

1 ol fiakurra 7rpocnroXepovPT€s rfj elpr^pr] rrjs 'iLXXdbos KXecov Kai Bpao~l8as rjcrav, hv 6 
noXepos rod pep direKpVTTTe rrjv KaKiav, rod be tyjv aperrjv eKocrpei. tg> pep yap dbiK-qpaToap 
peydXcop, t<» be KaTOpdoapaTcop dcfioppas Trapeze, tovtmp ovp apa TvecroPToap ep pdxv M 1 ? 
ire pi 'Kpfy'nroXip, evdvs 6 NiKia? Trapakaftcov tovs pep 27raprtara? eWaXai Ttjs elprjvrjs 
opeyopepovs, tovs b* 'Adrjpaiovs ovkcti t<5 noXepco Sappovvras, dp(fioTepovs 6* olov e/cXeXi/- 
pevovs Kai napamdievTas Skovolcos ras xclpas, enpaTTep ottcos els cfiiXiav rets noXeis 
crwayaycop, Kai tovs ciXXovs e/ EXXrjPas a7raXXd£as KaKa>v Ka\ dpawavcrdpepos, fiefiaiop ovtco 
to Trjs evrvxias opopa npbs top avOis \povov ttoioIto. tovs pev ovv evnopovs Kai Trpecrftv- 
Tepovs, Kai tmv yeapyap to rrXrjdos avToOep elpqpiKop elx €v ' • • • V°~ av °vv rrporepov 7Te7roiT}" 
pevoi tlvcl npbs dXXrjXovs eKex^Lpiav epiavcnop, ep jy, crvpiovTes els tovto Kai yevopepoi ndXip 
dbeias Kai axoXrjs koi 7rpos i-evovs Kai olKeiovs einpt^ias, iiroBovv top dpiavTOV Kai dnoXepov 
(3iov, fjdecos pev dbopTcop tcl ToiavTa xopcov aKovopres — 

fceiaOco dopv poi /xitop dpcpnrXefceip a,pax VCLLS i 
fjbecos be pepvrjpevoi tov elirovTOs^ otl tovs ev clprjprj KaOevdovTas ov (rdXmyyes, dXX 
dXeKTpvoves a(f)V7rvi£ovo~u XoibopovPTes ovv Kai 7rpo(3aXX6pevoi tovs Xeyovras as Tpls 
evvea erry bia7roXeprjdrjvai 7re7rpcoTai top rroXepov, eVei#' ovtco ivepl navTos els Xoyovs 
crvpftaXXovTes, eiroi^cravTo tyjv elprjprjp. — Plutarch, Nicias, chap. 9. 

2 paXiVTa be airrjXBop elboTes tovs AaKebaipoplovs , otc e^rjecrap, Trpbs ttjp elprjprjp paXXop 
Trjp yp&prjv exoPTas. — Thuc. V. 13. 

3 'EpiKrjcre tg> bpdpari 6 7701777-99 enl apxoPTOS 'AXKalov, ip acrTei. — Second Argument, 
infra, page xli. 



produced upon the stage, when the Peace of which it sang dawned upon 
the Hellenic world. The Peace of Nicias was concluded in March or 
April, B.C. 421, immediately after the great city Dionysia in the same 
archonship of Alcaeus 1 . It was no mere 2 five years' truce, savouring of 
tar, and dockyards, and naval preparations — no mere ten years' truce, 
savouring of intrigues and political combinations — not even a mere thirty 
years' truce, to which the hopes of Aristophanes had, four winters earlier, 
been limited — it was a Peace for fifty years, a term of which few, who 
had served in the War, could reasonably expect to see the expiration. 

Almost immediately after the Peace, a defensive alliance was made 
between the Athenians and Lacedaemonians, and the prisoners on each 
side were released. 

So ended the first period of the Peloponnesian War, a period which, by 
way of distinction, was subsequently, from the King who led the Spartan 
armies at its commencement, called the Archidamian War. 

It is said in line 990 of this Play that the Athenians had for thirteen 
years been languishing for want of Peace. And it was, therefore, at one 
time contended by Paulmier and others that, inasmuch as the Pelopon- 
nesian War did not formally commence until the year B.C. 431, the Play 
could not have been written until the year b. c. 419 or 418. But this 
objection assumes that the peace between the Athenian Empire and the 
Peloponnesian Confederacy had remained undisturbed by any hostilities 
until the formal commencement of the Peloponnesian War : whereas, in 
truth, for a period of fully three years before the actual declaration of war 
on the part of the whole Confederacy, Athens had been incessantly 
coming into collision with some of its principal members. Not only had 
the Megarians, by a formal interdict, been excluded from all intercourse 
with the Athenian empire ; but the forces of Athens and Corinth had 

1 v Ap^6t 8e to>v a7ropda>v — iv 'ASfjvais clpx^v 'AXfcalos, 'EXafyftoXLcovos firjvos eKrrj 
(j)BtvovTos. — Avrai at <nrovdcu iyivovro TtXevrcovTos rod x €l H-^> vos &/* a VPh * K A'*ovv(Ticdv 
evdvs tg>v aoTiK&v, — Time. v. 19, 20. 

2 Acharnians 188-200. 


clashed in open and undisguised conflict, both on the east and on the west 
coasts of Hellas, at Potidaea on the one side and at Corey ra on the other. 
No less than ten States had taken part with Corinth in the first expedi- 
tion to Corcyra ; and, when Athens actively interposed in favour of the 
Corcyraeans, it was felt on all sides that the War was virtually begun. 
The period which intervened before the Peloponnesian Confederacy, as 
a whole, could be set in motion against Athens was anything but a period 
of peace and tranquillity. Thucydides 1 clearly regarded it as a mere 
prelude to the more formal War : a season of trouble and uneasiness, 
of broken treaties, of complaints and recriminations, of wars and rumours 
of wars : the skirmishing which preceded the actual conflict of the great 
Hellenic powers. 

It is, therefore, strictly accurate to say that in the year B.C. 421 the 
Athenians had for thirteen years been deprived of the blessings of Peace : 
nor is there any real contradiction, as has been alleged by some, between 
such a statement as this, and those contained in the Acharnians and 
the Knights 2 . There the poet is referring to events — the exclusion of 
the products of Boeotia from the Athenian market, and the flocking of the 
country population into Athens — which happen to have been almost 
exactly coincident in date with the formal commencement of the Pelo- 
ponnesian War. Here he is speaking of a state of conflict and disquietude 

1 Thucydides describes the origin of the War in the following manner : fjpi-avro 
avrov 'AOrjvaioi Kai Ht\o7TOvvr)crioi XvaavTes ras TpiaKovrovrzis (nrovbas : and then referring 
to the Corcyraean and Potidaean conflicts, he adds that they were ostensibly the 
causes a<f> hv Xvaavres tcls anovdas es top zroXe/xoy Karecrrrjo-ap. — i. 23. So in chap. 66, 
distinguishing between the Corinthians and the entirety of the Confederacy, he 
says that the Athenians and Corinthians were openly warring against each other, 
awo tov npexfiavovs ifiaxovTO* ov pkvroi o ye rroXepos 7T&) ^vveppcoyei, aXX' eVt dvaKCOx^j 
rfv* Ibia yap ravra ol Kopivdioi eirpa^av. And at the close of the first book he 
describes this preliminary period as a (nrovdcov gvyxviris kcu irpofyacris rod rroXepelv. 

2 In Acharnians 890 (b.c. 425) the speaker welcomes a Copaic eel, after a six 
years' absence. In Knights 793 (b. c. 424) the year then current is spoken of as 
the eighth year that the populace had been dwelling in tubs, and turrets, and 

b a 


which had existed for a considerable period prior to such formal com- 

The correct view was ably and successfully maintained by Petit 1 > 
Gray, and others. And the controversy is now set at rest, and the date 
of the Play fixed for the year B.C. 421, by the discovery of the valuable 
chronological notice which forms the concluding portion of the Second 
Argument (infra, page xli), and which was first transcribed by Bekker 
from the Venetian MS., and published in the year 1829. The last 
distinguished supporter of Paulmier's theory was Mr. Fynes Clinton, in 
his " Fasti Hellenici," and he, in the Compendium published shortly before 
his death, acknowledged his error and adopted the correct date. And, 
indeed, it is surprising that any doubt should ever have been entertained 
on the subject. The entire Play would have been an anachronism in 
any other year. Not only do all the incidental historical notices scattered 
throughout the scenes, the various circumstances of the several Hellenic 
peoples, and the motives by which they were respectively actuated in the 
negotiations for Peace, accord with this epoch, and with none other : not 
only does the general tone of thought suit no other period of the War : 
but the cardinal historical fact on which the Play itself is founded 
absolutely excludes the possibility of any other date. Brasidas and Cleon 
were dead (they died in the summer of B.C. 422) : the Peace was not yet" 
made (it was made in the spring of b. c. 421). 

" The Peace " is, in my judgement, the tamest 2 and (if the expression 

1 See Petit's Miscellanea, i, chap. viii. His arguments are extracted in Kuster's 
Aristophanes, i, p. 333. See also Gray's Works, ii, p. 150. 

2 It is right to observe that this is hy no means the universal opinion. ' ' Sum- 
mam hilaritatem," says C. F. Ranke (de Vita Aristoph. § 8), " a primo initio usque 
ad finem spectantium animos occupasse credibile est." " Quamdulce putasrisisse 
Athenienses," asks Riehter (Prolegomena, p. 4), " Lacedaemoniorum reliquarumque 
civitatum legatos, hospitem quemque ac peregrinum, cunctos scilicet jamjam pacem 
gustantes, quum audirent Lacedaemonios quidem laudari tanquam viros propositi 
tenaces, ekKovrag avfyucas, reliquos contra, Argivos, Boeotos, miseros praesertim 
Megarenses, increpari aceusarique tanquam pigros vel perfidos ? quam risisse porro 


is allowable) the most un-Aristophanic of all the extant Comedies of 
Aristophanes. It has little of the inexhaustible merriment, the exuberant 
vivacity, of his other Plays; and still less of that keen satire, that 
exquisite wit, that occasional sublimity of sentiment, that grace and 
elegance of thought and diction, which render his great masterpieces 
such unrivalled combinations of almost every poetical excellence. The 
plot is loose and disjointed; an important part of the Parabasis is 
repeated from one of his earlier plays ; and the production of a colossal 
image of Peace is a somewhat clumsy and inelegant device, and, as such, 
was justly assailed with ridicule by his able and witty antagonists \ 
Eupolis and the comedian Plato. 

Yet the Play is not without its own special and characteristic excel- 
lences. Its very defects were in some degree occasioned by the all- 
absorbing importance, at the moment, of the subject with which it was 
dealing; and by the strong and earnest feelings which that subject was 
everywhere calling forth. It was the gravity of the crisis in which and 
for which the Play was written, which, to a certain extent, dulled the 
vivacity and cramped the vigour of the great comedian. For years he 
had been labouring in furtherance of peace, and in opposition to the 
turbulent policy of Cleon ; and now that Cleon was no more, the eager 
anxiety with which men looked for the restoration of peace and goodwill 
among the Hellenic peoples was almost too serious and too real for the 
lighthearted raillery and ridicule in which, at all other times, Aristo- 
phanes loved to indulge. 

The Play breathes throughout a genuine appreciation of, and desire 
for, the enjoyments of rural life ; a yearning such as all true countrymen, 
pent within the limits of a great city, must at times experience for " the 
fragrance of their old paternal fields." Few country scenes of antiquity 
have received more hearty commendation, in modern times, than the 

plausuque probasse, quum viderent pacis res, pio quidem sed supra modum hilari 
et petulanti animo, vota sacraque fieri ? " 

1 KCOficodelraL [6 'ApKTTOCpdvris] otl Kal to ttjs Elptjvrjs KokoacrtKov i£r}p€V ayaXfia* 
Ev7to\ls AvTokvKw, UXdrcov Nikcus. — Schol. on Plato's Apology, 19 C. 


second instalment of the Parabasis of this Play; " ou Yon respire/'' says 
M. Pierron, "une des plus fraiches senteurs de la campagne." l( Je 
demande/ 5 asks M. Fallex, " s'il y a rien de plus gracieux que les scenes 
ravissantes de la Paix, d'ou s ; exhale je ne sais quel parfum d'idylle 
antique/' 1 

And the Play abounds also, like all the writings of Aristophanes, with 
genuine kindly Panhellenic sentiments, occasionally rising, amidst all the 
burlesque with which they are surrounded, into a strain of almost solemn 
and pathetic dignity, as in that beautiful address to Peace which may be 
called the Consecration hymn. 

It is a serious defect in the constitution of the plot that the Play 
naturally divides itself into two distinct sections, differing from each 
other in purpose, in character, and even in locality. The first half of the 
Play represents the Recovery of Peace from the celestial abodes : the 
second exhibits the festivities and social enjoyments which welcome her 
restoration to the earth. The Parabasis separates the two sections. 

The first half of the Play, at times, almost assumes the character of 
a didactic historical poem, and becomes a most interesting supplement to 
and illustration of the graver history of the Peloponnesian War. The 
harmony which exists in all substantial points between the statements of 
Aristophanes and those of Thucydides is only rendered more valuable 
from the circumstance that the writers are regarding the same events 
from totally different points of view. The historian records accomplished 
events : the poet, for a moment, lifts the veil and gives us a glance at 
the same events whilst yet in the process of accomplishment, an instan- 
taneous but complete and vivid glimpse of the underlying forces, of the 

1 Theatre d'Aristophane par Eugene Fallex, vol. i, pp. 6, 254. I take this 
opportunity of acknowledging my obligations to M. Fallex (who has translated 
many passages of Aristophanes with the accuracy of a scholar and with the elegance 
and vivacity which befit a countryman of Moliere) for the extremely kind and 
courteous manner in which he permitted me to enrich this volume with the scenes 
which he has translated from the Peace in his charming little work. I must also 
thank Dean Milman for allowing me to cite in the Appendix his version of the 


hopes, the fears, the suspicions, the doubts, the rivalries, which were 
co-operating in their formation. The poet writes of the ever-shifting 
panorama before his eyes, whilst the waves are yet in motion, the wind 
perpetually changing, and it is all uncertain what the results may be. 
The historian records the results when they have passed into the 
irrevocable domain of fact, when the winds are laid, and the waves have 
again settled down into a state of calm and motionless tranquillity. So 
much the more striking is the accord which we everywhere find between 
the light offhand touches of Aristophanes, and the well-considered judge- 
ments of Thucydides ; and that, not merely when they are treating of 
actual events, or estimating the conduct and character of individuals^ but 
also when they are tracing the various dispositions and tendencies of the 
several Hellenic States. 

The historical portion of the Play terminates with the commencement 
of the Parabasis : the social scenes which follow, though censured x as not 
directly advancing the action of the piece, yet exhibit much more of that 
genial and mirthful pleasantry, which is one distinguishing characteristic 
of Aristophanie Comedy. 

" The Peace " of Aristophanes was placed second at the Great Dionysia : 
the prize was awarded to " The Flatterers" (KoXaKts) of Eupolis, and 
u The Clansmen " (Qparopes) of Leucon was placed third. 

The Flatterers of Eupolis 2 appears to have fully deserved the victory 
which it obtained. It was one of those vigorous outbursts of bitter 
indignant satire for which that great poet was distinguished among his 
contemporaries : its object being Callias, the brother-in-law of Alcibiades, 
and the wealthiest Athenian of his day, a voluptuary who squandered his 
colossal fortunes with profuse and reckless extravagance upon every 
kind of luxury and sensual pleasure, and who was attended wherever he 

1 Schlegel, Lectures on Dramatic Art ; Miiller, Literature of Greece. 

2 See Meineke, Hist. Grit. i. 130-7 ; Fragm. Com. ii. 484-98 ; v. lxxviii. See 
also Schneider's Dissertation de Convivii Xenophontei tempore, personis, et 


went by a crowd 1 of fawning sophists, poets, rhetoricians, and other 
sycophants and parasites. These formed the Chorus of the Play, and 
were described as men whom neither fire nor sword could keep from their 
patron's table 2 . Meineke cites from Maximus Tyrius (Diss, xx, section 7) 
the statement that KakXCav iv Aiovvaiois eKcojotwSet EforoAts, lbuoTr}v avbpa 


eraipcLL kol aXXai raiteivai koX avbpairobcabeis rjboval, and refers to this 
practice the nineteenth fragment of the Play — 

(popovcriv ap7rd£ovcriv €K rrjs olicias 
to xpvaiov, rapyvpia iropQtLTai. 

The Comedy was much esteemed by ancient critics, and more than thirty 
fragments of it have survived to our own times. 

Little is known of the dramatic writings of Leucon. Meineke 3 cites 
but three quotations from, or rather perhaps references to, his comedies ; 
and all three belong to this play of the Clansmen. 

In one point the three Comedies seem to have concurred : the Flatterers, 
the Peace, the Clansmen alike contained an attack upon the greedy and 
fawning character of the tragedian 4 Melanthius. 

The first of the Arguments prefixed to this Play contains the following 
statement : — u Aristophanes is said in the didascaliae to have exhibited 
an Wipr\vr] on two 5 distinct occasions : it is uncertain, therefore, says 
Eratosthenes, whether he exhibited the same Play a second time, or 
produced another which has not come down to us. Crates, however, 

1 Even Gorgias, Prodicus, and Protagoras are said to have swelled his train of 
flatterers, and the latter was certainly lashed by Eupolis in the KoXakes. 

2 o%)s ov 7rvp f ov aibrjpoSf ovbe x ^ 1 *- 09 e?py et prj (poirav im beiirvov, — Fragm. iii. 

3 See Meineke, Hist. Crit. i. 217; Fragm. Com. ii. 749. 

„ 4 Aristophanes assails him in the Peace 801-18 and 1009-1015. On the former 
passage the Scholiast says Kal noXv paWov iv rols Ko\a£iv EvnoXig avrbv as Kivaibov 
diaftdWci Kai koXclkci : whilst Athenaeus viii, chap. 30, speaking of Melanthius, tells 
US, KcopabovoTL b* avrbv im dyjro(f)ayia AevKcov iv ^pdropcriv, i Apio~TO(fidvr]s iv Elprjvr}, 
<&€p€Kpa.Tr]s iv HerdXr]' iv be rots y Ix@vo~iv "hpxwnos tgS bpafxan <os 6\jro(f)dyov brjo-as 
irapabibaxn toTs IxBvo~lv avTi(3poadr)cr6iJLevov. 

5 bis, as I venture to correct the Argument. See the note infra, p. xxxviii. 


recognized two plays, writing thus : at all events in the Acharnians, or in 
the Babylonians^ or in the second Peace. And, indeed, there are many 
scattered passages cited as from the Peace which are not to be found in 
the existing Play." 

This is, I believe, the only passage in the whole range of ancient 
literature in which any allusion is made to a second Play of the same 
name as the present : and on this passage we may fairly make the 
following observations : — 

(1), That beyond twice recording the success ' Apicrrofyavovs Elprjvrj, 
the didascaliae would probably give no information on the subject. 

(2). That the writer of the Argument had certainly never seen any 
second Peace. 

(3). That Eratosthenes had certainly never seen any second Peace, and 
had no grounds, excepting such as were furnished by the entries in the 
didascaliae, for suspecting that such a Play had ever in fact existed. 

(4). That the language attributed to Crates does not by any means 
necessarily imply that he had ever seen any second Peace ; and, indeed, 
it is highly improbable that he should have been acquainted with a Play, 
the very existence of which had escaped the investigation of so learned 
and industrious a student as Eratosthenes. 

(5). That the passages to which the author of the Argument refers 
must have been invariably cited as from the Peace simplieiter, and cannot 
in any instance have been cited as from the second Peace eo nomine. 

(6). That the old grammarians, citing passages from memory, are 
constantly referring them to the wrong play ; and therefore the mere 
fact that passages, cited as from the Peace, are not to be found in the 
existing Play, raises little or no presumption of the existence of another 
play of that name. 

The fragments of Aristophanes have been collected by Canter, 
Coddaeus, Brunck, Dindorf, and Bergk 1 . Their united researches have 

1 The collection of Aristophanic fragments contained in Meineke's Fragmenta 
Comicorum Graecorum was contributed by Theodore Bergk. 


brought together six passages only cited as from the Peace, and not 
found in the existing Play. Of these six fragments, one is from Pollux, 
one from Stobaeus, one from Suidas, and the remaining three from 
Eustathius. The earliest of these writers lived centuries after the time 
of Eratosthenes ; and it is very unlikely that they should have seen the play 
which the research of that great scholar was unable to discover : and 
even had they done so, it is absolutely incredible that after the doubts 
expressed by Eratosthenes (with whose works they were well acquainted) 
they should have invariably spoken of it simply as the Peace, without 
ever in any way distinguishing it from the more celebrated Play of that 
name, which had always been well and familiarly known. 
Let us now examine seriatim the six passages in question : — 


The first is found in Pollux x, Segm. 188, where it is said, 9 Ei> yovv ry 
' ApuTTotyavovs \Elpr\vr\ yeypaTTTai] 

rrjv & da7rida 
€7ridr]iia too <j)peaTL rrapaOes €v0€<ds. 

The words Elprjvr) yzypaitrai are omitted in some of the MSS. of 
Pollux ; and whether they are due to Pollux himself or to some copyist, 
it is, I think, highly probable that the reference intended is to the 
existing Play, the writer recollecting that, towards the close of the 
Comedy, Trygaeus does in truth recommend the conversion of the shield 
to certain domestic purposes, though a well-cover is not among them. 


Stobaeus (Florilegium, Tit. lvi, ed. Gaisford) cites the two following 
passages in commendation of the art of husbandry : — 

(1) 'Api(TTO<pdvovs Elpfjvr)?. 

A. Tols ttclo-lv avOpamoHTiv dp-qvrjs <j)i\r)s 
m(TTr] rpo<p6s, ra/ua, avvepyos, inirpoTTOs, 
Qvydrrjp, dbeX^tj* navra tclvt ^pjjro /xoi. 

B. 2oi 8' ovofxa drj t'l eanv ; A. o, rt ; Teopyta. 

(2) o> 7rodeivr) rols SiKaiois km yecopyols fjpepa, 
atrpevos <r Idav irpovenreiv fiovkotiai ras dpneXovs. 


The second passage is vv. 556, 557, of the existing Play. And it has 
been suggested with great probability that the heading ' ApivrofyAvovs 
Elprjvrj s has been accidentally misplaced, " qui plurimorum," says Dindorf l y 
" in Stobaeo fons errorum fuit/' and that the first passage is really taken 
from the Teaipyol (Farmers) of Aristophanes. 


The next passage is gleaned from Suidas, who explains Trjjxepos to be 
6 arjjjLepivos' /cat tart, TtTayjxivov iirl crco/xaros'- to be Trjjxepov em y^povov 
Xey€rat, /cat ev Elprjvrj 

'lea AaKedaifiov tl apa iroirjcrei (7retcr€i) rrjjjLCpa ; 

Here we can fortunately at once detect and rectify the error ; for Suidas 
is but transcribing the Scholiast on Clouds, 699, where the line is cited 
as being not ev Elprjvrj but ev ^OXkAlviv (a play of a kindred character, see 
the second Argument infra, p. xli). The transcriber was no doubt misled 
from thinking of the exclamations of War in lines 243, &c, of this play. 


Eustathius, Comment, on II.. x. 249, speaking of the word avellv, says 
brj\ol to TTTio-aetv ws 'ApLo-TOffravrjs ev Elprjvrj brjkol. The word avelv or 
alvelv does not occur in the Peace, but it seems to have been used in the 
Tecopyoi. See Bergk's note on Fragm. ix of the Teoopyol in Meineke's 


In the same Commentary, xxiii. 123, Eustathius, explaining the word 
())itv, says b-qkol $vtov r) (^vTevjxa^ &s ' kpio-Tofyavrjs lv Elprjvrj, UoOev to 
<fiTV ; tl to yivos ; tls r) o-nopa ; This would seem to be a correct reference 
to line 1164 of the present Play; the verse which follows in Eustathius 
being cited from some other play, the name of which has accidentally 
dropped out. 

1 De Aristophanis Fabularum numero et nominibus, vol. ii, p. 505. See, 
however, Ranke's larger treatise, de Vita Aristophanis, Lipsiae, 1846, sec. 28. 



In the Commentary on OcL vii. 120, Eustathius says, 'Apio-rocfxxvrjs iv 
Eiprjvr] o-epLvvvcov ras 'AOrjvas, /lapTvpu o)s bLrjveKels e/cet at OTT&pai. This 
is certainly an error : Eustathius should have said iv f/ f2pa6?, not iv 
'Elprjvrj. "On iv tclls 'A^z/ats bir)V€K€L$ rjcrav al oir&pai Ttavai, \xaprvpei 
'Apto-To^dvris iv f/ X2pcu9, says Athenaeus xiv, chap. 68. See also Id. ix, 
chap. 14 1 . Even Bergk 2 admits that this passage cannot be claimed for 
the second Wipr]vr]. Indeed, it is simply incredible that Eustathius, who 
flourished in the twelfth century after Christ, should be familiarly citing 
under the name of the Peace, that comedy of which the vast research and 
prodigious learning of Eratosthenes could in the third century before 
Christ detect no traces whatever. 

On the whole, therefore, we must, I think, come to the conclusion that 
if any such play as the second E Iprjvri ever existed, it had ceased to exist, 
at all events under that name, before the time of Eratosthenes, and we 
have no more materials than he had for deciding what was the exact 
meaning of that entry in the didascaliae whereby it appeared that 
Aristophanes had, on two distinct occasions, exhibited a Comedy under 
the name of the Peace. Did he exhibit the same play twice ? or did he 
really write a second Play of that name ? 

Any answer which we may give to these questions must, of course, be 
of a purely conjectural character; but to me it seems extremely im- 
probable that the present Play should have been produced on the stage a 
second time. It was written for the particular crisis which was occurring 
in B.C. 421, and would have lost all its point and piquancy when repeated 
on any subsequent occasion. Moreover it did not pretend to any very 
special merits, was not greatly successful at its first appearance, and had 
been made a subject of ridicule by the poet's contemporaries. On the 
other hand, it is in no way improbable that Aristophanes should, at some 
later epoch, have endeavoured to work out in a happier vein and with 

1 The passage referred to is that of which the two first lines are cited and 
translated in my note on line 577 of this Play. 

2 Meineke, Com. Fragm. ii. 984. 


improved execution the general conception embodied in this Comedy, 
omitting the devices which had been censured for their extravagance or 
impropriety, and adapting the incidents of the drama to the altered 
circumstances of the times. And if he retained his Xopbs yeapy&v, he 
would be likely enough to have followed his usual practice of naming the 
Play from the Chorus (as is the case in eight out of his eleven extant 
comedies), so that the second Elprjvrj would, for distinction's sake, be also 
called the Teoopyol, or the Farmers. And since we know that Aristophanes 1 
did in fact write a comedy under that name, and since the fragments 
of it which still remain do in fact bear in many points a singularly 
close resemblance to the Play before us, there is nothing unreasonable 
in the conjecture (and, of course, it is merely a conjecture) that the 
Play, which when acted bore the same name as the present, is that which 
was afterwards called by the distinctive appellation of the TecopyoL 

Fritzsche, in one 2 of those instructive Aristophanic tracts in which he 
was accustomed to pour out upon every subject which came in his way 

1 Plutarch (Nicias, chap. 8), speaking of the affair at Pylus, says that the conduct 
of Nicias in yielding the command of the army to Cleon was made the subject of much 
censure, and he adds, a-Kamru §' avrbv els rnvra nakiv 'ApiorTorfxivrjs £v fih "Opvicriv 

ovtoh TTcas Xeycov — 

not JJ.7JV (j,a rbv At' ov)(i pvard^eiv y en 
cbpa '(Ttiu i]\iiv ovde pieWovifciav. — (639, 640.) 
iv be Tcapyols ravra ypacfxov — 

(A). 'E0eAcy yeoupyeiv. (B). ctra tls ere fccuXvei ; 
(A). 'Yfieis. eirel didou/xi x*^as dpaxpas 

hav fx€ toov apx&v dcprJTe. (B). 8cx6fi€$a' 

8iax^ iat l&P ^ L ° l &vv rats Ni/aof, 
From this passage Suvern (Essay on the Trjpas, p. 172 in Hamilton's translation) and 
Bergk (Meineke, Com. Fragm. ii. 985) infer that the Tewpyol u must have been exhibited 
about the time of the Knights." But it would surely have been more reasonable to 
infer that it was exhibited about the same time as the Birds. And in fact I believe 
that in both plays Aristophanes is primarily referring to the extreme backwardness 
and reluctance displayed by Nicias in regard not to the Sphacterian enterprise, but 
to the Sicilian expedition. Such, at all events, is the explanation given of the lines 
in the Birds by the Scholiast there, by Suidas, and by all the commentators of 
authority. This would place the rcapyol about seven years later than the Peace. 
2 De Daetalensibus Aristophanis Commentatio, Lipsiae, 1831, p. 131, note 71. 


a copious flood of learning and aeuteness, not always guided by sound 
judgement, made the following observations on the fourth of the 
above-mentioned passages : — " Eustathius de aiveiv disserens p. 801 
hr\Xoi Se to Trrio-o-eiv inquit as* ^Apiaro^avrj^ Iv Elprjvrj brjXoL Etiam hie 
loeus Brunckii Dindorfiique x praeclaram diligentiam latuit. Pertinet ad 
hexametrum (Pollux x. 187) quern jam Brunckius e Tccopyots exemptum 

esse intellexit Mrj [jlol 'AOrivauovs aivtir rj piokyol zvovrai. Nimirum 

jam veteres earn Comici fabulam quae plerumque Ttoopyol appellatur, 
Elprivifs etiam nomine inseripserunt, Eustathius ipse p. 1291, Crates, 
Stobaeus, Pollux. Verissime. Etenim T^copyol fabula nihil aliud fuit 
quam Pacis ejus quae aetatem tulit editio altera, id quod mox alibi certis 
argumentis demonstrabo." I am not aware that Eritzsehe ever resumed 
this hastily conceived idea, or fulfilled the promise which he made at the 
close of the foregoing passage. And Bergk, although in his treatise 2 on 
the Remains of the Old Comedy he was inclined to adopt the idea, yet 
subsequently, in his Collection 3 of Aristophanic fragments, treated it as 
altogether without foundation. To me it seems in the highest degree 
improbable that the grammarians in question should have intentionally 
cited the Vzoopyol, as Fritzsche supposes them to have done, under the 
simple name of the Peace : I believe that it was by a mere unintentional 
oversight that the six passages, which we have been considering, were 
attributed to the Peace, and that the Peace from which they were supposed 
to come was, in fact, the existing Comedy of that name. But I think it 
not unlikely that Aristophanes did write a second Play on the same subject, 
which was acted under the same name ; but which, long before the time of 

1 The reader must understand that from Fritzsche's pen a compliment to Dindorf 
is merely ironical. His usual language as regards Dindorf constantly transgresses 
the limits of courteous criticism. Thus, in his note to Thesm. 225, complaining that 
Dindorf had omitted line 273 of the Peace ("optimum senarium dummodo senten- 
tiam intellexeris "), he adds, "Quod si ille in instituto persistens omnes poetarum 
Graecorum versus qui ei justo obscuriores videbuntur expunget, magnopere vereor 
ne postremo perexiguam partem quum reliquorum turn ipsius Aristophanis nobis 
relinquere cogatur." 

2 DeReliquiis Comoediae Antiquae, p. 323. 3 Meineke, Com. Fragm. ii. 1066. 


Eratosthenes, either was altogether lost, or had assumed and was passing 
under a different title ; and, if the latter view be correct, I know of no play 
with which we can so reasonably identify it as we can with the TzoopyoL 

Little or nothing has been done, since the commencement of this 
century, to assist in a right understanding of the Peace of Aristophanes. 
The notes of Bothe and Richter, the only two editors who have 
attempted at any length to explain it, are of very moderate value; and 
we are still for all practical purposes left to the old commentaries of 
Florent Chretien, Bergler, and Brunck. The Play has, however, largely 
participated in the general improvement of the Aristophanic text, which 
resulted from the collation of the Ravenna and Venetian MSS. 

In the present edition, the first complete edition of the Peace which 
has ever been published by an Englishman, I have endeavoured to adhere 
more closely than has hitherto been done to the reading of those two 
excellent MSS. The various readings and conjectures are collected at 
the end of the Play ; whilst in the notes which are subjoined to the text, 
I have attempted to bring out the purpose and meaning of the poet, to 
illustrate the historical bearings of the Comedy, and to explain such 
phrases and passages as seemed to require an explanation, carefully dis- 
tinguishing, in every instance, whatever I have borrowed from previous 
writers. The translation, though generally literal, is not uniformly so : 
it is designed to be readable as a whole, without reference to the original 
Greek : and I have not hesitated to sacrifice strict verbal accuracy when- 
ever such a course seemed desirable for the carrying out of that primary 
object. The translation retains the anapaestic, trochaic, and iambic 
measures, the heroic hexameters, and the other familiar metres of the 
original. And in one instance, vv. 775-818, I have endeavoured to 
reproduce with exactness a more complicated Choral system, but the 
attempt was not so successful as to encourage a repetition. 

3, Old Square, Lincoln's Inn, 
September, 1866. 




In 1866, when the first edition of this work was published, no Comedy 
of Aristophanes had received less attention than the present ; but during 
the last half-century no Comedy has received more. Not only have there 
been twelve editions published, eight by English, and four by foreign, 
scholars; there have also been numerous separate dissertations and 
discussions, principally on the subject of the machinery employed, 
and the manner in which Trygaeus was transported from the earth 
to the Palace of Zeus in heaven. On this subject some very strange 
theories have been advanced. That Trygaeus was raised aloft by the 
machine called the crane, yepavos> is common ground. But one contends 
that after ascending to a certain height he is brought down again to his 
own house which has meanwhile been transformed into the house of Zeus. 
Another conceives that the house of Trygaeus is represented at one end of 
the' stage, and the house of Zeus at the other, and that the crane lifts 
him up from his own house, swings him through the air and drops him 
at the house of Zeus. And others devise other equally strange and 
wonderful theories. They all unite in ignoring the e^cooTpa. a machine 
which seems to play in this Comedy a very similar part to that which it 
afterwards played in the Thesmophoriazusae. See the Commentary on 
Thesm. 277. In the latter Play the scene at the opening is laid before 
the house of Agathon, and so it continues until line 276 when by means 
of the e£(oorpa the Thesmophorium is pushed forward, &6&tcli to Upbv, 
and fills the entire stage, so that the house of Agathon with the original 
scene is completely blotted out, and does not reappear throughout the 
Play. Here the scene at the opening is laid before the house of Trygaeus 
and so it continues until line 173 when, Trygaeus having been hoisted up 
to a height sufficient for the action of the e£(oo-Tpa,a large platform is pushed 
forward, a>0etrai, underneath him so that he and his beetle at once find 


themselves resting upon it. This platform fills the entire stage, so that 
the house of Trygaeus with the original scene is completely blotted out, 
and does not reappear until after the Parabasis, when by the action of 
the ££(6(TTpa the platform is drawn in again, and the original house and 
scene become visible once more. The exclamation of Trygaeus to the 
lAYjxavoTroLos, line 174, is occasioned by the action not of the crane, but of 
the egtoo-rpa, the sudden protrusion of the great platform just underneath 
him being enough to alarm the most courageous man and beetle. This 
platform or upper stage, as it may be convenient to call it, is, as in the 
Thesmophoriazusae, of exactly similar dimensions to the original or lower 
stage, and has for its background the Palace of Zeus. Trygaeus and 
his beetle therefore, so soon as they rest upon it, are immediately in front 
of the Palace-doors, out of which come, first Hermes, and then War and 
his attendant. Henceforth, until the Parabasis, the action of the Play 
proceeds on this upper stage, and the original scene with the house of 
Trygaeus is alike out of sight and out of mind. It is here that War is 
preparing to pound all the Hellenic cities in his mighty mortar ; here is 
the pit into which Peace has been cast ; and out of which the Chorus, 
with the aid of Trygaeus and Hermes, at length succeed in bringing her 
once more to sight. The Chorus is composed exclusively of Attic 
(possibly even of Athmonian) farmers ; for the notion that the Argives, 
Boeotians, Megarians, and Lamachus who are in turn upbraided for not 
giving due assistance to the work are actually represented in the theatre, 
either as forming part of the Chorus or as supernumeraries, is altogether 
fanciful and inadmissible. These farmers must pull by means of ropes 
falling from the upper stage to the orchestra, if indeed they really pull at 
all and are not rather here, as elsewhere, substituting for real action mere 
dancing and gesticulation in the orchestra l . But somehow or other Peace 

1 Owing to our ignorance of the internal arrangements of the Athenian theatre, 
it is impossible to explain satisfactorily the term dcriovres in line 427. But when 
we remember that the dances in the orchestra are taken as representing and as 
equivalent to — in the Thesmophoriazusae, the careful peregrinations of the women, 
up and down, through every tier of the auditorium, and — in the Frogs, the march 


reappears, accompanied by her two handmaidens, Harvesthome and 
Mayfair. The two handmaidens are represented by Choregic actors, and 
just as the Parabasis is about to commence they depart with Trygaeus by 
the masked staircase into the interior of the theatre, reappearing with 
him, when the Parabasis is over, on the lower stage. It must be 
remembered that Trygaeus does not descend directly from the upper to 
the lower stage ; it would indeed have been impossible for him to do so. 
Peace is not represented by any actor; she is merely a colossal statue, and 
it seems as though only her head and bust * appear above the upper stage. 
No remarks are made upon her person as upon those of Harvesthome and 
Mayfair ; and her lips could not have approached the ear of Hermes had 
she and he been standing on the same level. Trygaeus had ascended from 
the lower to the upper stage by means of his beetle, and it is no wonder 
that he cannot tell how he is to descend again ; but instructed by Hermes, 
he finds a staircase which takes him into the interior of the theatre, 
behind the scenes. 

Speaking generally, the actors confine themselves to the stage, and the 
Chorus to the orchestra. But in the preceding Comedy, the Wasps, 
Aristophanes did what no man had ever done before (tovto ovbeis ttoo irdpos 
bibpcLKev) by making his protagonist descend into the orchestra, and " lead 
out the Chorus, dancing, at the ending of the Play." And in the present 
Comedy he seems to have introduced the converse novelty by making the 

of the Iacchus-procession from the Temple in Athens to and beyond the Cephisus, 
it seems most probable that here too they were taken as representing and as 
equivalent to the actual labour of hauling up the Goddess. 

1 I suspect that this was in reality all that there was of her. She does not seem 
to have appeared again after the Parabasis. It is true that the word ravr-qv in line 
923 may seem to imply her presence ; but this may have been explained by a gesture. 
When Trygaeus re-enters with Harvesthome and Mayfair, the servant though full 
of curiosity about them makes no allusion to the statue of Peace which, if present, 
must have been a far more conspicuous object ; and had such a statue been visible 
during the dedication festivities, Hierocles must have known at once who was the 
object of worship, and could not have put the question t(s fj Ova-La iroO' avrrfi kcll t<5 
0€O)v ; and again ore? 5e Over ov <$>pa(re6' ; 


Chorus ascend to the stage and carry out the protagonist and his bride at 
the ending of the Play. One Semichorus seems to have left the orchestra 
after line 1316, and to reappear after line 1328 carrying Harvesthome 
from the house into which she had entered (after line 855) for the purpose 
of taking her bridal-bath. The other after line 1340 climbs up to the 
stage and raises Trygaeus aloft, the two processions finally leaving the 
theatre side by side for the nuptial festivities. 

I observed in the original Introduction that " the Play abounded with 
genuine kindly Panhellenic sentiments, occasionally rising, amidst all the 
burlesque with which they are surrounded, into a strain of almost solemn 
and pathetic dignity, as in that beautiful address to Peace which may be 
called the Consecration Hymn." But this point is brought out more 
fully and more clearly by Mr. Sharpley in the Introduction to his ex- 
cellent edition of the Peace, from which I take the liberty of borrowing 
the remarks which follow : — 

" The poet makes it plain from the first that the mission of Trygaeus is undertaken 
on behalf of all the Greeks, vTrep 'EXkrjvayv navrcov (93), 'EWtjvcop irepl airaf;cmaPT<ov 
(105). Prayers for the future and regrets for the past alike have regard to Hellas, 
not to Athens. Thus in line 435 we find 

ctit€vSopt€s €v^o)/xeo"^a rrjv vvv rjpipap 
"EWtjctlv ap£ai iracri noXkcDP KayaOcov, 
in 1320 

Ka.7T€v^apivovs Tolai 6eol(Tiv 
dtdovat nXovrov to?s f/ E\X?7(7ii>, 

and in 646 fj (f 'EXXas- av | i&prjpcoQcia au vfias eXade. In line 292 when the Chorus 

are summoned, the call is Mpes "EWrjves, altered ten lines below to the more 

expressive and sentimental address & UaveWrjves — a word sadly rare in our extant 

Greek literature. But the climax of lofty patriotism is reached in that wonderful 


pl^ov b* f)fi,as tovs "EWqpas 

naXiv i£ apx*}s ^iXias 1 x v ^P 
/cat (Tvyyvcaur) tlpl irpaoripa 
Kcpacrov top vovv (996-9) 

—words which, in a different key, breathe the spirit of Panhellenism as nobly as 
does the Aeschylean battle-cry at Salamis." 

C % 


No poetical translation of the Peace had been published previously to 
the year 1866 ; but since then we have had (1) a translation by Leonard 
Hampson Rudd in 1867 ; (2) a translation of considerable parts of the 
Play by the Right Honourable John Hookham Frere, published in 1872 
after Mr. Frere's death ; and (3) a very lively and enjoyable translation 
published in 1910 by Mr. R. F. Patterson. 

In the Commentary, as now arranged, the notes which are new are 
distinguished from those which are old by being placed in brackets ( ) \ 
This has been done for several reasons : 

(1) Many remarks which were strictly accurate in 1866 would no£ be 
accurate now. To take one example. It is stated in the note on line 
153 that ' f all the Commentators" take fiovKoXriatTai in the sense of 
€^a7raTrj(T€Tai. They had in fact all done so up to that time, but many 
if not most of the subsequent Commentators share the view put forward 
in that note. It seemed therefore desirable to make it clear that the 
statement in question belongs to the edition of 1866 and not to that of 

(2) Again, subsequent Commentators have frequently arrived at the 
same conclusions as those which were advocated in the previous edition, 
and have naturally expressed them in very similar language. I have 
always tried to be scrupulously honest in acknowledging my obligations 
to my predecessors, but if it were supposed that those conclusions were 
advocated in this edition for the first time, I might seem to have borrowed 
without acknowledgement from Commentaries which in reality were sub- 
sequent to my own. 

(3) Some of the remarks in the earlier edition have been very strangely, 
though of course quite unintentionally, misstated. Here again I will give 
one example. In my note on line 1014 ras kv revrXoicri Xoy^voixivas I said 
" In the Medea of Melanthius, from which this and the preceding line are 
borrowed, the phrase may have been ras* kv Y^6\\okti \oy^.vo\xiva$r That 
is all. But Herwerden in Ms note on the passage after giving his own 

1 Of course many of the notes in brackets are merely the old notes altered. 


view proceeds to say "Postea vidi Hogersium conjecisse personatum 
Creontem dixisse; airoxrjpudds fas ev KoA^oto-t XoxevofJievas. Sed enim 
nee aptum foret partieipium praesens pro praeterito, nee Creon hercle 
Medeam, quam ob interfeetos et liberos et recens nuptam Creusam 
pessime oderat, potuit desiderare." Herwerden mentions that he had 
been unable to obtain my edition, and, apparently, his only knowledge of 
it was derived from the friendly quotations in Mr. Paley's notes. But 
neither in my notes nor in Paley's is there the slightest justification for 
the remark that the words are conjectured to have been spoken by Creon. 
It never occurred to me to consider who the speaker may have been, or 
even what was the special subject of the " Medea " of Melanthius ; it may 
have turned on incidents totally distinct from those of the " Medea " of 
Euripides, for there was more than one tragedy in the life of Medea. I 
should not like it to be supposed that I made so ridiculous a suggestion 
in the earlier edition and suppressed it in the present, possibly, it might 
be conjectured, in consequence of Herwerden s criticism. 

The same distinction between what is old and what is new is made in 
the notes to the first and second Greek Arguments ; but it did not seem 
necessary to extend it to the Appendix. 

Eastwood, Strawberry Hill, 
June, 1912. 

( xxxviii ) 


I 1 . 

"H8r) rS> Ile\oTrovvr](TiaK& iroXeiico KeK/xrjcoras 2 rovs 'AOrjvaiovs Kal 
rovs avjiTTavras "EAX^yay ' Apiaro(f)dvr)$ IScbv, (iKavbs yap SumrevKei 
iro\e[iovvT<DV avT&v Xpovos]) to Spdjxa avveypa^re rovro, n por pentov ras 
rroXets KaraOeaBai fiev rr\v irpbs avras (piXoveiKiav, ojiovoiav 8e kcu 
elprjvrjv avrl rrjs irporepov eyOpas &*<rOat. rrapeicrdyei roivvv yecopybv, 
Tpvyaiov rovvofxa, /jidXtara rrjs elprjvrjs avrnroiovyievov oy, da-^aXXonv eirl 
rS> 7roXe/xco, eh ovpavbv dveXOetv e(3ovXevcraro npbs rbi/ Aca, 7revo-6[ievo$ 
Trap' avrov 6Y fju airiav ovrcos eKTptfteL 3 ra 7W 'EXXt^coj/ rrpdy/xara, 
rocrovrov TTOirjcras noXefjiov avroh. ov 8rj } Siairopovvra riva rpoirov rrjv 
eh ovpavbv wopeiav rroir\vei^, irapeivdyei rpecpovra KavOapov, coy 
dvaTrTr)<TQ\xevov eh ovpavbv 8l avrov, JSeXXepotyovrov SiKrjv. wpoXo- 
yigovai 8e ol 8vo Qepdirovres avrov, oh Kal eKrpetyeiv irpoo-ereraKro rbv 
KavOapov, Svacfropovvres 5 em roh avrov airioi?. fj 8e crKTjvrj rod Spa- 
jxaros £k jiepovs fiev em rrjs yfjs, etc [xepovs 8e eirl rod ovpavov. 6 8e 
Xopoy avveo-rrjKev eK rivcov dvSpcov ' Attikg>v yecopycov. 

Qeperai 6 ev rah SiSavKaXiais 7 8e8i8a)(oi)$ 'Elprjvrjv 8h 6 'Aptarocpdvrjs. 

1 This Argument is found both in the 2 (KeKprjcoras. K^KprjKoTas V.) 

Ravenna and in the Venetian MSS. It s (Jurpifiei. The MSS. have iitTpex^ 

is given too in almost all the editions which I have altered into itcrpifiei. Kus- 

from that of Aldus downwards. (It is ter introduced cVrpu^et.) 

the only Argument given by It. for this 4 (iroifjaei. 7roirjaoL V.) 

Comedy, and, except that I have sub- 5 (dvacftopovvres, 8v<j<f>opowTos V.) 

stituted eKTpijSa for e/crpe^et and Sis for 6 cj)ep€Tai. (ftaiverai V. 

opoi&s, it stands in that MS. exactly as 7 Both R. and V. read iv reus SiSao-Ka- 

it stands in the text. It is also found Xlais dedibax^s Elprjprjv 6poi<os 6 'Apioro- 

in F. from which, or from some similar <f)dpr]s. Every editor without an excep- 

MS., Musuro appears to have taken it.) tion has interpolated before Bebidaxas 

( xxxix ) 

dSrjXov ovv y (prjalv 'JLpaToaOevrjs, noTepov tt)v avrrjv dveSiSagev, rj irepav 
KaOrJKev rjns ov (TGogeTCLL Kpdrrjs jxivrot Svo 6l8ev Spdfiara ypdcfxav 
ovtcos' " dXX' ovv ye kv toi? ' Kyapvevaiv rj BafivXcoviois rj kv rrj ere pa 
JLlprjvrj" kcu aTropdSrjv Se riva 1 7roirj/xaTa TrapaTiOerai, airep kv ttj vvv 

(j)€pOfxiprj OVK €(TTIV. 

ii 2 . 

TpvyaTos, aypoiKos Trpea^vTrjS 'AOrjvrjaiv, oypvpievos kirl KavOdpov 
imep 7*7/9 'EWdSos eh rbv ovpavov dva(peperac 3 . yevo/xevos Se Kara rrjv 
rod Albs otKiav, kvrvyydvei tS> ''Epfifj, Kal aKOvei 4 on, fieTOiKrjcra/xevcov 
7W Oecov eh ra rov ovpavov dvcoTdrco 8ia rfjv tcov 'EXXrjvcov dXXrj- 
XoKToviav, kvoiKrjo-dfjievos 6 UoXefios els dvrpov tyjv JLlprjvrjv e r lp£as XiOovs 
enHpoprjo-eie, Kal vvv fiiXXei ras noXecs kfifiaXobv kv Oveca rpifieiv. Kal 

the words kcu irepav, (and this is now- 
found to be the reading of F., but it is 
clearly incorrect). It would hardly be 
sense to say ' ' According to the drama- 
tic lists, Aristophanes exhibited a second 
Elprjvrj. It is therefore uncertain whether 
he exhibited the same Play a second 
time, or produced a second which has 
not come down to us." The error is, 
I think, to be sought in the word Sfiolcos 
for which I have ventured to substitute 
dis. A\s might easily have been mis- 
taken for jis, the old abbreviated form 
of ofiolcos (see Gaisford in Etymol. Magn. 
s. vv. Kcoka, vavs, o-vpftoXa), which has 
given occasion to innumerable errors. 
The meaning will then be clear. "Aris- 
tophanes is stated in the dramatic lists 
to have exhibited an Elprjvrj on two dis- 
tinct occasions ; it is uncertain then, 
says Eratosthenes, whether he exhi- 
bited the same Play a second time, or 
produced another which has not come 

down to us." {Some subsequent editors 
have omitted the words ml irepav. Din- 
dorf in his Oxford edition of the Scholia 
proposed to change Sfioiccs into Sfxcovv^cas. 
Van Leeuwen reads 'Apapas 6 'Apto-ro- 
(fidvovs, which is, of course, impossible.) 

1 (5e riva. did riva V.) 

2 This Argument is found in the older 
editions in a curtailed form and shorn 
of the valuable chronological notice at 
the end. It was first transcribed in its 
entirety by Bekker from the Venetian 
MS. with a few variations from another 
MS. numbered 475 in the same library 
(V 2 .). (The first half dozen lines, down 
to the first syllable of €v\ayoovtos, are 
also found in P.) 

3 (avatyeperai F. dva(j)€p6fi€vos V.) 

4 (aKouei Gelenius. dicovo-as MSS. and 
so Aldus and Fracini, the only editors 
(before Gelenius) who had printed this 

( xl ) 

fteXP 1 fa Ti > v0 $ kvay&vios yiveTai* enel Se, peTairepnopevov tov TloXepov 
irapd 'A6r)vai(ov SoiSvKa YLXecova Kal napa AaKeSaipoviav BpacrCSav, 
eKarepoi xprjaapTes diroXwXeKevai els QpaKrji/ ecfracrav, dvaOappel- Kal 
ev (p rrepl KccTao-Kevfjs SolSvkos 6 TLoXepos yiveTai^ KtjpvTTei Toi>$ 
Srjpiovpyovs, *4tl Se Kal epiropovs dpa poxXovs teal aypLvia Xafiovras 
irapayevevQai. avvSpapbvTcov Se woXXcov kv Xopov o>yj\paTi rrpoOvpm 
d(/)eXK€L 1 re tovs Xidovs dub tov dvTpov, Kal, KaOiKeTevcras rbv 'Epprjv 
crvXXafSeaOai, e£dyei rrpbs to (poos Tr\v 'Elprjvrji/. dapevm Se rfjs 6ea$ 
iracrLv 6<p6eio"r]$ 3 Kal nap* avTr\v evOem 'Oircbpas re Kal Qecopias dva- 
fyaveia&v, vvpirapodv o'l^ppfjs, dv lotto povarjs ri ttjs JLlprjvrjs Kal irvvOa- 
vopevrjs re toc wepl rbv Tpvyatov, Scao-aobeL rd Seovra 2 . trdXiv dnoobaL- 
vopevrfs irpbs tovto pr\vvei, irpoSieXOovTos avrov Kal nepl ttjs dpyr]$ 
tov noXepov Kal Sc as ahtas aweary], QeiSiov re Kal TlepiKXeovs 

Ta Xonrd tov Spdparos enl rfjs yrjs rjSt] Trepaiverai, Kal 6 pev Xopbs 
nepl Trjs tov 7roL7]Tov Te^pT]? ydrepc&v Tivottv rrpbs tovs Beards SiaXeyerai, 
b Se Tpvyaios, Ka6a avvera^ev 6 ^ppf}?, rr)v pev Secopcav 3 rfj fiovXfj 
avvearr]aev , avrbs Se, Tr\v 'Oir&pav yapelv Siayvovs, rrjv YApr\vr\v 
ISpverai, Kal Qvaas 4 ev rS> irpoobavel rrpbs evcoyiav rpeTrerai. rovvrevdev 
oi re r&v elprjvtKwv SitXcov Srjpiovpyol 6 yatp° VTe $ Kat °* T ®y noXeptKcov 
rovpiraXiv KXaiovres* eladyerai Se Kal eirl reXei tov Xoyov iraiSia Tivd 
rcov KeKXrjpevcov enl to Selirvov Xeyovra prjaecs yeXcDTOTroiovs. 

To Se Spapa rcov dyav emrerevypevtov. 

To Se KetpdXaiov rfjs K(op<p8ia$ ea-rl tovto' crvpfiovXevet ' Adrjvaiois 
cnreio-aarOai irpbs AaKeSaipovlovs Kal Toi>$ dXXovs tr 'EXXr]i'a?. ov tovto 
Se pdvov vnep eipr\vr\$ ' ApiorTOobdi'rjs to Spapa TedeiKev, dXXd Kal tovs 

1 (acfreXicei Bekker. afoXiceiv V.) Bekker.) 

2 to. biovra V 2 . to. deca V. (The 4 0ixras. ovaa MS. vulgo. Bergk sug- 
words which follow, nakiv . . . fxrjvveij are gests ovarjs which Richter adopts, dvaas 
hopelessly corrupt.) is Meineke's emendation. 

B (rfjv fjiiv Q€copiai>. These words, 5 (drjfuovpyol Bekker. yecapyol V.) 
omitted in the MSS., were added by 

( zli ) 

'AvapveTs Kal rovs 'Inneas Kal 'OXKaSas, Kal iravrayov tovto eanov- 
SaK€i/, tov Se KXeoova kco/jkoScoi/ tov dvTiXeyovTa, Kal Adfxaypv tov 
(hiXoTToXepov del SiaftdXXcov. Sib Kal vvv Sid tovtov tov Spdfiaros 
elprjvrjs avrois eiriOvixelv woieT, SeiKvis oirocra p,ev 6 noXejios KaKct 
epydgerai, oaa Se dyaOd f) elprjvrj note?. ov [lovos Se nepl rrj? eiprjvrjs 
o-vve(3ovXevaev, dXXd Kal dXXoi ttoXXol noirjTaf. ovSev yap av/xfiovXcov 
Siecbepov odev avTOi>$ Kal StSaaKaXovs 1 d>vb\ia£ov, otl navra rd 
npocrcpopa Sid SpajxaTcov a&TOV$ eSlSaaKov. 

'EvLKtjae Se rco Spd/ian 6 iroirjTrjs, eirl dpyovTOS 'AXKaiov, ev darer 2 
npcoTOv YsViroXis KoXagi, Sevrepov ; 'ApiaTCxpdi/ovs 'Elprjvr], rptros AevKcov 
fypdropo-i. to Se Spa/xa vireKpivaTo ' AiroXXoScopos, fjviKa 'Epprjv 

AoLOKpOTT]?. 3 

1 This derivation is of course alto- 
gether groundless. It was as teachers 
of the Chorus, not as teachers of the 
People, that the Exhibitors received the 
name of dMcrKcikoi. 

2 And therefore a few days only be- 
fore the conclusion of the Peace of 
Nicias which was made in the archon- 
ship of Alcaeus ck Aiovvcricov evBvs t&v 
ao-TiK&v.— Thuc. v. 19, 20. (It is plain 
from the preceding paragraph that the 
writer of this Argument was not very 
familiar with the terms of the Athenian 
stage,- and he must to some extent have 
warped the language of the didascalia. 
The term ivUrjo-e could be properly 
used only of the Victor in the theatrical 

competition, and not, as here, of a dra- 
matist who had been successful only in 
having his Play selected to be one of 
the three competitors. And the entry 
as to Aristophanes would have been 
'ApMTTCxfidvrjs "Elprjprj, not ' Apurrcxfidpovs 

3 rjvLKa 'EpfjLtjv AoioKporr/s. These 
words seem to be corrupt. Dindorf con- 
jectures fjVLKa €T TjV V7TOKpLTT}S ', Panke 

(De Vita Aristophanis, § 8) rjviKa 'Epprjp 
KaXklo-rparos ; Pichter ivUa "Elprjvfl ft 
AecoKpdrrjs. (But possibly the meaning 
is that Apollodorus was the protagonist 
representing Try gaeus, whilst Loeocrates 
represented Hermes.) 

( slii ) 

III 1 . 


T<» Ail (ppdcrai cnrevScoy ra kclt av6pooirov$ kcckcc 
Tpvyaios, avamkaQai diXcou &$ rovs 6eoi>9, 
e£iTp€<pe K&vBapov &9 S* avkirrr\> KareXa^ei/ 
^pfxrjv p,ovov avo&. kclt kiri^iKwcnv 0patray 

TOP U6\€fjLOl/ €7Tl fipOTOl<TLV Tjy plCOfiipoy 
TTLKp&S, froifiOP T OVTCL 7Tp09 KOLKQVyiaV 

1 All the notes to this Argument are 
new. The Argument was first printed 
by Bekker from V. where it is written 
as prose, as follows : — 

To? 8u (frpdcrai <rirsvb<ov ra kot dvOpcoirovs 
Tpvyaios deXtov cos* tovs deovs, i^irpeobov 
opvides' cos 6' dveuTrj KaTcXaficv prjv 

povov avco, KCLTemSeiKvvcri (f)pdo-as top 7r6Xe- 
fjiov j3pvdr)Tai dirrjpTrjpevov aepios eroipov t 
ovtcl irpbs KaKOVx^av rrjv rrporepov elprjvrjv 
8e kclt o pad pvypevov iKerevaav oi /car' dypovs 
dvcmaXiv iro^lv to piX |3aS inevevo-e' kol 
totg dirdyovcnv avTr\v rrjv £k (Btpcdpov kol 
rdyadd '. — 

The Argument is also found in V 2 . 

1. Kam. This word, omitted in the 
MSS., was added by Bergk. 

2. dvaTTTia-Qav. In the MSS. there is 
nothing between Tpvyaios and deXav. 
Bergk wrote dvairirecrff edeXoov which 
gives the required meaning but it is 
better to write with Meineke and others 
dvanrio'dai deXoav. 

3. i^rpeobe mvdapov. The MSS. give 
e£€Tp€<f>ov opvides which was altered by 
Bekker (who possibly thought it prose) 
into igerpefav opvtdas. Then Dindorf 

for the plural opvtdas wrote the singular 
opviS* which made the verse scan and 
has ever since been followed. But the 
KavOapos is so very prominent in the 
Play that the writer could hardly have 
written opvtd* when Kavdapov would suit 
the metre equally well ; the transcriber 
certainly was very confused about the 
words, and has left a blank between the 
iota and the theta in opvtdts ; and it 
seems to me that when he had annexed 
the first letter of mvdapos (in the form 
of v) to e^erpe^e, and had merely dvda- 
pov remaining, he changed that into 
opvides. I have therefore restored Kav- 

4. 'Epprjv. The first two letters are 
missing in the MSS. but the meaning 
is plain, and they were supplied by 

5. em ftpoTotcriv rjyptcopevov TTtKpCOS. I 

have substituted these words for the 
nonsensical f$pvdr}Tat (ppvdet re V 2 .) diiY)p- 
Trjfievov depios of the MSS. Bergk pro- 
posed tov /xei> HoXepov dvetav i^prvpivov 

( adiii ) 

tt]V nporepoy, JZlprjvrjv Se Karopcopvy [iivr\v \ 

iKirevaav ol /car dypovs dvdiraXiv iroieLv. 

kou tovto fx\v fidSrjv kTrkvtvw koX Tore 

array ovo-lv avrrjv e/c fiepiOpov Kal ray add. 10 

7. KctTopcDpvyfxevrjv. So Bekker for the not quite sure about the /xeX) pad of the 

Karopcopvyfiivov of the MSS. MSS. The doggerel Greek may be thus 

9. Ka\ tovto /lev $abr)v. I have substi- represented in doggerel English, 
tuted these words for the to /xe\ (I am 

Trygaeus, needing wings wherewith to go 

And tell King Zeus the woes of men below, 

Keeps a winged beetle. Thus to heaven he flies 

And finds no God but Hermes in the skies. 

Then Hermes shows him War enraged with men, 5 

And quite prepared to work them woe again, 

And Peace, beneath them, buried. They implore 

Hermes to give her to their farms once more. 

This, bit by bit, he yielded. Then they drew 

Peace from the pit, and every blessing too. 10 

Dindorf supposes some line or lines Arguments invariably consist of ten 
to be missing after rayaOd. He could lines, neither more nor less, 
not have observed that these doggerel 


Page 16, lines 114-16. In each of these lines a comma should be inserted after 

the word va. 
Page 33, line 265, note. It might be more accurate to say that Aristophanes treats 

€7TG>fe as if it were derived from eVot. 
Page 189, line 1409, translation. The line should commence "I get me wings." 

And in the translation of 1436 " Come " is misprinted " Cmoe." 
Page 273, second column, line 18, for a>s yap read ov yap. 
Page 290, second column, line 21, for you are now put to death read you are not put 

to death. 



OIKETAI AYO Tpvyaiov. 


KOPAI, Svyarepes Tpvyaiov. 




XOP02 TE12Pri2N. 

IEP0KAH2, xpqoTxoXdyoj. 









The Ravenna MS. gives no list of the Dramatis Personae. In the Venetian they are 
stated as follows : — ©epauwres. Tpvyaios. Td iraibia rod Tpvyaiov. 'EpiiTjs. Xopbs ytojpy&v 
'AOfiovicw. Mdvris x/"W°^Y oy - Aptnavovpyos. 'OttXottoios, Aopv£6os. Tibs Aa/xaxov. Tlos 
K\€coyv{A,ov rov piipacrmSos. 


OI. A. A?p' atpe \jl(l£clv g>$ rdy^crra KavOdpcp. 

OI. B. ISov. OI. A. 80s avTto, tS> KaKicrr dTroXov/xivo). 

OI. B. kol fjLrJTTOT avrrjs [id^av f)8i(o fydyoi. 

OI. A. 80s [xa£av kripav y e£ 0W6W TreTrXao-jiev^v. 

OI. B. ISoif p,dX' av6i$. OI. A. ttov yap t)v vvv 8rj "^epe? ; 

oif KaT6(payev. OI. B. jia tov AC } dXX* k^apirdaras 

o\r)v eveKayfre irepiKvXlcras toiv 7ro8oTv. 

The scene, at the opening of the Play, 
represents the exterior of the house of 
Trygaeus, two of whose servants are 
visible in the foreground, ministering to 
the wants of an enormous dung-beetle, 
which is confined in one of the outer 
courts, the walls of the court being suffi- 
ciently high to conceal its inmate from 
the audience. Auo be elaiv oiKtVat, says 
the Scholiast, hv 6 (jlcv rpffai tov KavQapov, 
6 8e €T€pos juarrei. And Dobree has re- 
distributed the opening dialogue, so as 
to bring it into accordance with the view 
that one servant prepares the food, the 
other gives it to the beetle. But his 
arrangement, though adopted with more 
or less variation by all the recent editors, 
is throughout forced and unsatisfactory. 
And lines 23 (Kavddpco \xarrovra irape^iv 
i<j6i€tv) and 27 (fjv /xj) napadco Tpt\j/as) seem 
of themselves sufficient to show that no 

such division of labour, as that which he 
supposed the Scholiast to suggest, was 
really intended by Aristophanes. The 
whole manual work is performed by the 
second servant ; the first merely directs 
and superintends the operation, as the 
steward or confidential servant of Try- 
gaeus. In that capacity he remains 
throughout the greater part of the Play 
at his master's house, whilst the second 
servant, after feeding the beetle, quits 
the stage and is seen no more. I have 
therefore, throughout the dialogue, re- 
stored the traditional arrangement, 
which seems to me preferable in every 

5. vvv fir) "fepts] This is Bergler's 
correction for the MS. reading vvv S' 
rj<j)€p€s : and it is confirmed by the Scho- 
liast's comment, ovtcos 'Attikoi dvrl tov dp- 
tl(0£. The expression, in such phrases as 


First Servant. Bring, bring the beetle cake ; quick, quick there, quick ! 

Second Servant. Here ! Serv. I. Give it him, the abominable brute. 

Serv. II. O may he never taste a daintier morsel ! 

Serv. I. Now, bring another, shaped from asses' dung. 

Serv. II. Here,here again. Serv. I. Where's that you brought just now ? 

He can't have eaten it. Serv. II. No; he trundled it 

With his two feet, and bolted it entire. 

as vvvbr)i\eyoiiev andthelike, is used over 
and over again by Plato in reference not 
to what is passing at the time, but to 
something that had been said a short time 
previously. Thus, in the Republic, iv. 
419 A ; v. 462 A; viii. 552 B, 559 C, D ; 
ix. 592 A ; x. 600 E, 609 C, &c. ; and 
similar examples might be collected from 

Erne {xof vvv brj fxkv wjjlvvs 

i i Just now you denied it : now you affirm 
it," {a line which may remind us of 
Shakespeare's, But now a King, now thus, 
King John v. 7 ; and Even now ivorih this, 
And now worth nothing, Merchant of 
Venice i. 1.) 

7. Tolv TroSoh] All insects have six 
legs ; but, as the Scholiast remarks, 
Aristophanes employs the dual in refer- 
ence to the feet of the coleopter here, as 
he did with regard to those of the flea in 

B : 

almost any other of the Platonic dia- 
logues. In the Gorgias, 451 A, vvv drj 
and apTi are used in the same passage 
indiscriminately with reference to the 
same point of time. Suidas (sub voc.) 
cites a line of Magnes, in which the 
force of the drj is very plainly brought 

jxrj yeyovtvm, vvv Be <pris. 

the Clouds, 150. There is in Wood's 
Natural History, iii. 468, a pleasantly 
written sketch of the modus operandi of 
certain of these dung-beetles, from which 
it would seem that the dual is not alto- 
gether misapplied in describing the 
manner in which they roll the substance 
which is at once their food, their resi- 
dence, and their nest. * ' Every one 
who has walked in the fields must have 
noticed the singular rapidity with which 


OL A. d\\' <bs rdx^ra rpifie iroXXas /cat ttvkv&s. 
OL B. dvSpes KOTTpoXoyoi, 7rpocrXd^€cr6e irpbs 0€<£j>, 

el firj fie fiovXtcff diroirviyevTa nepuSely. 10 

OL A. kripav iripav 8b$, TraiSbs rjTaiprj kotos- 

TeTpifJLfjLivrjs yap (ftrja-iu em6v/i€?i/. OI. B. ISov. 

ivbs [ikvi 3>v8pes, diroXeXvo-dat fiot 8ok&- 

ovSels yap dp <f>air) p.e [xaTTOVT ecrdieiv. 
OI. A. alpoi, (j)ip aXXrjv, ydrkpav [iol x^repav, 15 

Kal TptfS i(? irepas. OL B. fid top AttoXXo) 'ya> jAv ov- 

ov yap iff olos r el/i vnepk^v ttjs dvTXias. 

patches of cowdung disappear, and many 
may have observed that this phenomenon 
is caused by the efforts of sundry beetles 
which burrow beneath the mass, and 
convey the substance deep into the 
ground. The common watchman-beetle 
(Geotrupes stercorarius), so well known 
from its habit of flying on droning wings 
in the evening, is one of these valuable 
beetles ; and it is worthy of notice that, 
despite the nature of the substance in 
which they work, not a speck adheres to 
their bright and polished armour. The 
Egyptian beetle (Scarabaeus sacer) 
employs a similar substance for the 
cradle of its future young, kneading it 
into irregular balls, in which it deposits 
its eggs, and then rolling it away by 
means of its odd-looking hind legs. After 
it has made the ball, which is often larger 
than itself, the beetle sets to work to 
roll it to a convenient spot where the 
earth is soft, and performs this curious 
operation by a retrograde motion, the 
hind legs directing the ball, while the 
four other legs are employed in locomo- 
tion. During this operation the beetle 

seems to be standing on its head, the 
hind legs being much elevated, in order 
to guide the ball, which by dint of much 
rolling becomes nearly spherical. A 
tolerably deep hole is then excavated in 
a suitable spot, the ball rolled into it, 
and the earth filled in. Many beetles 
perform this useful operation, and in 
several European countries, where the 
beauty of the climate is only equalled 
by the uncleanliness of the inhabitants, 
these beetles are of inestimable service." 
A similar account is given in Kirby and 
Spence's Entomology, Letter ix ; and 
for the observations of ancient natural- 
ists see Aristotle, Hist. An. v. 17. 10 
(ed Schneider) ; Aelian x. 15 ; Pliny xi. 

9. avbpes KoirpoKoyoi] (Overpowered by 
the malodorous conditions of his task, 
he appeals for help to any scavengers 
who may chance to be present. The 
KowpoXoyoi were a recognized class at 
Athens. They were under the orders of 
the City Commissioners (ao-rvvofxoi), and 
were required to collect the sewage, and 
carry it out to a prescribed distance be- 


Serv. I. Quick, quick, and beat up several, firm and tight. 
Seev. II. O help me, scavengers, by all the Gods ! 

Or I shall choke and die before your eyes. 
Serv. I. Another cake, a boy-companion's bring him : 

He wants one finelier moulded. Serv. II. Here it is. 

There's one advantage in this work, my masters : 

No man will say I pick my dishes now. 
Serv. I. Pah ! more, bring more, another and another ; 

Keep kneading more. Serv. II. By Apollo, no, not I ! 

I can't endure this muck a moment longer ; 

yond the city walls ; Aristotle's Polity of 
Athens, chap. 50. They would be ac- 
customed to, and therefore less repelled 
by, the business so offensive to the ser- 
vant. I cannot think that by KonpoXoyoi 
the speaker means either the gropes as 
the Scholiast suggests, or the audience 
at large as Mr. Sharpley supposes, nepi- 
ideiv, in the following line, means to see 
without helping, Ach. 55, 167 ; Clouds 
124 ; Wasps 439 ; Lys. 1019 ; Thesm. 
698 ; Frogs 1476 ; Eccl. 369, 1054, 1068. 
Oavfiagco be AaKedaifioviovs 7rdur(ov /xaXtcrra, 
says Lysias, tlpl 7tot€ yv&iir) xP ( * ) [ Ji€V0L 
KaLOjJievrjv tyjv e E\\a§a 7T€pLopa>cnv, fjyefjLQves 
ovres rap *EX\r)V(ov, — Olympiac 914. el 
yap [6 tfeos] narqp eVri, kol Trarrjp toiovtos, 
ov 8vvf)(T€Tai Trepuhs'iv tovs vlovs iv icrxdrois 
ovto.9 KctKols. — St. Chrys. Horn, xxii in 
Matth. (p. 277 B).> 

13. hos k.t.\.] ( " uno quidem erimine, 
o viri, solutus mihi videor ; nemo enim 
dixerit me inter pinsendum comedere." 
Bergler. Charges of this sort were fre- 
quently brought against slaves. See 
Posidippus cited by Athenaeus xiv. 77 
(p. 659 C); Horace, Sat. i. 3. 80; 

Juvenal ix. 5. ) 

17. v7rep€x* LV T r) s avrklas] This ex- 
pression is elsewhere used of sailors 
endeavouring to keep down the water 
in a sinking ship. See the passages 
cited by Hemsterhuys (on Lucian's Ti- 
mon 4), who thinks that, as in nautical 
language the phrase would mean 
" unable to work the avrXiau" (in its 
sense of bilgewater) " sufficiently for the 
needs of the vessel," so here it must 
mean " unable to work the avrkiav " (in 
its sense of filth) ' ' sufficiently for the 
needs of the beetle." Brunck and 
Richter, who impute to Hemsterhuys 
the absurdity of supposing the beetle 
itself to be spoken of as rrjv dvrXiav, must 
strangely have misread the observations 
of that sagacious and admirable writer. 
But I think that the interpretation of 
the Scholiast — vnepexeiv avrl rov dvr£x* lv 
kol TTKpiywzcrQai rr\$ oo-firjs — is on the whole 
the preferable one, and that the meaning 
simply is that, as in a sinking ship the 
bilgewater gets the mastery over the 
sailors, so here the stench is too strong for, 
and is overpowering the servant. (In 

6 E I P H N H 

avT-qv ap OLcrco avXXa/Scbi/ tt)v dvrXiav* 

OI. A. VTj TOV Al" €9 KOpaKGCS ye, KOU (TCLVTOV y€ 7Tp09. 

OI. B. vpcov Si y ei TL9 oW epol KaremaTCo 20 

iv66ev av 7rpia(pr)v fiiva py\ TeTprjpevrjv. 
ovSev yap epyov fjv dp* dOXiooTepov 
fj KavBdpcp pdrrovra irapeyeiv ecrQleiv. 
V9 pev yap, &arirep av yeay tls, fj kvcov 

<f>av\a>$ epeiSer tovto 8' biro ^povqparos 25 

PpevOverai re Kal (payeiv ovk agio?, 
fjv prj irapaOoo rpfyas 8i fjpipas 0X779 
&<T7T€p yvvaifcl yoyyvXrjv pepaypevrjv. 
dXX' el TTtTravTai rfjs eScoSfjs aKetyopai 

rrjSl irapoigas rrjs Ovpas, ha prj p idy. 30 

epeiSe, fjLrj navo-ato prjSeTror ecrOccov 
rem em cravrbv XdOys Siappayek. 
olov 8e Kvy\ras 6 Kardparos e(r6iei, 
Scrirep TraXaicrTr)$ , irapafiaX&v robs yop<f>(ov$ y 

Kal ravra ttjv Ke(j>aXrjv re Kal rob X 6 ^ 06 * nm 35 

o)Sl Trepidyc&v, &cnrep ol ra cryoivia 
to, irayea crvpfidXXovTes eh tccs oXKaSas. 
piapbv to XPW a Kac K dKOcrp.ov Kal fiopbv, 
vStov ttot ecrrl Satpovcov j\ TTpoa^oXr] 
ovk 618. 'A<ppo8iT7]$ pev yap ov pot (jyatveTai, 40 

nautical language avrkia signifies either oXrj rfj bvvapei 6 Kavdapos, (frrjo-li/, io-BUi 

the bilgewater itself or the hold of the Kivovfievos. — Scholiast, axotvia sis rets 

ship which contains it. So here, by SXicddas are merely " ropes for merchant 

analogy: in this line it signifies the vessels." (Herwerden refers to k&8ovs 

filth, and in the next the tub, o-Ka(firj f eh rovs aypovs, infra 1202. The name 

containing the filth.) oXmbes is of course derived from their 

36. &(m€p ol ra (TxoiPLa] &(T7T€p ol tci being towed (iXKoa) with ropes. The 

fxtyaXa crxoivia epya^ofieuot rcov 7rXoiW, on Scholiast explains o-v/JiftaWovTes by o-v/x- 

ipya£6p.€voi tg> a&fjLaTi Kal okj) rfj y^vxfj Kal 7r\€KovTes.y 
rfj dvvafxei ipyd^ovrat iv t£ 7t\4 khv' ovraa 39. 7rpoo~fto\r)] One of the Scholiasts 


Fll take and pitch the muck-tub in and all* 
Seiiv. I. Aye to the crows, and follow it yourself. 
Serv. II. Can any one of you, I wonder, tell me 
Where I can buy a nose not perforated ? 
There's no more loathly miserable task 
Than to be mashing dung to feed a beetle. 
A pig or dog will take its bit of muck 
Just as it falls : but this conceited brute 
Gives himself airs, and, bless you, he won't touch it, 
Unless I mash it all day long, and serve it 
As for a lady, in a rich round cake. 
Now Fll peep in and see if he has done, 
Holding the door, thus, that he mayn't observe me. 
Aye, tuck away ; go gobbling on, don't stop ; 
I hope you'll burst yourself before you know it. 
Wretch ! how he throws himself upon his food, 
Squared like a wrestler, grappling with his jaws, 
Twisting his head and hands, now here, now there, 
For all the world like men who plait and weave 
Those great thick ropes to tow the barges with. 
'Tis a most stinking, foul, voracious brute. 
Nor can I tell whose appanage he is : 
I really think he can't be Aphrodite's, 

here takes Trpoo-ftokr) in the sense of an only, meaning of the word in the pre- 

infliction from, a visitation due to the sent passage seems to be an appendage, 

wrath of, the Gods; and Bergler cites an adjunct, 6 TTpocrfiaKheTai, a signspeci- 

from Synesius, Epist. 57, and Antiphon, fically appropriated or attached to a 

Tetr. B. y. 8, the phrases baip.6va>v 7rpocr- deity ; and so it is interpreted by Brunck, 

(3oXas, ras Otias Trpoafidkas, in the same who compares the use of the word Tvpoa- 

signification. But the main, if not the vel/jiao-dai in Birds 563. 

■npoGveipaaOai he irpeirovTcus 
TOitfi Oeoicnv tu>v opviOoov os av dpjxo^y ko.6 } tuaarov. 

8 EI PH N H 

ov jir]v XapiTcov ye. OI. A. tov yap kar ; OI. B. ovk e<r(f 077009 

TOVT €<TTl TO TepaS OV At09 ^KOLTaifidTOV. 

ovkovv av rjSrj tg>i> OeaT&v ti$ Xeyot 
veavias SoKrjcricrofyos , " to Se Trpdyjia tl ; 

6 KcivOapos Se 7rpb$ tl;" /car' glvtco y' dvrjp 45 

'lo&viKos ti$ ^rjat irapaKaOrjixevos' 
" SoKeco jxev, ey KAlooya tovt aivtTTeTai, 
a)9 KeTvos dvaiSecos tt)v o"rraTi\r)v eaOiei" 
d\\ elcricov tg> KOLvOdpto Scoaco Trieiv, 
OI. A. eyob Se tov \6yov ye toTctl TraiSiois 50 

kcll Totalis dvSpioicri kgu toTs dvSpdvi 

And another Scholiast says, eWt ev ena- 

<TTOV 1COV OpVttoV CLVCLKSlTai #60) Tiv\ <DS CL€TOS 
4>T)Cr) } TTjS *A(ppO$LTr)9 i 67T61 CWT7] fX£V flVpOlS 

Xalpei, 6 dc dvcrabrjs earlv, 

42. Aios ^KaTaiftaTov] (The words are 
a play upon a very common appellation 
of Zeus, Aios Karaipdrov, Zeus descending 
in thunder, Pollux ix. 41 ; Pausanias v. 
14. 8. In Lycophron's Cassandra 1370 
Agamemnon is likened to Zeus 

os KaTaifiarrjs poXoJv 
oKrjTTTaf TTvpwaei TTCLvra dv&p.evan' (TrdBpa. 

It was part of the insane adulation ex- 
hibited by the Athenians towards 
Demetrius Poliorcetes that, treating 
him as a Divine being, they erected on 
the spot where he first descended from 
his chariot an altar ArjprjTpiov KaTatftdrov. 
In the Prometheus (367) the falling 
thunderbolt is described as Karai^drr]s 
Kepavvos. And in the present line the 
reading of the MSS. and editions gener- 
ally is Aios KaraLftdrov, a reading which 
made the passage unmeaning, for the four 
lines from x&tov ttot' are obviously intend- 

ed to lead up to a telling joke, and no 
joke was forthcoming. But the Ravenna 
MS. has a letter (which can hardly have 
been anything but a) erased before 
KciraifidTov, and the Ravenna scholiast 
says Traifci crKarai^dr-qv avrbv kqXgdv iirei 
o-KaroLs rp€(f)€Tai 6 KavBapos, showing that 
he read 2Karai/3aroi;, a reading adopted 
by the three most recent editors, Van 
Leeuwen, Zacher, and Graves.) 

46. 'Icovikos] It must be remembered 
that this Play was performed at the great 
City Dionysia, in the presence of the 
allies and strangers from all parts of the 
Hellenic world. (The poet puts the 
answer to the youngster's question into 
the mouth of one of the allies because 
he loves to introduce a few words in a 
non- Attic dialect, which doubtless, as 
pronounced by the actor, would produce 
a certain comic effect. There is hardly 
an extant Play in which some such words 
are not found ; and cf. infra 836. 
Possibly also the convenient phrase 
(nrarikrjv iaBUiu is exclusively Ionic.) 

48. a)? Kelvos k.tX] (The pronoun 


Serv. I. No ? then whose ? See, v. II. 

Nor yet the Graces'. 

I take it 
This is the sign of sulphur-bolting Zeus. 
Now I suspect some pert young witling there 
Is asking, " Well, but what's it all about ? 
What can the beetle mean ? " And then I think 
That some Ionian, sitting by, will answer, 
e{ Now, Vve nae doubt but this is aimed at Cleon, 
It eats the muck sae unco shamelessly!' 
But I will in, and give the beetle drink. 
Serv. I. And I will tell the story to the boys, 
And to the lads, and also to the men, 

Ktivos may refer either to the beetle or 
to Cleon ; to the beetle if contrasted 
with KXecova in the preceding line, to 
Cleon if contrasted with 6 mvOapos two 
lines before. Opinions differ widely on 
this point ; but in my judgement it refers 
to the beetle. The beetle eating the 
muck reminds the speaker of Cleon who 
was a aKaTofaiyos, a muck eater ; diafidWei 
top RXecova cos crKaro(f>dyov as the Scholiast 
says. We know that in Menander's time, 
and we may well believe that already in 
the days of Aristophanes, the epithet 
crKaTotydyos, like rot^cDp^oy, kpoo-vXos, and 
similar words, was employed as a mere 
term of abuse without the slightest refer- 
ence to its original signification. Thus 
in Menander's Samia 348 (ed. Capps) 
(where it is said of a hotheaded fellow 
rpaxvs avBpcoTTOS, o~KaTO(pdyos, avOeKacTTOs 
ra rpo7T6)), in the same writer's IleptKei- 
po/ievr) 274, in the line quoted from 
Menander by Photius s. v. (d\\a o-kclto- 
<j)dyos €<tt\ Kcii \iav mKpos), and in the 
metrical Argument of the Knights (where 

the epithet is applied to the Sausage- 
seller), it means merely " a blackguard," 
"a ruffian." Cleon, being a o-KaTotpdyos 
in this sense, is caricatured, it is sug- 
gested, by the beetle, a o-mrocpdyos 
in the literal sense of the word. ) 

50. top \6yov] (He means the prelimi- 
nary circumstances, leading up to, and 
necessary for understanding, the action 
of the Play. See Wasps 54, and the 
Commentary there. These he will now 
set forth to all the people in the audi- 
torium. He begins with " the boys" 
and goes through the several classes of 
the audience in an ascending scale ; the 
"little men," "the men," "the big 
men," and "the biggest men" of all. 
It is a mere comic enumeration of men 
of all sorts and sizes. Women are not 
mentioned because no women were 
present ; see the Introduction to the 
Ecclesiazusae, pp. xxix-xxxiii.) A 
special compartment of the theatre was 
allotted to the youths ; see Schol. at 
Birds 794. 


KCU T019 VffepT&TOlGlV dvSpdaiV (f)pd<TQ) 
KOU TOLS V7T€p7JJ/op€OV(TLP €Tl TOVT019 jXaka. 

6 Secnrorr)? pov paiverai Kaivov Tpbirov, 

ov^ ovirtp vpeis, d\\' erepov Kaivov navv. 55 

Si rjpepas yap eh top ovpavov pXiwcov 

wSl K€)(r]vod$ XoiSopeTrai r<S Ail, 

Kai (prjaiv, " S> Zed, ri irore fiovXevei woieiv ; 

KardOov to Kopy\pa % prj ' KKopei rrjv 'EAAa<Sa" 
TP. ea ea. 60 

OI. A. o-iyrjo-ad', a>? qbcovrj? aKoveiv poi 8ok<o. 
TP. a> Zev, ti Spaaeieis rroff rjpcov rbv Xecov ; 

Xrjcreis creavTov ras iroXeis eKKOKKicras. 
OI. A. tovt earl tovti to KaKov av& ovyob"Xeyov. 

to yap irapdSeiypa tcov pavioov aKoveTe' 65 

a 8* €17T€ ffpOOTOV TjVlK ^f^X 6 ^ V X°^Vi 

irevaeaO . e<paaKe yap rrpbs aWbv evdaSr 

" 7TG09 dv 7T0T d(j)lKOipr]V OIV €v6t> TOV Al6$ j" 

erreiTa XerrTa KXipaKia iroiovpevos, 

7rpo9 TavT dv7]ppiyaT dv e$ tov ovpavov, 70 

ea>? £vv€Tpi(3r] Ttj? Ke^aXijs KaTappveis. 

e\6e$ Se peTa Tavr eK(f>6apeh ovk dlS 1 on 01 

55. ovx ovnep vpifis] He is referring, Mevapbpos (frrjcri ttoWcikis " iKKoprjOeiqs av 

says the Scholiast, not to the war-mania, ye " fiovkoyievos to apbr]v cmdkeaBai, o-Ty/xa- 

but to the fiaviav SiKaviKrjv. And this vai. — Scholiast. The imprecation had 

seems right, for there are many passages not been found in any of Menander's 

in the present Play which show that the Plays until the recent ^discovery of an 

mind of Aristophanes had not yet lost the important fragment of his Teoapybs 

impressions and ideas of which it was full, (see Menander's Ye-vpybs, by Grenfell 

when, in the preceding year, he wrote his and Hunt, Oxford, 1898). There a slave, 

comedy of the Wasps. coming from the country, says that he 

59. p.}) V/copet] (avrl tov navcrai %pr)p.ov has brought some good news, but the 

olKrjTopcop ttoicov Sea tS>v 7roX€fjLa>v. Yjv be not beginning of his story is a bit of bad 

apd tls avTr} ro7s apxaloi?, &s irov kcu 6 news, and one of the women to whom 


And to the great and mighty men among you, 
And to the greatest mightiest men of all. 
My master's mad ; a novel kind of madness, 
Not your old style, but quite a new invention. 
For all day long he gazes at the sky, 
His mouth wide open, thus ; and rails at Zeus : 
Zeus, says he, what seekest thou to do ? 
Lay down thy besom, sweep not Hellas bare ! 

TeYGAEUS. (Behind the scenes.) Ah me ! Ah me ! 

Seev. Hush ! for methinks I hear him speaking now. 

TRYG. (Behind the scenes.) O Zeus, 

What wouldest thou with our people ? Thou wilt drain 
The lifeblood from our cities ere thou knowest ! 
Seiiv. Aye, there it is ; that's just what I was saying : 
Ye hear yourselves a sample of his ravings. 
But what he did when first the frenzy seized him 
I'll tell you : he kept muttering to himself, 
Oh if I could but somehow get to Zeus ! 
With that he got thin scaling ladders made, 
And tried by them to scramble up to heaven, 
Till he came tumbling down, and cracked his skull. 
Then yesterday he stole I know not whither, 

he is speaking exclaims The same derivation is given by the Et. 

dAA> eKKoprjOeirjs ov 7, ola ra-yaOa Magn. and (with others) by Suidas. And 

jjfceis aTTayyeWojv. Lines 53, 54. ) all the grammarians agree as to the exact 

63. eKKOKKiaas] (avri rod iprjfidxras Kat meaning of the word, one illustrating it 

dcpaviaas, diro peracpopas tcov poia>v rav by the action of a monkey climbing up 

tovs kokkovs iKpdhXovcrav.— Scholiast, the boughs of a tree, and another by 

See the Commentary on Lys. 364.) bees swarming up the stem of a plant. 

70. dvrjppixar] (was for clambering up. Perhaps the best explanation is dvappi- 

t6 7rp6s tolxovs duaftaiveiv kol X^P ^ Ka>i X^^™ (r r )pa' LV *i ™ T0LS 7r0(TL KaL Tais 

iroaiv, avappixavdai (fracrL yiverai he e* rod x e P° >LV avrexopcvov dvafiaiveiv. See Pier- 

dpdxvr)s dpnxviS)^ kcu iv vTrep^acrpa son at Moeris s. v. and Boissonade at 

(transposition) dvappix&- — Scholiast. Aristaenetus i. 3 and 20. } 


darjyay Kirvouov pkyiarov K&vOapov, 

Kaireira tovtov iTnroKo/jieTu fi rjvdyKao-ev, 

kolvtos Karayf/ooi/ clvtov wcnrep TrcoXiov, 75 

" S) Yl-qy&oriov fjioi" (frycrl, " yevvcuov TTTtpov, 

O7rco9 7T€Trj<r€i fi €v$v tov Acbs Kaftans" 

dXX' o tl TTOiel TfjSl SiaKvyfras oyfro/iai. 

oifioi rakas, ire Sevpo Sevp', & yeiToves* 

6 SecTiroTris yap fiov fxerecopos aiperai 80 

LTrirrjSov e/? tov dip enl tov KavOdpov. 

TP. rjvvyos rjav^os, rjp£p.a 9 KavOav 

firj [xoi arofiapm )(oop€i \iav 

€v6i>$ an dp^rjs poopy kicvi/os, 

TTplv dv ISicrris Kal SiaXvcrrjs 85 

dpOpoav Tvas Trrepvyooy pvprj. 

Kal fir] irvei jaol KaKov, dvTi(3o\ob OV 

€i Se Troirjcreis tovto, Kar oXkovs 

avTOV \izivov tov$ rjfJLtrepovs. 
OI. A. 3) Si<nroT dva£, coy Trapairaiet^. 90 

TP. aiya criya. 

OI. A. 7TOI SfJT dXXcO? fl€T€CDpOK07r€?9 ; 

73. Alrvaiov] The Scholiasts offer three bourhoodof that mountain. The passages 

interpretations of this word : either (1) which they cite from Epicharmus, Aes- 

that it means vireppeytdr)* piyio-rov yap chylus, Sophocles, and Plato Comicus 

opog r] Ahvr) : or (2) that it refers to the are conclusive in favour of the third in- 

breedof Aetnaean horses (Soph. Oed.Col. terpretation. The fragment cited from 

312) : or (3) that there was in fact some Plato is arranged by Meineke (Fragm. 

species of large beetle called the Aetnaean, Com. ii. 624) as follows : 
probably from being found in the neigh- 

Tls pkya pkvroi iravv ttjv Aitvtjv opos ctvai cpaffi Tefc/xaipov 

odev rpe(p€(T0ai 

ras fcavOapiSas rwv dvOpJunoov karlv \6yos ovdev hKarrovs. 

76. a> Hrjydcriov] (llapa tcl ck BeXXepo- 6elv) " ay, <b (j>l\ov p.01 Hrjyda-ov irrepov" — 

<()6vtov Evpmidov, (inelvos yap dm Urjyda-ov Scholiast. The flight of Trygaeus heaven- 

tov 7TT€p(£>Tov €7t€6vp.(i (Is tov ovpavov ape\- wards on his winged beetle is throughout 


And brought a huge Aetnaean beetle home, 

And made me groom it, while he coaxed it down 

Like a young favourite colt, and kept on saying, 

Wee Pegasus, my flying thoroughbred, 

Your wings must waft me straight away to Zeus ! 

Now I'll peep in and see what he's about. 

O, mercy on us ! neighbours ! neighbours ! help ! 

My master's got astride upon the beetle, 

And up they go ascending in the air. 

Tryg. Fair and softly, my beastlet, at first. 

Start not at once with a violent burst, 

In the proud delight of your eager might, 

Ere your joints with sweat are relaxed and wet 

From the powerful swing of your stalwart wing. 

And breathe not strong as we soar along ; 

If you can't refrain, you had best remain 

Down here in the stalls of your master's halls. 
Serv. O master of me ! why how mad you must be ! 
Tryg. Keep silence ! keep silence ! 
Serv. Why where do you try so inanely to fly ? 

intended to parody the flight of Belle- 80. perecopos alperai] The servant 

rophon heavenwards, in the Euripidean throws open the doors, and Trygaeus is 

Tragedy, on his winged steed. And the discovered sitting astride upon the beetle, 

present line discloses to the spectators which is just preparing to fly. pertcopos 

the burlesque which they are about to alperai, says the Scholiast, £ir\ prjxavrjs' 

witness. Aristophanes had already ad- tovto de KaXelraL eaprjpa. They rise 

verted to this Bellerophon flight in the during the anapaestic systems, halting 

preceding Comedy, Wasps 757 ; and during the intermediate dialogues. In 

the hero's distressful appearance after addressing the beetle, inf. 82, Trygaeus 

he had been thrown by Pegasus is the substitutes for mvOapos, a word of not 

subject of a joke in Acharnians 427. dissimilar sound, K.dvd<ov, a jackass. 

See also infra 722 and Knights 1249. 92. aWo?] This adverb is used here, 

The somewhat affected phrase Hrfydaov and infra 1113, in the sense of pdrrjv. 

TTTtpov is reproduced infra 135.) Km cos eVi to lAfio-Tov, says the author of 

14 E I P H N H 

TP. vrr\p 'JLXXrjvcov iravrcov neropai, 
roXprjpa veov 7raXaprjcrdp€vo9. 

OI. A. TL 7T€T€L ', TL \1&TV\V 0V)( VyidlVtlS ', 95 

TP. €it(/)r}fi€?i/ xprj K0 " A") <j>Xavpov 
prjSev ypvgeLv, dXX' SXoXvgeLv* 
rots r di/0pdo7roun (ppaarov ciydv, 
tovs re Koirp&vas kcu ray Xavpas 
Kaivah ttXivOohtiv dvoiKoSopeTv, 100 

KOL Tob$ 7TpC0KT0V9 €7TLkX€L€LV. 

OI. A. ovk ivff ottcos aiyrjaop!, fjv prj pot (fypdo-ys 
oTToi 7T€T€(70ca SLavoet. TP, tl 5' dXXo y fj 
m tov AC els tov ovpavov ; OI. A. riva vovv e^cov ; 

TP. kpr)VOpeVOS €Ke?V0V 'ILXXrjVCOV 7T€pL 105 

aira^aTravTcov o tl noietv fiovXeveTat. 
OI. A. kdv Se prj aot Karayopevarj; TP. ypd^opai 

IS/Lrj Solo 1 iv avrov jrpoSiSovai ttjv 'EXAa&z. 
OI. A. pa tov Alovvctov ovSenoTe {covtos y f kpov. 
TP. ovk €(ttl irapd Tctur' dXX\ OI. A. lob lob lov* 110 

a> ttcliSi , 6 naTrjp dnoXiTTtov direpyeraL 

vpds eprjpovs els rov ovpavov XdOpa. 

dXX f dvTifioXeiTe rov narep ', & KaKoSatpova. 

the Etymologicon Magnum, avrlrov fxarrju were regular Korrpcoves. So again infra 

iXpavTO 04 'ArrtKot r<w aXXoos' kcu yap 158. The Scholiast says Xavpas SkoXovv 

Trapa QovKvbldrj o~vvex$>s eariv avro evpuv ras crrepas pvpas, %v6a iracra aKadapala 

Ktipcvov. See Thuc. i. 109 ; ii. 18; iv. lo-riV rj tovs pv7rapovsT07rovs, And to the 

36, &c. See also Ruhnken's Timaeus, sub like effect Hesychius, Suidas, Eustathius 

voc. ovk a\\(os. at Od. xxii. 128, and the Etymol. Magn. 

97. okokv(€iv] (This is meant as a hint who give as the derivation of the word, 

to the audience to give the speaker Xavpa' irapa to pUiv iv avrjj tovs Xaovs. 

a cheer. Cf. Knights 1327.) The further explanation of Hesychius 

99. Xavpas] {Alleys, which apparently ot de totzovs irpbs v7rox<x>pw iv aveipivovs is 

were allowed to become such receptacles probably due to the usage of the word in 

of filth that they would be almost as this Comedy.) 

attractive to the dung-beetle as if they 108. Mrjdoia-iv} Doubtless there were 


Tryg. My flight for the sake o£ all Hellas I take, 

A novel and daring adventure preparing. 
Se&V. Why can't you remain at home, and be sane ? 

Tryg. O let not a word of ill omen be heard, 

But greet me with blessings and cheers as I go, 

And order mankind to be silent below ; 

And please to be sure with bricks to secure 

All places receptive of dung and manure. 

Serv. No, no ; I won't keep still, unless you tell me 

Whither you're flying off. Tryg. Whither, except 
To visit Zeus in heaven ? Serv. Whatever for ? 

Tryg. I'm going to ask him what he is going to do 
About the Hellenic peoples, one and all. 

Serv. And if he won't inform you ? Tryg. I'll indict him 
As giving Hellas over to the Medes. 

SERV. {Struggling with Trygaeus.) 

Not while I live, so help me Dionysus ! 
Tryg. There is no way but this. Serv. Here ! children ! here ! 
Quick ! quick ! your father's stealing off to heaven, 
Leaving you here deserted and forlorn. 
Speak to him, plead with him, you ill-starred maidens. 

many beginning to feel that the inter- to intervene in the affairs of Hellas ; and, 
necine dissensions of the Hellenic cities apart from the Panhellenic danger, the 
would prove of advantage to their ever- Athenians might well feel anxious at the 
watchful neighbour, the great Eastern prospect of having the wealth and the ma- 
monarchy only. The repetition of this ritime resources of the empire thrown 
suggestion, inf. 408, seems to show that into the opposite scale. With regard to 
the mind of Aristophanes, at all events, their remedy by indictment, " notantur 
was growing uneasy on this score. And Athenienses ut c/nAoSiKot," says Bergler 
compare Lysistrata 1133-4. The Lace- after the Scholiast, " si nee Jupiter est 
daemonians had already sent frequent em- securus. ' ' 
bassies (Thuc.iv. 50) inviting the Persians 


KO. & ndrep, & ir&Tep, ap erv/xos ye 

SoOfMaCTlV f)fjL€T€pOl$ (pCtTLS 7JK€L 115 

CO? (TV fieT OpvfflcOV TTpoXlTTCbv k/JL€ 

ey KopaKa? (3a8iei /xeTafioovios ; 
tern re tcov8 9 kTVfxcos ; eiw, & irdrep, ec rt (piXeis [ie. 
TP. Sogdaai €<ttl, Kopac to 8' eTrJTVfjLOv, ayOojiai vfiw, 

fjviK ay ahi(r]T dprov, irdrnrav fxe KaXovcrai, 120 

zv8ov 8' dpyvpiov fArjSe ^a/cas* rj irdvv Trd[mav. 
rjv 8 kycb ev Ttpd^as eX6co ndXiv, e^er kv &pa 
KoXXvpav p.tydXr\v kcu kov8vXov o^ov eV avrfj, 

KO. KOI TL$ TTOpOS (TOt TTJS 68oV y€Vrj(T€T0U ,* 

vavs pXv yap ovk d£ei ere ravrrju rrjv 686v. 125 

TP. 7rTrjvb$ 7ropev(T€L rrcoXos* ov uavcrOXccxro/JLau 
KO. Tts 8' rjmvotd crovarlv coore KavOapov 

£zv^avr kXavveiv e/y deovs, go TramTia ; 
TP. kv roicriv Klg&ttov Xoyois kgevpeOi] 

114. ervfjios fans] The Scholiast pre- pides, from which these dactylics seem 

serves some lines from the Aeolus of Euri- to be parodied ; 

A. ap' trvjjLov <par iv eyvoov 
AioXov tvvafav riKva (piKrara; 

B. do£acrat eari, Kopar rb 5 y eriQTVfxoVj ovk e'x<w dneiu. 

for so, I suppose, should the fragment be drop of silver. So Plautus (Pseudolus 

arranged. eVri for Trdpeor*, it is open to i. 4. 4) "cui neque gutta argenti." iv &pa 

you to conjecture. in the following line means in good time, 

117. is KopaKas] This familiar impre- early, like the French de bonne heure, 

cation is converted into a similar joke, in Wasps 242, 689 ; Eccl. 395.) 

Birds 28. There two wayfarers are vainly 123. KoWvpav] (The KoKkvpa (Athe- 

endeavouring to penetrate to the king- naeus iii. 75) was a circular cake dressed 

dom of the birds, and ' * 'tis hard indeed," in a rich thick broth or sauce oxjsov in 

says Euelpides, "that when we are avrrj, the sauce being, in the opinion of 

ready and willing is KopaKas i\0uv f we epicures, the most important part of the 

cannot find the way." dish : 

121. dpyvpiov p.r)8€ ^cikus] {Not even a 


Girl. O father, O father, and can it be true 

The tale that is come to our ears about you, 
That along with the birds you are going to go, 
And to leave us alone and be off to the crow ? 
Is it a fact, O my father ? O tell me the truth if you love me. 
Tryg. Yes, it appears so, my children : in truth, I am sorry to see you 
Calling me dearest Papa, and asking me bread for your dinner, 
When I have got in the house not an atom of silver to buy it ; 
But if I ever return with success, ye shall soon be enjoying 
Buns of enormous size, with strong fist-sauce to improve them. 
Girl. And what's to be the method of your passage ? 

Ships will not do : they cannot go this journey. 
Tryg. I ride a steed with wings : no ships for me. 

Girl. But what's the wit of harnessing a beetle 

To ride on it to heaven, Papa, Papa ? 
Tryg. It is the only living thing with wings, 

Collyrae facite ut madeant . . . 

Turn nisi cremore crasso est jus collyricum, 

Nihil est macrum illud epicrocum pellucidum ; 

Quasi juream esse jus decet collyricum. — Plautus, Persa i. 3. 12. 

Such a sauce (p-Kevacria. o^onoLLKr], Photius that they may form no part of the quota- 

s. v. KavbvXos) was the KavbavXo?, a Lydian tion. If they do form a part of it, there 

dainty made in a variety of ways, Photius is great force in Wagner's suggestion 

1. c. ; Athenaeus xii. 12. It was a sort of (Stheneboea Frag. 5) that the whole of 

rich porridge, strengthened with boiled the present line is borrowed from that 

meat, cheese, honey, breadcrumbs, and Tragedy; vavaOXovcrQai, a corrupt form of 

the like. Trygaeus, for Kav8av\os 9 pro- vavaroXelo-dai, being rather a favourite 

poses to substitute k6p8v\os, knuckle- word of Euripides.) 

broth.} Wordsworth (Athens and Attica, 129. Aiowov] The Scholiast explains 

chap. 35) mentions that a circular cake the fable thus : The eagle had carried off 

is still called in modern Greek KovXovpi. the young beetles ; thereupon the old 

126. 7TTr)v6s 7rop€var€i] (The Scholiast beetle got into the eagle's eyry, and 

quotes some lines from the Stheneboea pushed out her eggs. The eagle flew to 

of Euripides, which appear to end with complain to Zeus, who bade her build 

these words, though it is just possible her nest in his own bosom. But, when 



[xovos irtTeiv&v els 6eoi>$ dcjytypivos. 
KO. aiTKTTOv dna$ pvOov, S> irdrep 7rar€p, 

07Tft)5 KaKOCTfjLOV g&OV TjXOtV tfc 0€OV$. 

TP. rjXdep Kar i^Opav alerov irdXai 7rore, 

CO* €KKvX(v8<DV Kcil/TCTlfJLG0pOVfX€VO$. 

KO. ovkovv kyjpr\v ere Tlrjydo-ov gevgcu 7rT€pbv> 

OTTG>9 kcfxiLVOV Tol$ 0€OL$ TpayLKG>T€pO$ J 

TP. dXX* a> peX* av pot aricov SnrX&i/ eSec 
vvv <5' &tt av (tiros KaTa(f>dya> ra <nrca y 
tovtokti tois clvtoicti tovtov yoprdaoa^ 

KO. ri S\ rjv €9 vypbv ttovtlov niarj (idOos ; 
7TC09 egoXio-Oew Trrrjvbs a>v Svi/rjcrercu ; 

TP. eiTLTtjSes eiyov nrjSdXioi', & xprj<ropar 

to 8e nXotov €(ttcu "Na£iovpyrj$ KavBapos. 




the eagle had laid her eggs there, the 
beetle flew buzzing about the ears of 
Zeus ; and he, springing up to scare it 
away, dropped and broke the eggs. The 
moral, says the Scholiast, is that there is 
no rest for the wicked, no, not even in 
the bosom of Zeus. It is said that the 
apologue was told by Aesop to the 
Delphians, as they were about to put 
him to death on a false charge of theft ; 
his motive being to warn them that 
though he might be mean as the beetle, 
and they exalted as the eagle, yet his 
blood might ascend to heaven, and cry 
for vengeance upon his murderers . This, 
too, is the fable which Philocleon endea- 
vours to edge in, as he is being carried 
shrieking from the stage. — Wasps 
1446-8. See the Scholiasts there, and 
see Lys. 695. It is versified by Spenser 
in his fourth Sonnet on the World's 
Vanity, and illustrated by Erasmus in 

his celebrated Adage (to which Bergler 
refers) Scarabaeus aquilamquaerit, which 
is found in vol. ii, p. 686 of the Leyden 
edition of his works, anti of which the 
most pointed and bitter passages are 
translated in Hallam's Literature, chap, 
iv. {It was this fable too which (in 
Lucian's Icaro-menippus) inspired Me- 
nippus to soar on eagle and vulture wings 
to heaven ; and to him also, as to Try- 
gaeus here, the gate, when he knocks at 
it, is opened by Hermes as the lackey of 
Zeus. ) As the beetle merely followed the 
eagle to heaven, it is difficult to see with 
what propriety it is termed povos 7rereivS>v 
els deovs dcfaiynevos. 

131. ama-rov etnas fxvdov] These words 
are borrowed, as Bergler observes, from 
Eurip. Iph. Taur. 1293. They are very 
appropriate here ; for fivBosis aterm more 
applicable even than \6yos to an Aesopian 
fable . In the Phaedo, 61B, Socrates says 



So Aesop says, that ever reached the Gods. 
Giel. O father, father, that's too good a story 

That such a stinking brute should enter heaven ! 
Tryg. It went to take revenge upon the eagle, 

And break her eggs, a many years ago. 
Giel. But should you not have harnessed Pegasus, 

And so. in tragic style, approach the Gods ? 
Tryg. Nay, then I must have had supplies for two ; 

But now the very food I eat myself, 

All this will presently be food for him. 
Girl. What if he fall in wintry watery waves, 

How will his wings help extricate him then ? 
Tryg. Oh, I've a rudder all prepared for that : 

My ship's a beetle-sloop, of Naxian make. 

that he had, during his confinement in 
the Athenian prison, turned into verse 
the fiv6oi of Aesop, because he wished 
before his death to act in obedience to 
a heavenly vision, which often in his 
past life had enjoined him fiovo-iKrjv noieiv, 
and it seemed a poet's business Troielp 
livBovS) dXX* ov Xoyovs. (Here both words 
are used of Aesop's fables, but more 
frequently they are contrasted, p.vBos 
being taken to mean a fiction and \6yos 
a fact, ov crv fiev fjyfjo-ei jjlvBov, as 
eyco/xat, iycb 8e Xoyov. — Gorgias, chap. 79 
(p. 523 A) ; oi)K€Ti iivBov croi epa>, dXXd 
Xoyov. — Protagoras, chap. 14, p. 324 D. 
Longus (Pastorals ii. 4) says that Daph- 
nis and Chloe were delighted to hear of 
love, &o-TT€p fivdov, ov Xoyov, aKovovres. Cf . 
Achilles Tatius i. 17 ; Clemens Alex- 
andrinus "De divite servando," §42.) 

135,. Ilriyda-ov . . . nrepov] (This is the 
Euripidean phrase quoted by the 


Scholiast on line 76 supra.) 

143. Nagiovpyrjs Kavdapos] UXoia rjv ovtg> 
Xeyofieva iv Nd£<» ywofieva, as vvv i( alX- 
(fias'" Xeyovari riva aKarlav c'ldr]. — Suidas, 
Scholiast. That rnvdapos is the name of 
a particular kind of ship, says Athenaeus, 
xi. 47, is kolvov, matter of common 
notoriety. And in the next chapter he 
cites several passages which illustrate 
this and other meanings of the word. 
(The name was probably given to the 
vessel from something in its shape and 
appearance which made it, with the oars 
reaching out on each side, bear a certain 
resemblance to a monstrous beetle. It 
seems to have been originally invented 
at ISTaxos, which had a large seafaring 
population, and, in early times, many 
ships of war (TrXom fiaKpa iroXXa, Hdt. v. 
30). And very probably, even when 
made or used by other people, it would 
retain the name of its origin, to distin- 


E I P H N H 

KO. Xifzrji/ Se TL9 ere Several (f>opov[JLevov ; 

TP. kv Ueipael Stjttov '<tti YLavOdpov \i\ir\v. 

KO. kK&vo rrjpet, /jltj atyaXeh KaTCtppvfjs 
kvTevBtV) eiTa xcoXds &v ^vpnriSrj 
Xoyov napacryris kclI rpaycoSia yevfl. 

TP. kfxol [xeXrjcrei ravrd y. dXXd yalpsTe. 
vfjLecs Si y, virep $>v tovs ttovovs kyco 7T< 
fxri (38e?Te fxrjSe \*£ € ^ ^^p&v rpioow 
<*>s el fjt€T€Copo$ ovtos &v occjyprjo-eTai, 
KdTcoicdpa pfyas \ie (SovKoXrjcreTai. 

dXX' dye, Hrjyacre, \oopeL yaipav, 
XpvaroydXwov irdrayov tyaXioav 
SiaKivricras (f>ai8pois dxrlv. 




guish it from other kinds of icdvOapot, the 
insect, the cup, the womanly ornament, 
&c.) As to 7rr)bakiov in the preceding 
line we must, I suppose, accept the 
Scholiast's interpretation, to aldolov 
bcLKvv<ri, that is the penem scorteum. 

145. TlcipaeT] Peiraeus, says Thucy- 
dides, i. 93, is possessed of Xifxeuas rpeh 
avToifive'is* Of these, one was called, as 
the Scholiast here informs us, Cantharus, 
from a traditionary hero of that name. 
Another, he says, was called Aphro- 
disium, and we learn from Hesychius 
and other authorities that the name of 
the third was Zea. And see Colonel 
Leake's Topography of Athens, i. 373. 

147. x®^ 9 ] ^°t on ty was Euripides 
noted as a xa>\o?rot6ff, an introducer of 
maimed and limping heroes, in general, 
see Acharnians and Frogs, passim ; but 
one of his most celebrated representa- 
tions in that line was Bellerophon lamed 
by a fall from Pegasus, Ach. 427. And 

as the whole of this beetle-flight is a sort 
of travestie of the Bellerophon of Euri- 
pides, to Trygaeus, in a special manner, 

exemplum grave praebet ales 
Pegasus, terrenum equitem gravatus 

Bellerophont em . 

Horace, Odes, iv. 11. 26. With the words 
kcu Tpayahia yevrj, Florent Chretien aptly 
compares the expression of the same 
Roman poet, et fabula fias. 

149. ifioi /xeX^o-et ravrd y'] This is a way 
of putting aside unnecessary advice. 
See infra 1041, 1311 ; Thesm. 240, 1064, 
1207 ; Plutus 229. 

150. v/xets fie] (jrpos rovs Omras 6 \6yos. 
— Scholiast. It would perhaps be more 
strictly accurate to say "to the Athe- 
nians generally." Cf. infra 165.) 

153. (SovKokfjarerai] diraTr^Tai^ Scho- 
liast. ' ' Spe dejiciet, " Brunck ; and so all 
the commentators. But the passages in 
which fiovKokciv bears a metaphorical 



Giel. What bay will land you drifting drifting on ? 

Tryg. Why, in Peiraeus, there's the Beetle Bay. 

Girl. Yet, O be careful lest you tumble off, 

And (lame for life) afford Euripides 
A subject, and become a tragic hero. 

Tryg. Fll see to that : goodbye, goodbye, my dears ! 
But you, for whom I toil and labour so, 
Do for three days resist the calls of nature ; 
Since, if my beetle in the air should smell it, 
He'll toss me headlong off, and turn to graze. 

Up, up, my Pegasus, merrily, cheerily, 
With ears complacent, while blithe and bold 
Your curbs shake out their clatter of gold. 

signification, and which are collected by 
Bp. Blomf., Gloss, in Ag. 652, ifiovKo- 
Xovjiev (ppovTicriv veov 7rd&os, are widely 
different from the present. And even 
were authority produced to show (1) that 
QovkoXcw, standing alone, can mean 
"to deceive a person"; and (2) that 
fiovKoXrjo-oixai can be employed in a purely 
active signification (as to both of which 
points I must, in the absence of authority, 
entertain great doubt), yet the ordinary 
meaning of the word, " to feed oneself," 
4 ' to turn to graze, " seems to me not only 
preferable, but absolutely required by 
the context. The fxe is to be joined, not 
with (SovKokrjazTai, but with pl^as. 

155. xP V(ro X^ lvop ] (golden-bitted. 
Xpvcro)(akivov rrarayov, the clashing of 
golden bits. The Scholiast quotes from 
the Bellerophon, Wi xP V(T0 X^ lv ^ a '^p°> v 
Trrepvyas. Euripides therefore applied 
the epithet to the horse, as do Hdt. 
(ix. 20) and Xenophon (Cyr. i. 3. 3). 

And so St. Chrysostom (Horn, xxi in 
1 Cor. p. 189 C) speaks of wrcraw xP V(T0 " 
XaXivav. It is only by a sort of 
Aeschylean licence that Aristophanes 
transfers the epithet to the clanging of 
the curbs.) 

156. (fiaidpols cbcriv] The word (fraidpos, 
as applied to a horse's ears, is susceptible 
of two very different significations : (1), 
from the idea of brightness, quickness, 
alertness, attached to the word, c/>ai8pols 
cbo-l may mean arrectis auribus, micans 
auribus ; (2), from its sense of placid, 
beaming, sleek good nature, it may mean 
blandis auribus. Every commentator 
adopts the former interpretation ; the 
Scholiast prefers the latter. Upaecri 9 firj 
opdolS) he says, rouro yap 7Taa-\ov(Tiv ot 
lttttoi, axnrep TrapoijvvopepoL ds atcparov 
8p6fiov (rather, perhaps, aKparrj "when 
about to run away "). Florent Chretien 
and Bothe will not permit the Scholiast 
to know his own mind, the former cor- 


re woieiSj ri iroiels ; ttol TrapaKXivecs 

tovs fiVKTrjpas irpbs toc9 Xavpas ; 

tei aavrbp 6app5>v dirb yfjs, 

Kara Spopaiap irrepvy eKTeip&p 160 

6p6a>$ ycopei Aid? eh avXas, 

airo pep KaKKr]$ ttjp juv dire-yap, 

drro & rjpepipcop aircop naPTCop. 

apQpwre, ri Spas, ovtos 6 yefap 

kv Tleipaei Trapa rah iropvous ; 165 

drroXeh p, drroXeh. ov Karopv^eis, 

Kd7ri^)oprj(reL9 rrjs yrj$ 7roXXrjp t 

KdirupuTevaeis epirvXXop dpco, 

kou pvpop ernyeh ; a>? r\v ri nearcbp 

evdevSe irdOco, rovpov Oapdrov 170 

rrepre rdXapff f) rroXis rj X/W 

Sta top crop irpcoKTOP 6(f)Xrjarei. 

oip coy SiSoiKct KovKeri ckootttcop Xeyco. 

rectinghis comment into dp0o7s,p,r)7rpa€cri; indeed Pollux (ix. 34) reckons iropvela 

the latter into irpaeaiv fj 6p6ois. But in as one of their regular accessories. In 

my opinion the Scholiast is quite right ; Alciphron i. 6 a virtuous wife complains 

and Trygaeus is desiring in his steed that her husband has deserted her, and 

a sign not of spirit, but of good temper. has taken up with a harlot in the 

These lines and those which follow (159- Peiraeus ; where see Bergler's note.) 

61) seem borrowed from the Bellero- 168. ep-rrvWov] {wild thyme, "ser- 

phon of Euripides, probably from the pyllum thymus." Plant wild thyme on 

same monody which Philocleon quotes in the top of it. This of course means the 

Wasps 757, &c. In fact the chief humour plant itself ; but it may be observed that 

of these anapaests consists in the inter- from the plant a favourite perfume, 

mixture by Trygaeus snatches from pvpov, was distilled; Theophrastus, De 

that tragedy with ejaculations supposed Odoribus 27 : Antiphanes cited by 

to be wrung from him by the imminent Athenaeus xii. 78, xv. 40 (pp. 553 D, 

danger of his own situation. 689 F).) 

165. Trapa rats nopvats] (Seaports were 169. fjv n naGa] If anything happens 

always the resorts of dissolute women ; tome; & euphemism for " if I am killed,' 


(I wonder what in the world he means 

By pointing his nose at those foul latrines.) 

Rise, gallantly rise, from the earth to the skies, 

And on with the beat of your pinion fleet 

Till you come to Zeus in his heavenly seat. 

From all your earthly supplies of dirt, 

From ordure and muck your nostril avert. 

Man ! man in Peiraeus ! you'll kill me I swear, 

Committing a nuisance ! good fellow, forbear ; 

Dig it down in the ground, scatter perfumes around, 

Heap, heap up the earth on the top, 
Plant sweet-smelling thyme to encircle the mound, 

Bring myrrh on its summit to drop ; 
For if I through your folly shall tumble to-day, 

And my enterprise fail to succeed in, 
Five talents the city of Chios shall pay 

On account of your breach — of good-breeding. 

(The scene suddenly changes.) 

Zounds ! how you scared me : I'm not joking now. 

as Bergler remarks, citing from Athe- that the offenders were Chians, for any 

naeus, vi. 45, a line (of Alexis) addressed disgusting act, they declared, was to be 

by a parasite to his entertainer/ Av yap expected from Chians. From this, or 

7rdBt]s ti, ttcos iycb ^two-o/xat ; See the com- from some similar circumstance, there 

mentary on Wasps 385. The form of seems to have arisen a popular saying, 

expression is as old as Homer, Iliad Xios r)v 6 anoTrarcov, It was a Chian who 

xvii. 242. made the mess. Trygaeus therefore 

171. fj ttoXis i) Xlcdv] (Dobree refers to assumes that Xlog rjv 6 aTroirarcov in the 

the story told in Plutarch's " Anony- Peiraeus, and threatens to impose a 

mous Laconian Apophthegms," No. 11. heavy fine upon the culprit's city, or 

Some persons had messed about the rather on the State to which he belonged. 

Ephors' Hall and over the Ephors' seats. Cf. infra 251 and Eur. Ion 294.) 

The indignation which the Ephors 173. o'ijjl* ods dedoiKa] As Trygaeus and 

naturally felt at this outrage was some- his beetle are still floating in the air the 

what appeased when they discovered scene suddenly changes, and they find 



& ixrjyavoiroil, rrpoae^ tov vovv coy k/xi* 

ijSr] arpo^et ri Trvevfia irepl tov 6[i<j)a\bv> 1 75 

K€i fir) (f>v\d£eL, yoprao-co tov KavOapov. 
aTap kyyvs elvai tcqv Oecov kfiol Sokoo, 
Kal Srj KaOopco ttjv oIkiclv ttjv tov Alos. 
tis kv Atb$ Ovpaiaiv ; ovk dvocgeTe ; 
EP. TToOev fipoTov fxe Trpocre^aX' ; coya£ 'UpaKXets, 180 


EP. co fjuape Kal ToXfirjpe KavaivyyvT* av 

Kal fxtape Kal TrapLpLiape Kal fitapooTaTe, 

nm Sevp y dvrjXdes, co fxiapwv /xiapooTaTe ; 

TL VOL 7TOT eo-T ovop! ; ovk kpeis ; TP. fiiapcoTaTos. 185 

EP. 7ro8a7rb$ to yevos 8' el; (ppdfe /xol. TP. piapcoTaTos. 
EP. waTrjp 8i col tl$ kcrTiv ; TP. kfioi ; fitapooTaTOS. 

themselves at the celestial abodes. A 
platform or movable stage is thrust out 
exactly underneath the beetle, who 
thenceforth rests upon it. The actor, 
half dropping his assumed character, 
turns from the imaginary perils of Try- 
gaeus, to what he affects to consider his 
own real personal danger from the move- 
ments of the theatrical machinery (ovk€tl 
orKomrvv Aeyo>, "I'm in sober earnest 
now," cf. Plato, Pep. i. 20, p. 349 A). 
" Jocus est comicis antiquis solennis," 
saysPorson, Suppl. Praef . Hec. , " ut acto- 
rem personae, quam agit, oblivisci faci- 
ant, et de theatro aut spectatoribus quasi 
imprudentem loqui. " From this point to 
the Parabasis the action is wholly on this 
higher stage, the scene representing the 
exterior of the palace of Zeus. In front 
is a pit or cavern, blocked up with large 
stones, masking a secret flight of stairs 
which lead to the interior of the theatre. 

Trygaeus dismounts, and shouts to the 
porter in the customary manner. (The 
upper stage now pushed forward by the 
i^coarpa was probably a fabric of exactly 
the same size as the lower stage, so that 
it completely hides the house of Try- 
gaeus and the original scenery, which are 
visible no more until after the Parabasis ; 
just as in the Thesmophoriazusae when 
the Temple is pushed forward by the 
e£a)(TTpa, it completely hides the house of 
Agathon and the original scenery, which 
are seen no more during the remainder of 
the Play. See the commentary on Thesm. 

180. iroBev ftpoTov /ue 7rpoo-e(3ak y ;] The 
Scholiast would supply 007A9 or (jxovr}. 
Florent Chretien decides for 007x9, com- 
paring Plautus, Amphit. i. 1. 164 "Olet 
homo quidam malo suo. " But as Hermes 
must be supposed to have been roused 
by the noisy summons of Trygaeus, it 



I say^ scene-shifter, have a care of me. 

You gave me quite a turn; and if you don't 

Take care, Fm certain I shall feed my beetle. 

But now, methinks, we must be near the Gods ; 

And sure enough there stand the halls of Zeus. 

O, open ! open ! who's in waiting here ? 
Hermes. A breath of man steals o'er me : whence, whence comes it ? 

O Heracles, what's this ? Tryg. A beetle-horse. 
Herm. O shameless miscreant, vagabond, and rogue ; 

O miscreant, utter miscreant, worst of miscreants, 

How came you here, you worst of all the miscreants ? 

Your name ? what is it ? speak ! Tryg. The worst of miscreants. 
Herm. Your race ? your country ? answer ! Tryg. Worst of miscreants. 
Herm. And who's your father ? Tryg. Mine ? the worst of miscreants. 

would be better, if anything is to be 
supplied, to supply (jxovf). And I may 
observe that the dialogue called the 
Halcyon, inserted amongst Lucian's 
works, commences with the words, Tis f) 
3>&NH IIP02EBAAEN i)p?v; But perhaps 
the poet purposely left it indefinite, and 
Hermes is merely meant to say that he 
is aware of the presence of man. He 
appeals to Heracles, because the great 
destroyer of monsters is naturally in- 
voked at the sight of some strange 
apparition — T Q, 'Hpa/cXcis, ravr\ wodaTra ra 
Qrjpia ; Ach. 94 ; Clouds 184 ; Birds 93 ; 
Eccl. 1068, and elsewhere. On the other 
hand the invocation of Heracles in Ach. 
807, oiov po6ia£ov(r\ a» TrdkvTLprjB' 'Hpd- 
kXzis, is in recognition of his traditional 

181. i7nroKav6apo$\ €7reu£e rrapa to Xtttto- 
KevTwpos. — Scholiast . 

182. a> piape] Hermes is probably in- 
tended as a sample of the footmen in the 
houses of the great at Athens, abusive at 
first, but soon subsiding into friendliness 
on the appearance of a bribe. With this 
torrent of abuse compare the reception 
of Dionysus by the porter of Pluto, Frogs 
465. ( There Dionysus was frightened out 
of his wits by the violent language used, 
but here Trygaeus is quite unmoved, and 
even proceeds to chaff Hermes who was 
never a very formidable personage, and 
who was always open to a bribe. Try- 
gaeus knows that he has with him more 
than one gift (infra 192, 424) sufficient to 
appease the wrath of Hermes. The 
exclamation w piape kol Trappiape is com- 
mon with St. Chrysostom. See Horn, 
lxxxi in Matth. (p. 775 B), xxi in Rom. 
(678 B), xxiii in Rom. (691 C), xxviii in 
2 Cor. (637 B and D).> 

26 E I P H N H 

EP. ov tol jxa rr\v Trjv eaff oWy ovk diroOavely 

el prj Karepeis jjloi tovvoj* o tl ttot €(ttl vol. 
TP. TpvyaTos 'AdpLovevs, d/jLireXovpybs Segcbs, 190 

ov avKO(pdvTr]$, oiff epaoTr)? npay/jLaTcou. 
EP. i]K€i$ Se Kara tl; TP. ra Kpia tccvti vol (pipcov. 
EP. S> SeiXaKpLo&i/, ttcos rjX9 ey ; TP. S> yXio-^pcov, opas 

<*>? ovKer uval croi Sokco fjuapeoTaros ; 

lOl vvv, KaXecroi/ \ioi rbv At\ EP. Irj Irj Iff, 195 

or ov8e fiiXXeis eyyv$ elvai tcou Qecov 

(frpovSoL yap kyO&s zlcriv e^cpKLcrfiiuoi. 
TP. iro'tyfjs; EP. ISoif yfjs. TP. dXXa ttol; EP. noppco navv, 

vtt clvtov dre^vcos roipavov tov Kvrrapov. 
TP. 7rcic>s ovv ait Stjt kvravda KareXeL^>6t]9 fiouos ; * 200 

EP. ra Xolttcl rrjpoo aKevapta ra tgov dew, 

Xvrpi'Sia Kal aaviSia Kd/MpopetSia. 
TP. e^ccKio-avro 8 ol 6eol twos ovvtKa ; 
EP. "TLXXrjariv opyicrQivres. elr kvravQa [lev, 

IV rjarav avTol, rbv TloXtfiov KaTcpKio-av, 205 

vftas 7rapa86i>T69 Spay dre^vcos o tl fiovXeTaL- 

avTol 5' di/coKLO-avO' 07TC09 dvCOT&TCO, 

190. ci/jL7r6\ovpy6s] Vineyards still sur- 191. irpayjxa.Ta>v\ Is generally, and I 

round the little village of Marousi (to the suppose rightly, taken to refer in this 

north-east of Athens, in the direction of place to the troubles of litigation. Per- 

Marathon), which represents the ancient haps such is also its meaning in 1345 inf., 

deme oi y A6 /jLoyrj (or if Ad fiovov, or ^Adfxovln), averse which seems to mean that the 

The modern name is derived from the peaceful tastes here expressed were to be 

Amarusian Artemis, the special deity of completely gratified. But everywhere 

the Athmonians. Pausanias i. 31. See else in this Play it signifies the troubles 

Wordsworth's Athens and Attica, chap. of war. See inf. 293 (cf. Ach. 269), 348, 

30 ; Colonel Leake's Topography of 353, 1297. 

Athens and the Demi, ii. 41. There is 193. &i\afepiW] {You poor little grub. 

throughout the Play a running allusion SeiXafcpiW* eXeewos, TaXainaypos. — Hesy- 

to the name of Trygaeus, which is derived chius. The sight of the meat produces 

from rpvyav, to get in the vintage. an instantaneous change in the attitude 


Herm. O by the Earth but you shall die the death 

Unless you tell me who and what you are. 
Tryg. Trygaeus, an Athmonian, skilled in vines ; 

No sycophant, no lover of disputes. 
Herm. Why are you eome ? Tryg. To offer you this meat. 
Herm. How did you get here, Wheedling ? Tryg. Oho, Greedling ! 

Then I'm not quite the worst of miscreants now. 

So just step in and summon Zeus. Herm. O ! O ! 

When you're not likely to come near the Gods ! 

They're gone : they left these quarters yesterday. 
Tryg. Where on Earth are they ? Herm. Earth, indeed ! 

Tryg. But where ? 
Herm. Far, far away, close to Heaven's highest dome. 
Tryg. How came they then to leave you here alone ? 
Herm. I have to watch the little things they left, 

Pipkins and pannikins and trencherlets. 
Tryg. And what's the reason that they went away ? 
Herm. They were so vexed with Hellas : therefore here 

Where they were dwelling, they've established War, 

And given you up entirely to his will. 

But they themselves have settled up aloft, 

of Hermes, and Trygaeus responds with constantly added to such adverb as nol 

you poor little grab. yXio-xpw' dvrl tov and 7rou, like our "where in the world?" 

emOvfirjTa* airb rod ykixeaBat. — Scholiast, Cf . Ach. 207 ; Birds 9, 394 ; Frogs 48, 85; 

Suidas. yXixecrOai means to cling to ; Plutus 605. But, as Hermes reminds 

indeed the Et. Magn. derives the word him, it is quite inappropriate here.) 
from AiW %x.€tr6ai.} 199. tov KVTTapov] (jo vyfrrjXoTaTOv tov 

198. Idov yrjs] " Reprehendit eum, ovpavov. \eyovo~i yap koIXov elvai tov 

qui dixerat yrjs, cum esset in coelo." — ovpavov manep rod coov tt)v Xe7ri§a (like an 

Bergler, after the Scholiast. Trygaeus eggshell). 6 8e \6yos, els to. eo-^ara ficprj 

had said ttoT yrjs, whither on earth are aivekrjkvdao-i tov ovpavov. — Scholiast, 

they gone ? (The slip was a very natural Wasps 1111.) 
one on the part of Trygaeus, for yrjs is 


ha pr\ fiXeiroiev payopievovs vp.a$ en 

/irjS* avTifioXovvTG&v jJLrjSev alaOavoiaro. 
TP. rod #' ehe^ fj/xas ravr eSpaaav ; elire /jloi. 210 

EP. otltj TroXefielv rjpeTaO', eKefocov woXXdias 


virepfiaXoiVTO ixiKpbv, eXeyov av tccSl* 


el 8* av ti wpdgaiT dyaObv Attlkcovlkol 215 

K&XBoiev ol AaKcove? eiptfvrjs irepi, 

eXeyeT av vfieh ei8vs' " egairaTob/jLeOa, 

vrj rr]v 'AOrjvav, vrj Ai\ ovyl ireicrTeov 

tj^oven KavOis, rjv e^cojxev tyjv HvXov." 
TP. 6 yovv yapaKTr)p fjfxeSaTrbs tcov prjfjidToov. 220 

EP. §>v ovveK ovk otS' ec ttot JLlprjvrjv en 

rb Xoinbv o\jreord\ TP. dXXa irol yap otyerai ; 
EP. 6 IToXe/^oy avTrjv eve/3 aX' eh dvTpov (3a6v. 
TP. eh ttoZov ; EP. eh tovtl to KaToo. Kaireiff opas 

oaovs dvcodev eTretyoprjcre tcov XlOgov, 225 

ha [ir] XdfirjTe fz^Siiror avTr\v. TP. elite pot, 

r)fia$ Se Srj ti Spdv irapaaKevd^eTai ; 

211. iicdvcdv] (That is, of course, rav 212. (nrovbas 7tolovvt(ov] In the second 

6eS)v. It is astonishing that any com- year of the war the combined pressure 

mentator, either in ancient or in modern of the invasion and the pestilence was 

times, should suppose it to mean the too much for the resolution of the 

Lacedaemonians. Hermes is explaining Athenian people, and they sent ambas- 

why the Gods are so vexed, not with sadors to Sparta to endeavour to obtain 

the Athenians in particular, but with a peace, but without success ; npos rov£ 

the Hellenes in general. The Gods were AaKedaifxoviovs cbpurjvTo £vyx<*>peiV) m\ 

often giving opportunities for Peace, but TTpeorfias nvag 7T€p,yj/avT€s as avrovsairpaKroi 

whichever side at the moment had got iyivovio.- — Thuc. ii. 59. Five years later 

the upper hand, whether the Athenian the tide of fortune had changed, and was 

or the Lacedaemonian, was sure to reject setting strongly in favour of Athens, and 

every overture. The subject to rjpelarBc it was then the turn of the Laconians to 

is vfieis ofEWrjves.y ask for peace, and of the Atticans to re- 



As high as they can go ; that they no more 

May see your fightings or receive your prayers. 
Tryg. Why have they treated us like that ? do tell me. 
Herm. Because, though They were oftentimes for Peace, 

You always would have War. If the Laconians 

Achieved some slight advantage, they would say, 

cc Noo by the Twa sail master Attic catch it ; " 

Or if the Attics had their turn of luck, 

And the Laconians came to treat for peace, 

At once ye cried, " We're being taken in, 

Athene ! Zeus ! we carit consent to this ; 

They're sure to come again if we keep Pylus" 
Tryg. Yes ; that's exactly how we talked : exactly. 
Herm. So that I know not if ye e'er again 

Will see the face of Peace. Tryg. Why, where's she gone to ? 
Herm. War has immured her in a deep deep pit. 
Tryg. Where ? Herm. Here, beneath our feet. And you may see 

The heavy stones he piled about its mouth, 

That none should take her out. Tryg. I wish you'd tell me 

How he proposes now to deal with us. 

fuse it. First, while the troops were 
blockaded indeed, but still uncaptured, 
in Sphacteria, the Lacedaemonians sent 
ambassadors, vo/jll£opt€s tovs 'Adrjvaiovs iv 
ro> TTplv XP^ v( t o~7ropbSiv P-^ v eTTidvfjLe'iv, o~<fcG)P 
de ivavrLovfiivcav, KaAvevdaC dibopeprjs de 
elprjvrjs doy-ieVws 8i£eor6ai re ical tovs avdpas 
aiTodoixreLV. Ol Se ras /xe*> (movdas, €X 0VT€S 
tovs avbpas iv rfj vtj(T(o, fjbrj o~(f)i(nv ivofxi^ov 
irolp-ovs elvai onorav (SovXcdvtcll 7roietcr#ai 
7Tpos avTovs, rov de 7rXiovos copeyoPTO (Thuc. 
iv. 21). And, after the troops were cap- 
tured, ol AaKedaifxopioL iirpeo-fievoPTo irapa 
rovs 'AdrjPaiovs, ko\ irreipcopro ttjp t€ TLvKop 

KCU TOVS avdpaS KOfJLi£<-O~0tW OL §€ fJL€l£6v<OV 
T€ COpeyOVTO, KCU 7r6\\aKlS cf>OLT00PTQ)V avrovs 

airpaKTOvs aTTeirepmov (Thuc. iv. 41). 

214. pal t<d criob] One or other of the 
Dioscuri accompanied in symbol the 
royal armies of Sparta (Hdt. v. 75, and 
Valckenaer's note), and the common 
oath of Sparta was "by the Two Gods," 
pal ro> orioo. See Lysistrata 81 ; Xen. 
Hellen. iv. 4, 10 ; and the commentary on 
Acharn. 905. 

220. fjpedanos] of our country. We 
had iTobairbsy of what country, supra 186. 



EP. ovk olSa nXrjv %v, otl 6vdav iairipas 
virepobva to piyeOos eicrrjviyKCLTo. 


EP. rpifieiv kv avrfj ras TroXeis (3ov\ev€Tai. 
dXX' eifir Kal yap igiti/ai, yv&pr\v eprji/, 
peXXei* Qopvfiti yovv evSov. TP. ot/xoi SecXaios. 
(pip avTov a7To8pG>' Kal yap oocnrep rjcrOoprji/ 
Kavros Ovdas (f>6eypa TroXepiaTriplas. 



HO. ICO PpOTOl fipOTol fipOTOl 7ro\VT\rjfJLOV€S, 

oo9 avTLKa pdXa ray yvdOovs aAy^crere. 
TP. <hva£ "AnoXXov, Tr\$ Oveias tov nXaTOV?. 

ocrov KaKov Kal tov TioXepov tov fiXe/xpaTOS. 

ap ovtos ear iKeivos 01/ Kal qbevyopev, 

6 deii/os, 6 TaXavpn/09, 6 Kara tow o-KeXoiv ; 


228. ovk olba irKrjv eV] This is a fa- 
vourite phrase of Euripides. He com- 
mences a verse with it, Hipp. 599 ; 
Suppl. 933 ; Ion 311 ; Electra 627, 752 ; 
Here. Fur. 1143. 

232. yvd>fir}v ifflv] {As it seems to me. 
Wasps 983 ; Eccl. 349.) 

234. a7robp<o\ (For he is no longer on 
his beetle. He probably dismounted so 
soon as he found himself on the upper 

236. IIOAEM02] War enters, bearing 
a gigantic mortar, in which he is about to 
make a salad, iivtt&tov, inf. 247, 273 (or 
as we might say, to make mincemeat), of 
the Hellenic cities. Now the full ingre- 
dients of a iivttcotos, as described by the 
Scholiast on Knights 771, are cheese, 
garlic, egg, oil, and leek (KaTacrKevd&Tai 
de curb Tvpov kcu o~Kop68ov Kai coou kcu eXaiov 

Kal 7rpdcrov), sweetened, no doubt, with an 
admixture of honey. Instead of leek 
(irpao-ov), War throws in the homonymous 
Laconian town of Prasiae ; for garlic he 
takes Megara, the great garlic-producing 
country; Sicily, the Stilton of anti- 
quity, is the natural substitute for 
cheese ; whilst Attica is represented by 
her own celebrated honey. 

237. rets yva&ovs dA/yijcrere] {rpifto- 
/xei/oi iv rfj Sveig, as the Scholiast says. 
But he adds a truly ridiculousalternative, 
r) rov ixvtt(ot6v io-diovres. For the mortals 
whom War is addressing were not to eat 
the salad ; they were to be the salad.) 

241. 6 deivos, 6 rdkavpivos] These 
words are intended to carry the mind 
back to the poet's description of Lama- 
chus in Acharn. 964, as 6 deivos, 6 rakav- 
pivos, bs ty]v Yopyova | 7ra\Xet, k.t.X. The 



Heum. I only know that yester eve he brought 
Into this house a most gigantic mortar. 

Tryg. What is he going to do with that, I wonder ! 

Herm. He means to put the cities in and pound them. 
But I shall go. He's making such a din 
I think he's coming out. Tryg. Shoo ! let me run 
Out of his way : methought that I myself 
Heard a great mortar's war-inspiring blast. 



O mortals ! mortals ! wondrous-woeful mortals ! 
How ye will suffer in your jaws directly ! 
O King Apollo, what a great big mortar ! 
Oh the mere look of War how bad it is ! 
Is this the actual War from whom we flee, 
The dread tough War, the War upon the legs ? 

succeeding words 6 Kara roiv crKekolv pre- 
sent some difficulty. Reiske says, 
" Scilicet tifxepos, qui ad affligenda, con- 
fringenda crura tendit." Brunck, ' ' Sup- 
plendum videtur earrcbs, (3ePr)KcD?, vel 
simile quid." And others refer it to the 
manner in which War was represented 
on the stage. But it is clear that the 
phrase must refer, not to the representa- 
tion, but to that which is represented, 
the dreadful War bv (pevyofiev. " Is this 
really and truly," says Trygaeus, "the 
terrible War Kara roiv oTceXoii/?" It is 
conceivable that as the other epithets are 
appropriated from Lamachus, this also 
may have some reference to him. But I 
rather believe it to be a parody of some 
existing description of War. In the 
famous stanza, in which Horace speaks 

of death in battle (Od. iii. 2. 13)— 

Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori ; 
Mors et fugacem persequitur virum, 
Nee parcit imbellis juventae 
Poplitibus timidove tergo, 

we know that the second line was bor- 
rowed from Simonides (Stobaeus Anth. 
118. 6) (6 d'av Qdvaros €Kix e k ^ l r bv (pvyofia- 
X ov )> and what more probable than that the 
succeeding lines also should be of Greek 
origin, and that Aristophanes should 
here be referring to the description from 
which they were taken? With the general 
turn of the expression, compare the 
inscription composed by Simonides for 
the statue of Pan (Fragm. 25, Gaisf.) 
top TpayoTrovv e/xe Ilava, rbv 'Ap/caSa, rbv 
Kara M^dcay, k.t.A. 



E[0. (irpdo-a ififidWodv.) LQ) UpaCLal TptcrddXtCCL KOU TT€VT&Kl$ 

koI TroWoSeKctKis, co? aTroXetaOe Tf\\L£pOV. 
TP. rovrl fjikvy dv8pe$j ovSev fjfiiv npayfjid ttco- 

to yap kokov tovt earl rrjs AaK(oi>iKrj$. 245 

nO. (crKopoba ipBdWav.) ft) WieyOLpCL Meyap', ft)? ZmT€Tpfyz<T6 aVTLKCt 

dira^diravTa KaTajji€/j.VTTcoT€VfjLiva. 
TP. )8a/3ai (3a(3cud£ 9 m fieydXa /cat Bpifxia 

roi<nv Meyaptvcw/ kvefiaXtv ra KXav/iara. 
ITO. {rvpbv ifx^dXkcav.) ia> Sz/ceAta, kolI (tv S' o>9 drroXXvcrai. 250 

TP. of rj ttoXis rdXaiva SLcuascucrOrjcreTai. 

242. IlpaaW] irpdaa ifx^dWaiV ravrd 
4>r}<nv. — Scholiast. This and the follow- 
ing notes to the like effect seem to have 
been stage-directions, irap^inypa^ai (see 
on 250 inf.), (and they are so treated in 
the present edition). Prasiae was a town 
"on Laconia's side," which was sacked 
by the Athenians in the second year of 
the war (Thuc. ii. 56) ; but it owes its 
introduction here to the similarity of its 
name with that of 7rpacra, " leeks." 

246. Meyapa] aKopoda ipfidWcov ravrd 
(firjoriv, 7] yap MeyapiKr) yrj crKopo8o(j)6po$. — 
Scholiast. Excluded for more than ten 
years from all markets throughout the 
Athenian empire, with the Athenian 
armies twice every year overrunning 
their territory, and c ' grubbing up by the 
very roots" their agricultural produce 
(see Ach. 750-63), with an Athenian 
garrison occupying their port of Msaea 
and threatening the city itself, the 
Megarians were in truth reduced to such 
utter misery and destitution, that it 
seemed more than likely that they would 
be actually "worn and torn to pieces " 
by a prolongation of the war. But here 

they are introduced to typify the garlic 
for which they had once been renowned 
throughout Hellas. See Acharn. loc. cit. 
and line 813 of the same Play, where the 
starving Megarian, asked to name his 
own price for his child, humbly craves 
a bunch of garlic, and irepmaOas, says tne 
Scholiast, 6 Meyapevs ravra f»7r«, a 
7TpOT€pov oi Meynpets aWois irapeixov. And 
see inf. 502. That garlic was one of the 
principal ingredients of a Greek salad 
we see also from Acharn. 174, where 
Dicaeopolis, plundered of his garlic by 
the Odomantians, cries out, o'ljjlol rdXas, 
pvrr<*>rbv oarov a7ro>Xe<ra. In the word 
KkavjjLara there is an allusion as well to 
the pungent properties of the plant as to 
the sorrows of Megara. 

250. Ico 2iKeX/a] ravra irdvra 7rapem- 
ypa(j)r). rvpbv yap ip.ftdWasv StKeXias 
fiefii/rjraL* iroXvsyap e/cetri/poff. — Scholiast. 
For the cheese which was the boast of 
Sicily, StKeXias av^iia rpo(£aXls,see Athe- 
naeus i, cap. 49 ; xiv, cap. 76. The in- 
dictment against the dog in the Wasps 
(838, 897) was that he had stolen a 
Sicilian cheese. The strains in which 



WAR. (Throwing in leeks.) 

O Prasiae ! O thrice wretched, five times wretched, 
And tens of times, how you'll be crushed to-day ! 
Tkyg. Friends, this as yet is no concern of ours, 
This is a blow for the Laconian side. 

WAR. (Throwing in garlic.) 

O Megara ! Megara ! in another moment, 
How you'll be worn, and torn, and ground to salad ! 
Tryg. Good gracious ! O what heavy, bitter tears 
He has thrown in to mix for Megara. 

WAR, (Throiving in cheese. ) 

O Sicily ! and you'll be ruined too. 
Tryg. Ah, how that hapless state will soon be grated ! 

Polyphemus, the enamoured Sicilian 
Cyclops, pours out his hopeless passion 
for Galatea, in the eleventh Idyl of Theo- 
critus, are full of allusions to his cheese. 
She is u fairer than cream cheese" 
(20) : Does she doubt his wealth ? She 
has only to look at the racks groaning 
under the weight of his cheeses all the 
year round (36) : " Will she not come 
and help him to make his cheese ?" (66). 
"Your whey-face," says Doris, spitefully, 
to the same Galatea in the first of Lucian's 
Sea-Dialogues, ' ' is all that your Cyclops 
lover can see to admire in you ; it reminds 
him of his own beloved cheese and curds." 
251. oV f) tt6\i$, K.r.X.] The MSS. 
give this line to War, but I had ventured 
to assign it to Trygaeus, even before I 
had observed that a similar suggestion 
had been made by Dobree, adopted 
by Bergk, and approved (though not 
adopted) by Dindorf and Holden. It 
is not to be supposed that Trygaeus 
would allow any ingredient to be 

poured in, without some comment 
of his own. No allusion is here in- 
tended, as Paulmier would have us 
believe, to the troubles of Leontini five 
years before (Thuc. iii. 86). The poet is 
speaking of the Future, not of the Past ; 
of the misfortunes which, unless averted 
by the return of Peace, would fall upon 
the Hellenic world. If there is any 
allusion to actual events, it would be to 
the troubles which, notwithstanding the 
general pacification of b. c. 424, were just 
recommencing in Sicily (Thuc. v. 4). But 
I believe that the poet is not referring 
to any historical fact at all ; he is merely 
selecting, from the area over which the 
war extended, such cities as most aptly 
represent the ingredients of his salad. 
That grated cheese was one of these 
ingredients we learn too from Knights 
771 KaTaKvrjcrdeLrjv iv /lu/ttgotg) fxera rvpov. 
(He is, however, possibly anticipating 
that Sicily will be drawn into the vortex 
of the War, as it was shortly afterwards. ) 



HO. <p€p em^ico kcu to fJiiXi tovtl tclttikov. 
TP. ovtos, irapaivco croi jiiXiTi ^prja Bare pep. 

T€Tpdo/3oXoV TOVT icrTV (j)€l8oV TCLTTIKOV. 

IIO. ttgu irai KvSoifxi. KT. ti fie KaXeTs; nO. kXclvo-ci /xaicpd. 255 

eaTrjKas dpyos ; ovtoci croi kovSvXos. 
KT. obs Sptfivs. ol\ioi jxoi ToiXas. S> SeornoTa, 

\i(hv t5>v arKopoS&v h'ifiaXes e/y tov kovSvXov ; 
nO. oi'o-eis aXzTpifiavov Tpiyav ; KT. dXX', <b fieXe, 

ovk ivTiv fifiiv ex^h elacpKccr/xeOa. 260 

nO. ovkovv irap 'Adrji/aicov fieTCtOpeget Ta\v ; 
KT. eycoye vr\ AC' el 8e /j,rj ye, KXavao/xai. 

252. rb f*4\i tclttikov] The honey of 
Attica was proverbial for its excellence. 
" Sweet as Attic honey " is the passion- 
ate encomium bestowed by the Scythian 
in Thesm. 1192, upon the maiden's kiss. 
Nor has it altogether lost its pre-emi- 
nence, even in modern days. The 
''murmuring of innumerable bees " is 
still heard amongst the fragrant thyme 
of "sweet Hymettus " ; and no honey 
is esteemed of so exquisite a flavour 
as that which is there produced. Sir 
George Wheler, who visited Attica 
about a.d. 1676, and who gives in the 
sixth book of his Travels a detailed 
account of the processes adopted by the 
Hymettian bee-keepers, describes their 
honey as of a good consistence, and of a 
fair gold colour. He says that "the 
same quantity sweetens more water than 
the like quantity of any other doth " ; 
and that it is in such request, and fetches 
so high a price in Constantinople, where 
it is used for the purpose of sweetening 

sherbet, that all the honey in the neigh- 
bourhood of Hymettus is brought to be 
stamped with the mark of a monastery 
there, that it may pass as the genuine 
Hymettian honey. See also the second 
letter of Mr. Bracebridge in the Ap- 
pendix to Wordsworth's Athens and 
Attica. The Scholiasts observe how 
tender the poet shows himself towards 
Athens. She is the sweetest of all the 
ingredients, and the demon of War has 
no threats for her. (I will add a few 
more tributes to the excellence of to 
jue'Xi tclttikov. Strabo (ix. 1. 23, p. 399) 
says 6 'Y/x^rro? fieXt apio-Tov 7roi€i. And 
a few lines later, tov ia£Xitos apio-Tov ovtos 
tcov ndvTav tov 'Attikov. Pliny (£T. H. 
xxi. 31, cf . Id. xi. 13) tells us that all the 
world gave the highest praise to the Attic 
honey ; and that as its special flavour 
was supposed to be derived from the 
thyme on which the bees were accus- 
tomed to browse, many have carried the 
Attic thyme into other lands, and sought 






And now I'll pour some Attic honey in. 
Hey, there, I warn you, use some other honey : 
Be sparing of the Attic ; that costs sixpence. 
Ho, boy ! boy ! Riot ! Riot. What's your will ? 

War. You'll catch it, 
You rascal, standing idle there ! take that ! 
Ugh how it stings. O me ! O me ! why, master, 
Sure you've not primed your knuckles with the garlic ? 

War. Run in and get a pestle. Riot. We've not got one ; 

We only moved in yesterday, you know. 
War. Then run at once and borrow one from Athens. 
Riot. I'll run by Zeus ; or else I'm sure to catch it. 

to rear it there, but without success. 
According to Plutarch (Dion. 58) it was 
commonly said that the very best and the 
very worst men came from Athens, just 
as her soil produced the most delicious 
honey and the deadliest hemlock. And 
Synesius, in his 136th epistle, complains 
that Athens, which aforetime was the 
home of philosophers, now relies for her 
celebrity on her honey-factors. ' ' And 
still its honeyed wealth Hymettus 
yields," Childe Harold ii. 87.) 

255. K\av(TeL fiaKpa] ("Plorabis largi- 
ter," Bergler. This is a favourite phrase 
with Aristophanes who uses it, or an 
equivalent, in every extant Comedy with 
the single exception of the Acharnians. 
fxaKpa is fiaKpov XP° V0V - It cannot bear 
the meaning which Van Leeuwen gives 
it, "clamores qui procul audiantur." 
Menander in his lie piKupoixhr) (line 250, 
ed. Capps) has olfim^iv fiaKpa kcu p,eyd\a, 
loud and long, Lucian couples it with 
Xalpeiv, "Apology for the De Mercede 


conductis" (5), "Pro lapsu inter salu- 
tandum " (2).) 

261. rrap' 'Atirjvaicov] Here again the 
Scholiast, perhaps rather fancifully, de- 
tects a possible compliment to the anti- 
quity of the Athenians, as if it was 
intended to contrast them with these 
new-comers, who "only moved in 
yesterday." The two pestles of War are, 
of course, Cleon and Brasidas ; of whom 
Thucydides (v. 16) also says that "they 
were the most determined opponents of 
Peace : Cleon, because in quiet times his 
malpractices would be more apparent, 
and his calumnies less easily believed : 
Brasidas, because he was then in the 
full tide of his glorious and successful 
career." They both fell in the battle 
which was fought under the walls of 
Amphipolis, in the summer preceding 
the performance of this Play. Cleon is 
also called a pestle— 8oldv£— in Knights 
984, cf. inf. 295. 



TP. aye 8rj t ri Spcopev, S> irovqp dvQp&rna j 

Spare rov kivSvvov fjfiiv oqs fxeyas* 

eiirep yap fi£ei rov dXerpifiavov (j>epcov, 265 

rovrco rapdget ray 7r6\ei$ Ka6rjfjLevo$. 

dXX', S> Atovva, diroXoiro Kal fxrj "XOol </>ep(ov. 
KT. euros. IIO. ri eartv ; ov cpepeis ; KT. rb Seiva yap, 

dnoXcoX' 'AOrjvaioto-iv dXerpifiavos, 

6 /3t//ocro7roSX*79, o$ eKVKa rfjv ? EXXa<$a. 270 

TP. ev y, S> irorvia Setnroiv 'ABrjvaia, ttoi&v 

dnoXcoX eKelvos Kav Seovri rfj noXei, 

?j rrpiv ye rov fxvrrcorbv r\\uv eyyeai* 
IIO. ovkovv erepov Srjr eK AaKeSai/xovos [Lerei 

dvvaas re ; KT. ravr\ a> 8i(nro6\ IIO. rJKe vvv rayy. 275 
TP. covSpes, ri Treia-o/jtecrda ; vvv dyobv /xeya?. 

dXX' ei r ri$ vfioov ev ^a/io6paKrf rvyydvei 

[lejxvriiievos, vvv earcv ev£acr6ai KaXbv 

263. novrjp' avdpa>Tna] This expression 
is used by Xenophon, Mem. ii. 3. 16. 

268. to 8e7va] This expression has 
proved a great stumbling-block to the 
commentators. Bergler's translation is 
illud enim periit pistillum, and with this 
Dindorf and Holden agree. Reiske takes 
it to mean to delvd eo~Ttv elirelv soil. oT/uot. 
Weise in a long note labours to prove 
that it always means Me quisquis, and 
is here to be joined with aXeTplfiavos : 
whilst Richter supplies iyevero, — ov (fiepco, 
to delpa yap iyevtTo. I entirely agree with 
Brunck (at Lysist. 921) that it is a mere 
ejaculation, not grammatically con- 
nected with the rest of the sentence, 
though even Brunck, as I think, to some 
extent misapprehends the nature and 
purport of the ejaculation. It is,' in my 

judgement, used here and inf. 879 ; 
Birds 648 ; Lysist. 921, 926, 1168 ; as 
a sort of apologetic and deprecatory intro- 
duction to a disagreeable narrative ; a sort 
of pretended forgetfulness or hesitation 
(like our " What was I going to say?" 
" What do you think? " " Would you 
believe it?") introduced for the purpose of 
postponing or breaking the abruptness of a 
statement which the speaker is reluctant 
to make. It is thus closely connected with 
the common use of 6 {j to beiva to signify 
a person or object whose name you do 
not know or will not mention (Thesm. 
620-5 ; Ach. 1149). And this I take to 
be the interpretation of the Scholiast, 
8ia tovtov to pr]6rjO'6jjL€VOV arjbes eK(j)evyei 
evdeoos \eyew* ore yap tl Si^epes fJ.eXXop.ev 
Xeyew, eloo8ap.ev tovto rrpoTaao'eLP cos p.r) 



Thyg. What's to be done, my poor dear mortals, now ? 

Just see how terrible our danger is : 

For if that varlet bring a pestle back, 

War will sit down and pulverize our cities. 

Heavens ! may he perish, and not bring one back. 
Riot. You there ! War. What ! Don't you bring it ? 

Riot. Just look here, sir : 

The pestle the Athenians had is lost, 

The tanner fellow that disturbed all Hellas. 
Teyg. O well done he, Athene, mighty mistress ; 

Well is he lost, and for the state's advantage, 

Before they've mixed us up this bitter salad. 
War. Then run away and fetch from Lacedaemon 

Another pestle. Riot. Yes, sir. War. Don't be long. 
Tryg. Now is the crisis of our fate, my friends. 

And if there's here a man initiate 

In Samothrace, 'tis now the hour to pray 

ev6vpr)ixovovvTes. Thus in Lys. 921, 926 — 
tcairoi, to Seiva, ipiaOos Igt kgoiarea. 
But, Zeus ha? mercy, I forgot the matting. 
tcairoi, rd Seiva, irpocrfC€<pa\aiov ovk '£x £is > 

But here's a job, you haven 1 1 got apilloio. 

And in Birds 648 arap, to belva, bevp 
inavaicpovo-ai ttoXlv. But (what was I 
going to say ?) please hark back here an 
instant. (See Wasps 524, the commen- 
tary on Lys. 921, and the introduction to 
the Plutus, p. xxv. I have altered the 
distribution of the speeches in this line 
which generally runs 110. ovros. KY. tl 
%otiv ; ITO. ov 4>€peis ; It seems to me that 
when Riot returns, War could not begin 
with ovros, nor could Riot reply with 
tl %<rTiv ; As I have arranged the line it 
exactly corresponds with the second 

entrance of Riot infra 280, 281. Riot 
begins, and War answers here rl eo-nv ; 
ov cj)ep€is ; just as he answers there W 
ecrrt ; p<ov ovk av (f>ep€i$ ;) 

276. ayav peyas] The MSS. and edi- 
tions read vvv dycov peyas. I have added 
the aspirate because I think that the 
meaning is not ' ' now is a great contest " 
but now comes the Tug of War. Thus in 
Wasps 533 Spas yap cos o~o\ peyas iariv 
aycov, Plato, Republic, x. 608 B peyas 
6 aya>v } p.eyas, ovx ocros ftoKel : and Thuc. 
ii. 45 6p6o peyav tov aycova. 

277. SapoOpaKy] This was the head- 
quarters of the secret rites and mysterious 
worship of the Cabiri. Bentley refers to 
the Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, i. 
918, who tells us that of those there in- 


aTro(TTpa(f)fjvcu tov [x^tlovtos too node. 
KT. OLfjtoc T&Xas, ocfiot ye, koct ocfxoc paXa. 280 

nO. tl icm ; ji&v ovk av (f)€pas ; KT. a7r6AcoAe yap 

kccl to?9 AaKeScufxoi/coLcrcv aXeTplfiavos. 
IIO. 7rcoy, co iravovpy ; KT. €9 tolttI QpaKrjs xcopia 

Xprj<rai/T€$ erepois avrbv ur airddXeo-av. 
TP. ev y, ev ye 7roirj(ravT€S ■, co Aioavcopco. 285 

fa-cos ay ez; yevoiTO' OappeiT, co (3pOTot. 
nO. airocfrepe ra aKevrj Xaficbv ravri iraXiv* 

eycb Se SoiSvk elo-Loov 7roirjaofjLai. 
TP. j>£j> rotV e/ce?^ rjKet, to AdnSos piXo?, 

o 8e(po/A€i/6s iroT fjSe ttjs /xecrrj/jL^pca?, 290 

"a>y 7]Sop,at Kal yaipo\iai Kev(ppaivop,ai." 

vvv kcTiv tj/jlTj/, 3>i/8pe$ "EAAT^es 1 , KaXbv 

anaXXayeiaL irpayixaTcov re Kal pLayfiv 

kgeXwaai rrjv iraviv 1Lipf\vr)v $iXr)v, 

irplv 'irepov av SoiSvKa KcoXvaai rtva. 295 

itiated it is said that, whatsoever they ask Thuc. i. 59; iv. 78, 82; v. 2, 21, &c.) : 

in prayer, they will surely obtain. and his expedition was commonly spoken 

279. airocFTpafyrivai] Opinions differ of as r) irrl QpaKrjs crrparaa (see Thuc. 

as to whether we are to render this "to iv. 70, 74, &c). 

be turned aside," or (in the sense of 285. Aioa-Kopoo] As, when Trygaeus 

dta(rTpa(j)rjvai) " to be dislocated." But, heard that the Athenian pestle was lost, 

in my judgement, the words tov fienovros he gratefully invoked the patron Goddess 

to) node are inserted irapa 7rpoo-doKtav, and of Athens (sup. 271), so now, on hearing 

a.7rocrTpa(j)rivaL means "to be averted." of the loss of the Spartan pestle, he in- 

Pray the Gods to avert—not the approach- vokes the patron Gods of Sparta ; see 

ing calamities, but — the messenger's two sup. 214, 218. 
feet. 289. tovt iiceiv'] (This is a common 

288. is Tarn epaKrjs x^P" 1 ] ^he re- form for introducing a quotation or 

gions to which the movements of Brasidas proverbial saying. Cf . Eccl. 78 and the 

extended, though not within the limits note there. So Lucian, tovto iKelvo "es- 

to which the name of Thrace was ulti- ireMov top mirov" Piscator (9). tovt 

mately confined, were at this period iKeivo "e/c to>v Alos 8ekTa>v 6 fxdpTvs," De 

uniformly described as to. eVi QpaKrjs (see Mercede conductis (12).) 


For the averting of — the variety feet. 
Riot. Alas ! alas ! and yet again, alas ! 
War. What ails you ? don't you bring one now ? Riot. Oh Sir, 

The Spartans too have lost their pestle now. 
Wak. H ow so, you rascal ? Riot. Why, they lent it out 

To friends up Thraceward, and they lost it there. 
Tetg. And well done they ! well done ! Twin sons of Zeus ! 

Take courage, mortals : all may yet be well. 
War. Pick up the things, and carry them away ; 

I'll go within and make myself a pestle. 
Tryg. Now may I sing the ode that Datis made, 

The ode he sang in ecstasy at noon, 

"M, sirs, Fm pleased, and joyed, and comforted" 

Now, men of Hellas, now the hour has come 

To throw away our troubles and our wars, 

And, ere another pestle rise to stop us, 

To pull out Peace, the joy of all mankind. 

291. x^P ^ 1 ] According to the yovpivr^v apicrrov chat dprjvrjv (Thuc. iv. 

Scholiasts the Datis here spoken of was 62). 

the Persian commander immortalized by 295. erepov] "Alcibiadem haud dubio 
his defeat at Marathon, who prided him- intelligit," says Paulmier. The mistake 
self on his accurate knowledge of Greek, was a natural one for Paulmier, who sup- 
but with so little reason, that, from his posed the Play to have been written 
ludicrous blunders, a barbarism acquired three years later than was really the case ; 
the name of a dano-pos. In the present but it is strange to find it repeated by 
instance he seems to have thought it safe editors who are aware that the true date 
to make all the verbs end in a like ter- of the Play is b. c. 421. For at that 
mination, and therefore said xaipo/zai for time Alcibiades was so far from being 
Xaipco. "a pestle of war," that "he was advo- 

294. r\]v naa-ip Elprjvrjv (fyiXrjv] Strong eating both the peace and the alliance 

words, yet scarcely too strong to describe with Sparta, and the restoration of the 

the sentiment then pervading the whole prisoners." See Grote's History of 

Hellenic world. The Sicilian Greeks Greece, chap, lv. And in fact there is 

had already followed the advice of Her- no allusion here to any individual what- 

mocrates, and made rrjv virb wdprcov 6po\o- ever ; there is no other pestle : War is 

40 - EIPHNH 

dXX\ 3) yeoopyol Kafnropoi Kal removes 


Kal vrjamrai, Sevp' it , S> iravres Xeco, 
coy rayiGT* afias Xafiovres Kal fioyXovs Kal ayoivia- 
vvv yap tj/jllv apTT&crcu 7rdpecmv dyaOov Saifiovos. 300 

XO. Sevpo iras x&pei 7Tpo6vfxcos ev6v rfjs <T(£>Tr}pia$. 

S> UaveXXrjves, ^orjOrjo-co/iev, eirrep TrGonoTe, 

Tagecov diraXXayevTes Kal kolk5>v (poiviKiK&v 

fjfxepa yap egeXa/iyfrev ijSe jxiaoXdiiayos. 

irpbs raft rj[uv, et tl ^prj Spav, (ppdge Kap^ireKTOvei, 305 

ov yap eaff onm dirwnziv dv Sokco /iol Trffxepov, 

irpiv /jlo)(Xol9 Kal firj^avaTcnv eh rb cpcos dveXKvaai 

rrjv decov iracrodv fzeyio-Trjv Kal (piXajiTTeXoDTdT-qv. 
TP. ov o'La>7rrjor€a6\ ott(£>$ fir] Trepiyapets rcw irpdyfiaTi 

top UoXejxov €Kgco7rvprjcr€T evSoOev KeKpayore? ; 3 10 

XO. dXX aKovaavres tolovtov ^aipo/JLev Ktjpvy/jiaTos. 

ov yap rjv " tyovras fjKtiv vitV rj/xepcov rpicov" 
TP. tvXafieicrOe vvv zkcivov rbv KarcoOev Kepfiepov, 

gone in to make one (supra 288) ; and of the Chorus, nor are they (as some sup- 
Trygaeus is anxious to recover Peace, pose) supernumeraries ; they are purely 
before any other pestle comes into imaginary personages. The twenty-four 
existence. farmers, as they hasten into the orchestra 
296-8. ytapyol . . . iravTts Aew] (Wide at the summons of Trygaeus, are singing 
as is the invitation, the Chorus is really their Parodos or entrance-song, and call- 
composed simply of twenty-four Attic ing upon the other members of the 
(the list of Dramatis Personae in the Panhellenic family to aid them in the 
Venetian MS. says Athmonian) farmers. work.) 

They so describe themselves infra 508, 300. dyaOov 8ai[iovos] This expression 

589, and elsewhere, and are so described refers, as the Scholiast observes, to the 

by others 511, 550, 551, 603, and else- libation poured, after supper, in the 

where. The Boeotians, Argives, Laco- name dyaSov daifjcovos. It was made 

nians, Megarians, and others, who are when the guests had washed their hands, 

presently called upon to assist in draw- irrrju d7Toviyj/covTaL (Athenaeus xi. 73), and 

ing up Peace from the pit, form no part the tables were about to be removed, 


O all ye farmers, merchants, artisans, 

O all ye craftsmen, aliens, sojourners, 

O all ye islanders, O all ye peoples, 
Come with ropes, and spades, and crowbars, come in eager hurrying haste, 
Now the cup of happy fortune, brothers, it is ours to taste. 

Choiius. Come then, heart and soul, my comrades, haste to win this great salvation, 
Now or never, now if ever, come, the whole Hellenic nation ! 
Throw away your ranks and squadrons, throw your scarlet plagues away, 
Lo, at length the day is dawning, Lamachus-detesting day ! 
O be thou our guide and leader, managing, presiding o'er us, 
For I think I shan't give over in this noble task before us, 
Till with levers, cranes, and pulleys once again to light we haul 
Peace, the Goddess best and greatest, vineyard-lovingest of all. 

Tryg. O be quiet ! O be quiet ! by your noisy loud delight 

You will waken War, the demon, who is crouching out of sight. 

Choe. O we joy, we joy, we joy, to hear your glorious proclamations, 
So unlike that odious Wanted at the camp with three days' rations. 

Tryg. Yet beware, beware, remember ! Cerberus is down below : 

o7rore fxeWoi rj Tpimt^a alpeadai (Schol. at diers and sailors, ordered on an imme- 

Knights 85 ; Wasps 525), and was a diate expedition without baggage, were 

libation of pure wine, oVparoz/, unmingled expected to carry with them three days' 

with water. See the passages of Aristo- rations. Thus Thucyd. i. 48 eWiS?) 8e 

phanes mentioned above, and SchWeig- TrapeaKevaaTo rois Kopiv$iois, "kaftovres 

haeuser's notes on Athenaeus xv. 17. rpi&v fipeptov oriria avriyovro cos irrl vavfia- 

302. TJave\Xi]v es] pna tt poo-myopia av- x iav * Aristophanes alludes to this regu- 

tovs 7T€pi4\a^€, drjXcov to (Tvyysves, Kai lation, Acharn. 197 ; Wasps 243. 
dvo~G>7r£>v avrovs a>£ ovde rfj 6uopao~ia diaKe- 313. Kepftepov] rbv KXecova. — Scho- 

Kpip,€voi 7ro\€fiodcn npos eavrovs. — Scho- liast. i i Belli personam ita describit, ut 

liast. Cf. Plato, Republic, v. 470 C. alias Cleonem." — Bergler. (But though 

kqkwv (poipiKiKotv the Scholiast refers War is not entirely left out of sight, for 

either to the red horrors of bloodshed it is to him that the description e/cSpa/Aaw 

or to the scarlet coats of the soldiers, as k.t.X. in line 319 must undoubtedly be- 

inf. 1173. long, yet in my opinion the reference 

312. e'xovTas ctitl fjpepwv rpicdv\ Sol- here is primarily to Cleon himself, and 


fxrj 7ra(p\dfai/ Kal KtKpayebs, &o"irep tjvlk kv&dS rjv, 

e/jaroScbi/ fjfxTv yevrjTaL ttjv Oebv firj 'geXKvaai. 315 

XO. ovtl Kal vvv eaTLv avTrjv 00-TL9 egaiprjo-erai, 

rjv aira£ e? x € ?P a $ ^V T ^ kjj.ds. iov iov. 
TP. kgoXeiTe /jl\ 3>v8pes, ei fxrj rfjs fiorjs dvrjoreTe* 

eKSpafxcbv yap rravra Tavrl vvvTapdgei tolv 7to8olv. 
XO. m KVKarco Kal 7rarecT(o rravra Kal Taparrerco, 320 

ov yap av yatpovTes fj/xeTs rrj/xepov navo-ai^eO' av. 
TP. tl to KaKov ; tl irdcryer, 3>v8pe? ; /irjSa/xoo?, 7rpb$ toov 6ea>v, 

TTpayjia KaXXicrTov Siac^deLprjTe Sea ra vyr\p.aTa. 
XO. dXX* eycoy ov cryruiangeiv fiovXop! , dXX' vcjj rjSovrjs 

ovk k/xov klvovvtos avTcb too orKeXrj yopeveTov. 325 

TP. fxrj tl Kal vvvi y er , dXXa nave irav opypvfievos. 
XO. rjv lSov 9 Kal Srj ireiraviiau TP. (f>rj$ ye, Travel 5' ovSeiroo. 
XO. %v [lev ovv tovtl \i eaaov iXKvaai, Kal fzrjKeri. 
TP. tovto vvv, Kal firjKer dXXo p.r]8ev opyfiaecO' en. 
XO. ovk av 6p\r]a-aLiie6\ eirrep dxpeXrja-aijjLev tl ere. 330 

TP. dXX' bpaT, oxjttco ireiravcrOe. XO. Tovroyl vr) tov Ala 

to ovceAoy piyjravTes rjSrj Xrjyo/jiev to Se^Lov. 
TP. emSiSod/jLL tovto y v/jlTv, coare [xr) Xvirelv e.TL. 
XO. dXXa Kal TapicrTepov tol /jlovctt dvayKalcos eyov. 

only incidentally to War. For Cleon irep, as if speaking on earth." 

was Karon (infra 649) ; whereas War was The actor ignores the special spot on 

evbodev (supra 310) and not KarcoOev. And which the character he represents is 

although the words t\vik ivddb'' rjv, if they supposed at the moment to be standing, 

mean the upper stage whereon Trygaeus and merely thinks of Athens, or the 

is standing (the view which I took in upper world, as the place in which he 

the former edition), could only apply to himself and the audience are visibly 

War, yet I am now satisfied that the existing. In the Knights the poet had 

Scholiast is right in treating them as dubbed Cleon Kvva Kep/3epoz/ avbpairobi- 

merely equivalent to ore ef^, cf. infra 652. arrjv, and described him as 7ra<p\d{ovTa 

Mr. Graves aptly refers to Frogs 783 (919, 1030) ; and indeed from the latter 

" where, although the scene is in Hades, characteristic had given him the name 

Aeacus says okiyov to xpW T ° v eariv, &cr- IIa$\aya>j>, which he bears throughout 


He may come with fuss and fury (as when he was here you know), 

Every obstacle and hindrance in the way of Peace to throw. 
Chor. Who shall bear her, who shall tear her, from these loving- arms away, 

If I once can clasp and grasp her ? O hurrah ! hurrah ! hurrah ! 
Tryg. Zounds ! you'll surely be our ruin : stop your clamour, I entreat : 

War will by and bye come trampling everything beneath his feet. 
Chor. Let him stamp, and tramp, and trample, let him do whate'er he will, 

I am so immensely happy that I really can't be still. 
Tryg. What the mischief ! what's the matter ? do not, by the Gods, I pray, 

With your dancings and your prancings spoil our noble work to-day. 
Chor. Really now I didn't mean to : no I didn't, I declare : 

Quite without my will my ankles will perform this joyous air. 
Tryg. Well, but don't go on at present ; cease your dancing or you'll rue it. 
Chor. Look, observe, I've really ceased it. Tryg. So you say, but still you do it. 
Chor. Only once, I do beseech you ; only just a single hop. 
Tryg. Well then, one : make haste about it ; only one, and then you stop. 
Chor. Stop ? of course we stop with pleasure if 'twill your designs assist. 
Tryg. Well, but look : you're still proceeding. Chor. Just, by Zeus, one other twist 

Let me fling my right leg upwards, and I'll really then refrain. 
Tryg. This indulgence too I'll grant you, so you don't offend again. 
Chor. Hah ! but here's my left leg also : it must have its turn, 'tis plain. 

(Dancing vigorously with both legs.) 

the Play.) words and those in the Cyclops of Euri- 
316. kcu vvv] {even now, few as we are pides, line 221, where the Satyrs re- 
till the other Hellenes come to our aid ; quest the Cyclops not to swallow them ; 
and unarmed as we are, save with the and he replies i i I certainly won't 
implements of husbandry.) As to e£ai- »,,*,/ 
pna-crai Bergler refers to iLurip. Heracl. _„ , . , * « % ~ , „\ 
976 tovtov o enenrep x^ l P as fi^Qtv eis epas, 

ovKean 6vr]TG>v oo-Tis igaiprjo-eraLy&iid Ale. 327. fjv I806] (lo andbehold. See Frogs 

848 ovk €gttlv octtls avrbv egaiprjo-erai. 1390 and the note there. And compare 

Add Medea 793 ovns eartv oo-tls i^aiprj- the similar double interjection l8ov 6ea- 

crerai. aat Ach. 366, Knights 997.) 

323. dia(f)deLpr]T€ dta ra crx^ara] (There 334. povar avayKaicos ex OI/ ] pvirreiv is 

is an amusing similarity between these understood from ptyavres two lines above. 

44 E I P H N H 

rjSofJLcu yap Kal yeyrjda Kal ireiropSa Kal yeXco 335 

fiaXkov fj to yrjpas €k8v$ eK<f>vycbv rr\v d<rrri8a. 
TP. p,rj tl Kal vvvi ye yaiper- ov yap tcrre 7rco a-acpoos* 
d\\ y orav XafioDfJiei/ avTrjv, Tr\viKavTa yaipere 

Kal (Boare Kal yeXar* rj- 

Srj yap egearai roff vplv 340 

nXeTy, jxeveiv, Kiveiv, KaBevSeiv, 

e$ iravqyvpeis OecopeTi', 

£<rTiaa6ai, KOTTafiigeiv, 


lov iov K€Kpayei/ac. 345 

XO. el yap eKyevoir iSelv ravrrji/ fie rrjv rjfiepav, 
noXXa yap dvecryj)fir}v 
irpdyfiard re Kal amftdSa?, 
ay eXa%e Qopfiicov 
KovKer av fl evpoLS SiKao-Trjv Spijxvv ovSe Svo-koXov, 

336. to yrjpas ckSvs] fj fjceracfropa curb are mostly altogether apocryphal. Athe- 
t&v o(j)€cov.~ Scholiast. Aristophanes af- naeus (xii. 15) says that in order to 
terwards worked this idea up into a play secure undisturbed slumbers, they not 
called the rr,pas, in which he introduced only banished all noisy trades, but would 
a number of old men who had cast the not even allow a single cock to be kept in 
slough of old age, and become boys (and the city. One of them took a stroll be- 
very boisterous unruly boys too) once yond the gates, and happened to see 
more ; see Athenaeus iii. 74, p. 109 F. (In some labourers digging. ' i It was enough 
Lucian's Navigium seu Yota 44 the wish to make me break a blood-vessel/' he 
of Timolaus is that he may live a thou- declared. ' ' Why even to hear you tell 
sand years, renewing his youth, drrodvo- of it," rejoined his friend, "has given 
fxevos to yr/pasj every seventeenth year.) me a stitch in the side ! ' 5 Another 

344. o-vftapiCeip] Sybaris had un- visited Lacedaemon, and no longer 
doubtedly attained extraordinary wealth wondered at the valour of the Spartans ; 
and magnificence before its annihilation " for, of course," said he, "they would 
in B.C. 510 by the armies of Croton ; sooner die than live such lives as theirs." 
but the anecdotes told of the fastidious Whatever may have been the sumptuous- 
luxury and extravagant refinement of ness of this opulent town in its palmiest 
its citizens are of much later date, and days, such tales as these are quite incom- 



I'm so happy, glad, delighted, getting rid of arms at last, 
More than if, my youth renewing, I the slough of Age had cast. 
Teyg. Well, but don't exult at present, for we're all uncertain still, 

But, when once we come to hold her, then be merry if you will ; 

Then will be the time for laughing, 

Shouting out in jovial glee, 

Sailing, sleeping, feasting, quaffing, 

All the public sights to see. 

Then the Cottabus be playing, 

Then be hip-hip-hip-hurrahing, 

Pass the day and pass the night 

Like a regular Sybarite. 

Chok. Oh that it were yet my fortune those delightful days to see ! 
Woes enough I've had to bear, 
Sorry pallets, trouble, care, 
Such as fell to Phormio's share, 
I would never more thereafter so morose and bitter be, 

he says to the rich, " and the poor must 
too often go els o-Tifidda x^prov, such as 
that whereon your watch-dog lies.** 
Horn, xi in 1 Cor. (94 E). Such would 
be the common soldier's bed, and Phor- 
mio would doubtless share the hardships 
of his troops. ' ' A soldier, ' ' says Plutarch, 
" loves to see his general eating the 
same hard fare as himself, and lying eVt 
aTifiddos," Marius, chap. 7.) 

349. Qopfiicov] This is the illustrious 
naval officer, so distinguished before, and 
in the early years of, the Peloponnesian 
war. The admiration felt by the Athe- 
nians for his brilliant exploits is illus- 
trated by the invocation in Knights 
562, of Poseidon, as Soiwtapare, &opfj.i(opl 
re cj)l\TaT€. 

patible with its unquestionable power 
and splendour. It is not even certain 
that words like av$api(eiv were originally 
connected with the name of Sybaris at 
all, though such was the idea in later 
times ; and it is quite possible that the 
Sybarite reputation may have been to 
some extent the victim of an erroneous 

346. el yap eKyevoir k.t.X.] <^For the 
metrical scheme of this and the two cor- 
responding systems, infra 385 and 582, 
the reader is referred to the Appendix.) 

348. (TTiftdbas] ((m(3as was a pallet, 
stuffed with rushes, straw, hay or the 
like, Plutus 541. crTifidba 7roia>*/, dnb 
Xdprov ttolu, St. Chrysostom, Horn, lxvi 
in Matth. (655 D). And in another 
place, ' ' Ye go to your luxurious couches, " 

46 E I P H N H 

ovSe tov$ rpowovs ye Srjirov <rKXrjpbi>, &cnrep Kal irpb tov. 350 

dXX awaXov av fi lSols 
kcu ttoXv ve&repov, 
diraXXayevra TrpayjiaToov. 
teal yap lkolvov yjpovov d- 

TroWvfieOa Kal /carare- 355 

Tpi/jL/xeOa 7r\ai/dbfi€V0L 

€5 AvKeiOV KOLK AvK€LOV CTVV 86p€L CTVV d(T7TlSl. 

dXX' o ti fid\i<rTa X a P L ~ 

ovpceda ttolovvtzs, dye 

(ppdge* ere yap avroKparop 

eiXer dyaOrj to tj/jllu Tvyr}, 360 

TP. (pipe Srj KaTiSco, not tovs XiOovs dc/yeXgo/xei/. 

EP. & fMiape Kal ToX/j,r)pe, ri iroieiv Siavoei; 

TP. ovSep 7rovr}pbi/ } dXX' oirep Kal K.lXXlkcov. 

EP. diroXcdXas, S> KaKoSaifiov. TP. ovkovv, r\v Xayxa. 

f Epfifj$ yap a>v KXrfpco iroiricreis oiS on. 365 

EP. aTToXooXas, egoXcoXas. TP. €? riv rjpiepav ; 
EP. e$ avTLKa /xdX\ TP. dXX 3 ovSev rj/jnroXrjKa ttco, 

out dX(f>iT oiire rvpbv, a>? dnoXoviievos. 
EP. Kal [xr]v eTTirerpi^ai ye. TP. Kara rep rpoirco 

350. Trpb roil] What manner of men orrep ovrcos 6X €t > iiV Apr)s 6 A^trn)? avv dopa 

the Athenian dicasts were npb rod, it was avv aambi." — Scholiast. Cf. Wasps 1081. ) 
the object of the Wasps to show. Ari- 363. KtXAtK&i/] According to the 

stophanes seems to have considered dpi- Scholiasts, Cillicon was a traitor who 

fxvrrjs to be the special characteristic of delivered up his native country to its 

the race. enemies. (Some say Syrus to the Sa- 

357. Avkclov] The Lyceum, which mians ; others Miletus to the Prienians, 

was outside the city- walls, was used, it and others otherwise.) His suspicious 

appears, as a parade-ground. (Jv tovtco movements had previously attracted ob- 

ras o-rpaTicoTLKas ef eracras enoiovvTo, Pho- servation ; but whenever interrogated as 

tius, Hesychius, s. v. AvKeiov. to be avv to his intentions, his reply was rravra 

dopei avv aanibi 'A^atov ianv etc Mapov. dyaSa, all right. And Trygaeus means 

ovbev Be x*~ l P°v 6\oK.\r)pov Oeivai to la^elov that he is doing no harm, but rravra ayada, 



Nor a judge so stubborn-hearted, unrelenting, and severe ; 

You shall find me yielding then, 

Quite a tender youth again, 

When these weary times depart. 

Long enough weVe undergone 

Toils and sorrows many a one, 

"Worn and spent and sick at heart, 
From Lyceum, to Lyceum, trudging on with shield and spear. 

Now then tell us what you would 

Have us do, and we'll obey, 

Since by fortune fair and good 

You're our sovereign Lord to-day. 

Come let me see which way to move the stones. 

Rogue ! miscreant ! what are you up to now ? Tryg. No harm ; 

Everything's right, as Cillicon observed. 
Herm. Wretch ! you shall die ! Tryg. When it's my lot, of course, 

For being Hermes you'll use lots, I know. 

O you are doomed ! doomed ! doomed ! Tryg. Yes ? for what day ? 

This very instant. Tryg. But I'm not prepared : 

I've bought no bread and cheese, as if to die. 
Herm. Ah, well, you're absolutely gone ! Tryg. That's odd 



like Cillicon. 

364. rjv Xdxco] "It was," says the 
Scholiast, "the general custom at Athens 
to execute only one criminal a day ; and 
when several were condemned to death, 
the order in which they were led out to 
execution was determined by lot . " And 
I think that Trygaeus simply means that 
Hermes being the God of Chance, under 
whose special patronage lots and lotteries 
are, will of course follow the Athenian 
custom, and decide the matter by lot. 
He is merely bantering Hermes with a 

series of ridiculous repartees. Brunck 
would read old 9 o, rt, but ol& on is placed 
at the end of the sentence here, as in 
Wasps 1348, Soph. Antig. 276, and in- 
numerable other places, in the sense of 
"Well I know." And cf. infra 373. 

368. our oKcjht] This is explained to 
mean, ' ' I have bought no rations, as if 
I was going to be killed "; " quasi unus 
tantum modus," says Bergler, " sitpere- 
undi, aut certissimus in bellum ire." 

369. eVtrerpt\^at] This word is used, 
as supra 246 and constantly in Arist.o- 



ovk 7J(r66fxr]v dyadbv rocrovrovl Xa(3a>v ; 
EP. dp' otaOa Odvarov on Trpoetcf) 6 Zev$ os dv 

ravrrjv dvopvTTOov evpeOfj ; TP. vvv dpd p,e 

drracr dvdyKt)" gt diroOaveTv ; EP. ei) tcrff on. 
TP. e$ xoipiSioi/ jAOi vvv Sdvecorov rpets Spa\}id$' 

Set yap jJLVTjdrjvat p.e rrplv TeOvrjKevai. 
EP. S> Zed Kepavvo(3p6vra. TP. firj 777)0? toov 6 toov 

fjfiGdV KctTetTrrjs, dvTL(3oXoo ere, BeoriroTa. 
EP. ovk dv orLcoTrrjo-aifjiL TP. val, npbs toov Kpeoov 

dyob npoOvfjicos O'Oi (fiepoov dcpiKo/xrjv. 
EP. a A A', S> p.eX\ V7rb rod Albs d/iaXSwOrjorofMcu, 

el fir] T€T0pr]O(0 TCLVTCt kolI XctKrjo-ofjLat. 
TP. firj vvv XaKrjafls, Xtccrofxai a , oopfitSiov. 

elire fjtot, ri irdcryer ', oovSpes ; eorrar eKTrenXriyiievoi. 
§> Trovrjpoi, firj aiconar* el Se fxrj, XaKrjo-eTca. 




phanes, in the sense of being utterly de- 
stroyed ; and the answer of Trygaeus, 
according to Bergler, turns upon the 
idea expressed in Acharnians 757, that 
so he would be out of his misery. But 
probably he is only chaffing Hermes, as 

375. pvTjOrjvai] The Scholiast refers 
to the sketch, given in the Frogs, of the 
happy state to which those, who have 
been initiated and have lived a holy life, 
oaoi fiejjLvfjfAeB' evcrefirj re difffOfiev iponov 
(Frogs 456), will after death be trans- 
lated. They dwell in realms of fairest 
sunshine and exhilarating brightness, 
(j)S)S koXKhttov (155), jjiovois yap rjfiiv rjXtos 
kol <j)iyyos IXapov iariv (454), amidst 
myrtle groves (156) and banks of roses 
(448), while around them circle the dance 
and song and the softly-breathing melo- 
dy of the flute (154), and all pure and 

holy festivities proceed for ever in the 
happy companies of the Blessed, Oiavovs 
tvSaLfjLovas (156). And I may add (to 
illustrate the mention by Trygaeus of the 
Xoipidtovy whose sacrifice was an essential 
part of the ceremony of initiation), that 
Xanthias no sooner sees those holy and 
happy bands in the world below, than 
he calls out, vulgarly, a>? fjdv jjloi Trpoar- 
€7rvev<re ^oipeiW Kpecov (Frogs 338). 

376. co Zed] Hermes, indignant at 
this last sally, calls aloud to his Master. 
Trygaeus endeavours to pacify him, yet 
even now cannot resist a joke, for there 
is an obvious play on the similarity of 
sound between rrpos tcop 6eS>v and npos 
TG>v Kpecov. In reply, Hermes (like Iris 
in the Birds) assumes a tragic style, 
rpayiKals Xei-e&iv e^pTJcraro, tg> T€TopTj(rco 
kol \aKr)croiJLai. — Scholiast. 

382. fopjAidiov] (The quantity of the 



To get such famous luck and yet not know it. 
Herm. Then don't you know that death's denounced by Zeus 

On all found digging here ? Tryg. And is it so ? 

And must I die indeed ? Herm. You must indeed. 
Tryg. O then, I prithee, lend me half a crown. 

I'll buy a pig, and get initiate first. 
Herm. Ho ! Zeus ! Zeus ! thunder-crasher ! Tryg. O pray don't. 

O by the heavenly powers don't peach upon us. 
Herm. No, no, I won't keep silence. Tryg. O pray do. 

O by the heavenly meat I brought you, master. 
Herm. Why, bless you, Zeus will quite demolish me 

If I don't shout and tell him all about it. 
Tryg. O pray don't shout, my darling dearest Hermes ; 

Don't stand gaping there, my comrades ; are ye quite deprived of speech ? 
What's the matter ? speak, ye rascals ! if you don't, he's safe to peach. 

antepenult, in such diminutives as € Ep- 
fiidiov depends upon the form from which 
they are derived. It is long, for in- 
stance, in 8ciktv\L8iov, if derived from 
SclktvXlos ; short, if derived from daKrv- 
Xos. It is long in BoKoridtov, short in 
EvpLiridiov. But the t in 'EvpL7rlbiov takes 
the place of the X in Evpuridrjs. The ante- 
penult, in c Epjui'Sioz/ represents the rj in 
'Ep/xTJff, and would therefore naturally be 
long. It must be remembered that 
Hermes was the most familiar and affa- 
ble of all the deities, whence he is called 
cfriXavOpcoTroTaros daifiovcov just below, and 
dyaOaraTOS tcdv Oecbv in Heliodorus v. 15. 
His statue was at every Athenian door, 
and he was always an object of good- 
humoured chaff. Very possibly 'Ep/uftiop 
was his pet name with the populace. 
And anyhow, as it is the reading of 
every MS. both here and in 924 infra, it 

does not seem proper to alter it.) 

383. €L7T€ fjioi, tl ndo-x^r] (The singular 
etVe, like aye, <pepe and similar expres- 
sions, is constantly addressed to a num- 
ber of persons. So Birds 366 ewe poi, tl 
/ze'XW ; Ach. 319, 328; Wasps 403. 
The same usage is found in prose writers: 
elne jjlol, co 2&>/cpar/ff re kcu 'iTnroKpares, 
Plato, Protagoras, chap. 3, p. 311 D. So 
in the famous harangue by which Timo- 
theus stirred up the Athenians to make 
an instant effort for the expulsion of the 
Thebans from Euboea ; elite jjlol, povXeve- 
aOe (are ye deliberating?) erjpalovs e^ovres 
ev vrjcrcOj tl xpWevOe, kol tl Set woLelv ; ovk 
i lxirXf]creTe Tr)v OdXarTav, co avdpes 'AGtjvcuoi, 
TpLT)pcov ; ovk dvaaravTes rjdrj TropevcreaOe 
els tov UeLpaid ; ov Ka8eXi;€Te ras vavs ; 
Demosthenes, De Chersoneso 80, p. 108.) 

384. el be fxr]] (After a negative sen- 
tence such as fir) ctlcottclT) donotkeep silence, 

50 E I P H N H 

XO. fiTjSafiGos, a> Seo-TToO* 'ILpfifj, firjSafMcos, iirjSajxw, 

ei ri Keyapio-\ievov 386 

yoipihiov olaOa Trap e- 

fiov ye KareSrjSoKcbs, 
rovro firj qjavXov vb\ii£ kv r£Se rco vvv irpdyixari. 
TP. ovk dfcovets ola OooTrevovat cr , &va£ 8eo"rrora ; 
XO. /jltjS' eye TraXiyKorm 390 

avrifioXlais kfiala- 

iv, &crre rrjvSe /jltj Xafieiv 

dXXd X ( *P L<r \ ® <t> L ^ av ~ 
dpcoworare Kal jxeyaXo- 
Scoporare Sai/xovcov. 
et rt HeicrdvSpov (38eXvrrei rou$ X6(pov$ Kal ray 6<f>pv$, 395 

Kai <T€ 6v(TLaL<TLV C€- 

poLicri TTpoa-oSois re fxeyd- 
Xcuai Sid iravrbs, d> 
Secnror, dyaXov/xev fjfieLS del. 

TP. iff , dvrifSoXco or \ kXerjaov avrcov rrjv ona, 400 

errei <re Kal tijiSxtl fxaXXov rj irpb rod. 
EP. KXenrai re yap vvv eicri fxaXXov fj rrpb rod. 
TP. Kai croc (ppdaco ri irpayjxa Seivbv Kal p.eya 3 

rocs 6eoT$ airao-iv kirifiovXeverai. 

where we should say if you do, the Greeks since then nearly half a century has 

said if you don't. 7rp6s ravra firj tvttt, d elapsed, and no other possible emenda- 

de [xt], cravrop ttot airtao-et, Clouds 1433 ; tion has been proposed, I think myself 

Wasps 434, 435. Cf. St. Mark's Gospel at liberty to insert them in the text.) 
ii. 21, 22. ) 395. lieicrdvbpov] (Peisander is known 

390. jJLTjd 1 ex«? . . . ifiaia-iv] (In my for- in history chiefly as the violent and 

mer edition I suggested the substitution unscrupulous intriguer who took so large 

of these words for the metrically im- a share in bringing about the Revolution 

possible fir/ yivrj TraKiyKoros avTi&okovviv of the Four Hundred. The Comic Poets 

r}fji7v of the MSS. and editions ; and as attacked him as a man who beneath 



Chor. Do not, do not, mighty Hermes, do not, do not shout, I pray, 

If you e'er have tasted swine, 

Tasted sucking-pigs of mine, 

Which have soothed your throat divine, 
Think upon it, think upon it, nor despise the deed to-day. 
Tryg. King and master, won't you listen to the coaxing words they say ? 
Choe. View us not with wrathful eye, 

Nor our humble prayers deny, 

From this dungeon let us hand her. 

O if you indeed detest, 

And abhor the sweeping crest 

And the eyebrows of Peisander, 
Let us now, O God most gracious ! let us carry Peace away. 

Then we'll glad processions bring, 

Then with sacrifices due, 

We will always, lord and king, 

We will always honour you. 

Thyg. O sir, be pitiful, and heed their cry : 

They never showed you such respect as now. 
Heem. Why, no ; they never were such thieves as now. 
Tryg. And then Fll tell you a tremendous secret, 

A horrid dreadful plot against the Gods, 

a fierce and martial exterior concealed 
a coward's heart (Birds 1556-61), and 
who was always for war with a view to 
his own private gains (Lysistrata 490). 
The Scholiast here says ovros (£iAo7rd\e- 
ftos rjv, Kal 7roXejU07rot6s Kepha>v Idicov ev€K€v. 
r)v 8e $€i\6s kcu fieyas, ixprjro be rpikotpiq 
kcu 07t\ols €7ricrr)iJLois virep tov doKelv dv- 
dpelos elvaiy fxr) &v.} 

402. kXctttcu] And, as Bergler says, 
"fures venerari deum furum par est." 


(And Hermes was the king of thieves, 
<f>r)\r)T£)v ava.%, as Euripides calls him in 
Rhesus 217.) 

403. irpaypa Seivbv kcu p£ya\ (These 
words, used here to describe the con- 
spiracy of the Sun and Moon against the 
liberties of the Hellenes, are employed 
by Cleisthenes in Thesm. 581 to describe 
the conspiracy of Euripides and Mnesi- 
lochus against the enterprise of the wo- 
men. And cf. Ach. 128.) 


EP. i0i 8rj, K&Tevri' lam yap av ireicrais ifxe. 405 

TP. rj yap XeXrjvr) yd navovpyos" VLXios, 

vfiiv emfiovXevovTe ttoXvv ijSrf ypovov, 

T019 (3ap(3dpoiori irpoSiSorov ttjv *EXXd8a. 
EP. tva Srj ti tovto Sparov ; TP. orirj vr\ Aia 

fjfieis fiev vpuv Ovofiev, tovtolctl Se 410 

ol fidpfiapoi Bvovai. 8ia rovr etKOTcos 

fiovXoivT av rjfias Trdvras k^oXcoXivai, 

tva ras reXeras Xdfioiev avrol r&v 6eSv. 
EP. ravr dpa irdXai rcov rjpepcdv TrapzKXerrrzrriv, 

Kal rod kvkXov irapirpcoyov v(/> ap/xaTooXias. 415 

TP. vat fia Ala. irpb? ravr, 3> 0jV 'Rpfirj, £vXXa/3e 

rjfxcu TrpoOvfim, rrjvSe Kal gvviXKvaov. 

Kal arol ra /zeyaX* rj/xeTs UavaOrjvai a£op.ev, 

ndo-as re ras aXXas reXeras ray rcov Oecov, 

MvcrrrjpL 'Epfxfj, AnroXiei , 'ASdbvia* 420 

aXXac re vol iroXeis TreTravpLevat KaKoov 

'AXegiKaKca Ovaovaiv 'Eppfj navrayov. 

405. 'la-ays yap av rreiaais ifjte] (Cf . Eur. And so when the Delians were flying 

Ale. 48 ov yap otS' av el Treuraipi or, and before the armament of Datis, he recalled 

Medea 326 ov yap av neia-ms 7totc.) them with the reassuring message that, 

410. Tovroio-i] Without entering upon as to the land where the Two Gods were 

the wide and disputed questions respect- born, he would harm neither it nor its 

ing the religious system of the Persians, inhabitants (Hdt. vi. 97). 

it will be sufficient for the present pur- 412. fjixas] v^as, the old reading, is 

pose to refer to the account which Hero- retained by Dindorf , Bothe, Weise, 

dotus gives of it, and which was, no Richter, and others • but rjfxas, which 

doubt, generally accepted throughout is Bentley's suggestion, is found in the 

the Hellenic world. Bvovcri 8e rjXlco re Ha venna and Venetian MSS., and is, I 

Kal (reXfjVfl Kal yfj ko.\ wvpl km vdari Kal think, plainly right. 

av€fioL<Tt (that is, I suppose, to Sun and 414.7rap€KAen-Te , n7i>] Thucydides, speak- 

Moon, and the four elements, Earth, ing of the portents which signalized the 

Air, Fire, and Water)* tovtolo-l p.€v df} Peloponnesian War, says that never 

fxovvoiai Ovova-i dpxrjSev (Hdt. i. 131). before had so many eclipses been known ; 



Heiim. Well, tell away : I'm open to conviction. 
Tryg. 'Tis that the Moon and vile immoral Sun 

Have long been plotting to your hurt : and now 

They're giving Hellas up to the Barbarians. 
Herm. Why are they doing that ? Tryg. Because, by Zeus ! 

We sacrifice to you, but those Barbarians 

Only to them. So naturally they 

Are very anxious that we all should perish, 

And they get all the rites of all the Gods. 
Herm. Then that's the reason why they clipped the days, 

And nibbled off their rounds, misguiding sinners. 
Tryg. It is, it is : come, Hermes, lend a hand, 

Help us to pull her out. And then for you 

We'll celebrate the great Panathenaea, 

And all the other rites of all the Gods, 

Demeter, Zeus, Adonis, all for you ; 

And everywhere the cities saved from woe 

Will sacrifice to you, the Saviour Hermes. 

f]\iov T€ iKkeLyj/zts, at nvKVorepai napa ra €K 
rod TTpiv xpovov fjivr]fxovev6jjL€va ^vveftrjcrav' 
(i. 23). He mentions a nearly total eclipse 
of the sun at midday, in the first year of 
the War (Aug. 3, B.C. 431) when the sun 
appeared crescent-shaped, and stars be- 
came visible, Thuc. ii. 28 ; and another 
in the eighth year (March 21, B.C. 424), 
Thuc. iv. 52. In the word apfAaraiXias 
there is a play upon dyLapT(o\la, afxapria. 
418. Koi o-oi] Hermes, the prince of 
thieves, however shocked at the attempt 
of the Sun and Moon to rob the Gods of 
their accustomed honours, seems in no 
way disinclined to appropriate them 
himself. We find this keen perception 
of, and exclusive devotion to, his own 

interests again portrayed in Plutus 1118, 
where after bewailing the sufferings of 
the Gods in general, he candidly admits 

Kcu ruv {ilv dWcov poi Oewv tjttov fJLeKtt, 
Ern S' dir6\oo\a KamTeTpiwcu. 

422. 'A\4lk(xk(o] Not content with 
depriving Athene of the great Panathe- 
naean festival, Demeter and Persephone 
of the Eleusinian mysteries, Zeus of the 
Dipolieia (Clouds 984), and Aphrodite and 
Adonis of the Adonia, Hermes is also to 
rob Apollo of his noblest attribute — that 
of the 'A\e£iWos>, the Saviour, the Avert- 
er of ill. It has not, I think, been ob- 
served that the worship of Apollo under 
this special title had only just been intro- 

54 E I P H N H 

ydrep £ TL ttoAX' e£et$ dyaOd. npcorov Si croc 
((piakrjv XP V(T V V Sififiwriv avrco) 
Soopov ScScofii TrjvS\ iv a cnrevSeiv eyjl$* 
EP. oljx coy eXerjpcav tip del tcov ypvcrtScov. 425 

vperepov evrevOev epyov, 3)v8pe$. dXXd reus dpcus 

€L(Tl6vT€9 <X>$ Ta^LCTTa TOV$ XiOoVS d(f)iXK€T€. 

XO. TavTa Spdcropev. crv S rjptv, <b 6ecov crocjyooTare, 
arret xprj iroielv e0ecrro)9 eppdge SripiovpyiKcos* 
rdXXa S' evprjaeis vnovpyeiv ovras fjpds ov kockovs. 430 

TP. dye St}, crv rayecos vneye ttjv cftidXrjv, ottco? 

epyco 'c^taXovpev, ev^dpevoi rotariv 6eo?9. 
EP. crnovSr} cnrovSrp 

€V(pr]p€?T€ evcj>r] peire. 
TP. airevSovres evyoopeaOa rrjv vvv rjpepav 435 

"EXXrjcriv dp£ai nacre noXXcov Kayadcov, 
y&crTis rrpoOvpm gvXXdftoi tcov cryoiviodv , 
rovrov tov dvSpa prj Xafieiv nor dcnriSa. 
XO. pd AC, dXX' ev elprjvr} ye Sidyetv tov (3tov, 

€\oi/6' eraipav Kal crKaXevovr dvOpoucas. 440 

TP. octtls Se noXepov pdXXov elvai fiovXerai, 

duced at Athens, on occasion of the ces- that Trygaeus, who seems to have come 

sation of the plague (Pausanias i. 3. 3). provided with a wine-flask as well as a 

It is now to be transferred to Hermes. (piakrj, may pour wine into it.) 

(As to the Adonia see the Commentary 432. epyw 'cjyiaXovfiev] (Jepy<jp imftaXov- 

on Lys. 389.) pev, eVi tovto opprjaopep. ^ipryrai 8e Kal iv 

424. rrivhe] Trygaeus gives him a gold tols Scprjgl (line 1348). naifa be rrapa rr\v 

cup. The Scholiast says that there (fiiakrjv rrjv dapov avra SoOelo-av. fj on 

was a stage direction, 7rap€7riypa(fir), to icpiaXXetv Kvpiws earl to apx*o~6ai irpdypa- 

that effect. (This is now restored to its ros. Scholiast, set our hand to the work. 

place.) There is of course a play upon the words 

431. rf]v <fiid\r]v] (the vessel, a sort of (fiiakrjv and "'(pttihovtiev.y 

golden bowl or saucer, which he had 435. rrjv vvv rjpepav] As Archidamus 

given him for this purpose, supra 424. was moving towards the frontier to com- 

Hermes is to hold the bowl underneath mence the Peloponnesian War by the in- 

(Ach. 1063 ; Thesm. 756 ; Eccl. 820) vasion of Attica, he dispatched an envoy 


Much, much besides you'll gain : and first of all 
I give you this (producing a gold cup), a vessel for libations. 
Heum. Fie ! how I soften at the sight of gold ! 

There, my men, the work's before you ! I've got nothing more to say. 
Quick, take up your spades, and enter, shovelling all the stones away. 
Choe. Gladly, gladly will we do it, wisest of the Gods ; and you, 

Like a skilled superior craftsman, teach us what we ought to do. 
I warrant, when the way we know, you'll find us anything but slow. 
Tiiyg. Hold out the vessel, and we'll launch the work 

With free libations and with holy prayers. 
Heum. Pour libations. 
Silence ! silence ! pour libations. 
Thyg. And as we pour we'll pray. O happy morn, 

Be thou the source of every joy to Hellas ! 
And O may he who labours well to-day 
Be never forced to bear a shield again ! 
Chor. No ; may he spend his happy days in peace, 

Stirring the fire, his mistress at his side. 
Tryg. If there be any that delights in war, 

(Melesippus) to Athens with a last offer amid general rejoicing, all people believ- 

of peace. The Athenians declined to re- ing eW^i/ rrju fjfiepav rfj 'EXXadt apxew 

ceive an envoy while the hostile army rrjs iXevOeplas, Xen. Hell. ii. 2. 23 ; 

was on the march, and, as Melesippus Plutarch, Lysander, chap. 15.) 

left their borders, and the last chance of 437. a-xoiviav] (The Chorus were di- 

averting the war disappeared, he ex- rected to bring their o-xowia, supra 299, 

claimed fjde f) faepa rols "EXX^o-i [MeydXodv but this is the first intimation of the use 

kclkoov ap^ei (Thuc. ii. 12). The Scholiast to which they are to be put. The ap,cu 

thinks that Aristophanes is referring to which they were to bring have already 

this incident, and at all events the paral- been mentioned supra 426. Probably the 

lei is an interesting one. (It is pitiful <rx 0LVLa are m ade bo hang from the upper 

to think that seventeen years after the stage down to the edge of the orchestra.) 

exhibition of this Comedy the walls of 438. Xa/3etV do-nifta] {to bear a shield, 

the city in which it was exhibited were that is to serve as a soldier. Cf. Lys. 52. ) 
pulled down to the music of the flute 












firiSiirore Travcracrff avrov^ a> Aiovvor dva£, 

€K TCOV 6XeKpdv(OV aKl8a$ €^aipOV[X€VOV. 

K€t TC9 eTTiOvjxcidv ra^iapyeiv vol (f>6ovei 

eh 0<bs dveXdeiv, & ttotvi ', kv tguctiv [Layais 

nacrypi ye roiavff otdirep KXeeovvfios. 

ei Ti$ Sopvgbs 77 Kdirr]\os dairiScov, 

Iv efxiroXa (3eXriov, emOvfJie? paycov, 

Xrj(f)deh vtto Xrjaroov hcrQioi KpiQas jiovas. 

K€i tls (TTpaTrjyeTv fiovXofxevos fir} £vXXd(3rj 

?} SovXos avTo/xoXdv Trapeo-Kevacrpevos, 

€7rl tov rpoyov y <eXkoito fjcao-Tiyovfievos' 

rjpTv S dyaOa yevoiT . Irj ttolimv, Irj. 

dcfreXe to iraieiv, aXX' Irj [lovov Xiye. 

lr) it) tolvvv, It) pdvov Xeyco. 

e E.p/ijj, XdpKriv," £lpai(riv, 'AcppoStTjj, U66cp. 

"A pet Se firj ; TP. prj. XO. prjS* 'EvvaXiai ye ; 

vnoreive 8r) 7ray, kcli Karaye rolcrtv KdXcps. 



co eta. 

TP. rf. 


444. Tai-iapxew] (See 1172. To com- 
mand the hoplites furnished by his tribe. 
The Tagtttpxo? commanded the heavy- 
armed infantry, as the cfrvXapxos the cav- 
alry, of the tribe to which he belonged. 
See the Commentary on Birds 353. The 
epithet irorvta is given to Peace no less 
than six times in this Comedy. ) 

446. KXewwfios] tovt€(ttiv acrxypovoirj 
piTTTODV ty)v aa-iriba. pfyawiris yap 6 KXewpv- 
nos.— Scholiast. In every Comedy which 
Aristophanes wrote at this period of his 
career, he contrived to make room for 
Cleonymus 6 praams. See inf. 678, 
an d 1295-1304. It would be interesting 
to know whether such constant butts of 

the Comedians, as, for example, Cleony- 
mus and Cleisthenes, ever ventured to 
be present at the representation of Plays, 
in which they must have been well aware 
beforehand that some opportunity or 
other would assuredly be found of hold- 
ing them up to the derision of their fel- 
low citizens. 

450-1. arpar^yelv . . . avrop.oke'iy] The 
Scholiast would refer both these imputa- 
tions to Alcibiades, attributing the first 
to his opposition to the peace, the second 
to his flight to Sparta. But Alcibiades 
was not yet an opponent of peace (see 
note at 295 supr.) ; and his flight to 
Sparta did not take place until several 



King Dionysus, may he never cease 

Picking out spearheads from his funny-bones. 
Chor. If any, seeking to be made a Captain, 

Hates to see Peace return, O may he ever 

Fare in his battles like Cleonymus. 
Tryg. If any merchant, selling spears or shields, 

Would fain have battles, to improve his trade, 

May he be seized by thieves and eat raw barley. 
Choii. If any would-be General won't assist us, 

Or any slave preparing to desert, 

May he be flogged, and broken on the wheel. 

But on ourselves all joy : hip, hip, hurrah ! 
Tryg. Don't talk of being hipped : Hurrah's the word. 
Choe,. Hurrah ! hurrah ! hurrah's the word to-day. 
Tryg. {Pouring libations) To Hermes, Love, Desire, the Hours, and Graces. 
Choe. Not Ares ? Tryg. (With disgust.) No ! Chor. Nor Enyalius ? 

Tryg. No. 
Chor. Now all set to, and labour at the ropes. 

Herm. Yo ho ! pull away. 

years afterwards. I do not think that 
any of these imputations have special 
reference to individual characters. 

454. iraUiv\ "Aristophanes voluit lu- 
dere in verbis iraiav et 7raiW, quia iraUiv 
caedere est et bello magis proprium." — 
Florent Chretien. 

456. 'EpfATj] He puts Hermes first, 
observes the Scholiast, as in gratitude 
bound. {It was Hermes himself who 
poured the libation supra 433, but now 
Trygaeus himself is pouring it, apparent- 
ly from the flask from which he had 
previously poured wine into the golden 
(piaKrj. Panyasis, the Halicarnassianepic 

poet, says that at a wine party the T Qpai, 
XdpiTes, and Aiovvcros preside over the first 
glass ; y A(f)pobirr] and Aiowxros over the 
second ; and over any further glasses 
"Yppis and "Ar??, Athenaeus ii. 3 (p. 36 
D). Enyalius in the following line is 
merely another name for the God of 

458. vivoreive k.t.X.J ("The men are 
to bend down to the work, pulling with 
the ropes over their shoulders, as if they 
were hauling a boat up on the beach. 
Hence Karaye, bring her in, i. e. haul her 
in with the ropes," Graves.) 

459. & ela] This system, 459-72, and 



XO. ela /xaXa. 

EP. & ela. 

XO. ela €tl fidXa. 

EP. & ela, 3) ela. 

TP. aXX' ov% e\Kova avSpes 6/jLoigos. 

ov gvWrjyjrecrO' ; oV oyKvXXecrff' 

ol/xcbgecrO' ol Bolgotol. 
EP. ela vvv. 
TP. ela 3>. 

XO. dXX' ayerov ^vvaveXfcere Kal (rc/xo. 
TP. ovkovv eXKCo Ka^apTcojiai 

Ka7rejj,7rL7rT(o Kal cmovSdgoo ; 
XO. irdis ovv ov xcopel rovpyov ; 

TP. <S Ad/ia^, a&K€?s e/jLTroSobv KaOrjfievos. 

ovSev Se6fjLeO\ 3)vdpeo7re, rrj? afj$ /jiopfJLovos. 
EP. ov8' oiSe y elXicov oiSev Apyeloi ndXar 





the corresponding one, 486-99, are of 
course sung so as to keep time with the 
strenuous exertions of the singers as they 
tug and labour at the rope. 

465. oyKvXkeo-d'] {Puff yourselves out, 
as if ye were making great exertions. 
iirepelbeaOe fxev tg> cr^ot^/cp, Trpotnroiovixcvoi 
e'XKeiv, ovx e\/c€Te be Scholiast. ' ' turgentes 
simulato nisu" Brunck.) 

466. ol Boicoroi] The Boeotians are 
the first people charged with backward- 
ness in the cause of peace. They had, 
in fact, felt hardly any pressure from 
the war, and had lately, single-handed, 
gained a signal victory near Delium over 
the whole Athenian land-force, b. c. 424. 
The military power of Athens had, in 
consequence of that disaster, fallen into 
general disrepute : tS>v 'AOrjvaiodv tcara- 

(ppovovfxivccv dia ty\v TTtpi to ArjXtov o~VfKpo- 
pdv.— Diod. Sic. xii, chap. 75. And the 
Boeotians, elated by their triumph, were 
ill disposed to be dragged, through the 
desire of Sparta to recover her captives, 
into a peace which would leave Athens 
as vigorous and as formidable as ever. 
Accordingly they absolutely refused to 
accede to the Peace of Nicias (Thuc. v. 
17), and merely concluded with Athens 
BexrjfJiepovs i7no~7rovdas (Thuc. v. 32), which 
is usually interpreted to mean an indefi- 
nite truce determinable by either party 
on ten days' notice. (And in this scene 
Aristophanes is reviewing from an his- 
torical point of view the attitude of the 
various Hellenic peoples towards the 
attainment of Peace. The Boeotians, 
Argives, Laconians, and Megarians are 


Chor. Pull away a little stronger. 
Herm. Yo ho ! pull away. 
Chor. Keep it up a little longer. 
Herm. Pull, pull, pull, pull. 
Tryg. Ah they don't pull all alike. 

Cease your craning : 'tis but feigning : 

Pull, Boeotians ! or I'll strike. 
Herm. Yo ho ! pull away. 
Tryg. Pull away, away, away. 

Chor. (To Trygaeus and Hermes.) Verily youshould be helping us too. 
Tryg. (indignantly.) Don't I strain, might and main, 

Cling and swing, tug and haul ? 
Chor. Yet we don't advance at all. 

Tryg. Now don't sit there and thwart us, Lamachus. 

We don't require your Bugaboo, my man. 
Herm. These Argives, too, they give no help at all. 

not represented in the theatre. Neither ready in Acharnians, 582, applied this 

is Lamachus.) word to the Gorgon of Lamachus ; cf. 

469. dXX' ayerov] 6 Xopbs irpbs rbv c Ep- inf. 561. It is interesting to observe the 
fxrjv Ka\ rbv Tpvyalov.— Scholiast. The name of Lamachus in Thuc. v. 19 (and 
MS. reading is ayerov £vve\Kerov kol a(j)co, cf. Id. 24), amongst the list of signatures 
which does not harmonize with the to the actual Peace which was concluded 
corresponding line (o>s Kaicovoi rives eluiv a few days after the per ormance of this 
ev vfxiv inf. 496) and 'various emenda- Play. (As to /xop/xw, a bogey with which 
tions have consequently been suggested. Hellenic nurses were in the habit of 
Dobree proposed dXX' ayere ^waveXKere frightening their nurslings, see the Corn- 
ea <r(j)<b, which I have adopted in part ; mentary on Ach. 582. And compare the 
but I have retained ayerov, since the camp jest of the Lacedaemonians that 
conjunction of the dual and plural their allies dreaded the peltasts of Iphi- 
(though not very uncommon, see supr. crates &o-rrep p.opp,S)vas 7rai§dpia, Xen. 
414-15, and Birds 664, Progs 885, 1479, Hell. iv. 4. 17.) 

1480, and Plutus 608, cited by Elmsley at 475. c Apye7oi] Argos was the only 

Ach. 733) may have been the very pecu- state in Southern Greece which had 

iiarity which misled the transcribers. hitherto taken no part whatever in the 

474. poptiovos] Aristophanes had al- Peloponnesian War. Proud in her old 



dXX rj KareyeXcov rwv TaXacTrcopovfieycoy, 
Kal ravra 8iy66ev fiiaOofyopovvTes &X<f>iTa. 

TP. dXX' ol AaK&ves, S>yd6\ eXKovcr dvSpiKW. 

EP. dp otcrO* oaoL y clvtgov eyovrcu rod £vXov, 
\ibvoi TTpoQvjiovvT* dXX' 6 xaXKeijs ovk ed. 

TP. ovS ol Meyapecs Spcocr ovSiv eXKovcrtv 8' o/jloo? 
yXic^poraTa aapKa^ovres &a"irep Kvvi8ia, 
{firb tov ye Xtfxov vrj At" egoXcoXores. 

XO. ovSev Troiovfxev, §>v8pe$ 3 dXX' 6fLo6vfxa8bv 
airacnv rjpTv avdis avTiXTqirreov. 

EP. 3) ela. 

TP. ela fidXa. 

EP. co ua. 



historic traditions, she was ill inclined 
to range herself beneath the banners of 
either Athens or Sparta, and found her 
own advantage in the continuance of a 
conflict which was wasting and weaken- 
ing her rivals, whilst her own power and 
resources remained unimpaired. The 
language of Thucydides (v. 28) forms 
a commentary on the speech of Hermes 
here ; ol 'Apycloi, he says, cipLcrra earx op 
rots Traciv, ov £-vvapdp.evoL rod 'Attikov 
TroXefjLov, afA(f)OT€pois de fiaWov evcnrovboi 
ovt€s, €KKap7r<»>(Tdfx€voi. And the Scholiast 
cites a passage from ' ' The Deserters " of 
Pherecrates, in which that poet says of 
the Argives — 

Ovtoi yap 7jjj.iv ol kclkws awoXovftevoi 
£ira/A(f)OTepi£ovG' , kfXTrodwv /ca$r)p,evoi. 

With the phrase hxoBev fxio-Qofopovvree, 
Bergler aptly compares the law which 
forbad citizens to receive pay from the 
State in more than one character at a 

time, firj dixdOev pLio-Oocpopelv. — Demosth. 
in Timocr. 141, p. 739 ; Boeckh's Public 
Econ. ii. 16. 

479. %x ovTal T °v £v^ov] The Scholiast 
is, in my judgement, unquestionably 
right in referring these words to the 
Spartan captives, who were then lan- 
guishing in the Athenian prison, " keep- 
ing fast to the gvXov,' 1 which is the term 
constantly used by Aristophanes to 
denote the instrument employed for 
confining prisoners, and is indeed so 
used with reference to these very cap- 
tives in Knights 394. It was only the 
longing desire of the Spartans to recover 
these prisoners, tovs ctvbpas KOfxicracrOai 
(Thuc. iv. 108, 117 ; v. 15, &c.)— a desire 
so absorbing, that even the brilliant 
successes of Brasidas were welcomed 
merely as a means to that end — which 
was now bringing about the opportunity 
of peace ; nor is it probable that Aristo- 
phanes should have altogether over- 



They only laugh at us, our toils and troubles, 

And all the while take pay from either side. 
Tiiyg. But the Laconians, comrade, pull like men. 
Heem. Ah, mark, 'tis only such as work in wood 

That fain would help us : but the smith impedes. 
Tiiyg. And the Megarians do no good : they pull, though, 

Scrabbling away like ravenous puppy dogs. 

Good lack ! they're regularly starved and ruined. 
Choii. We make no way, my comrades : we must try 

A strong pull, and a long pull, all together. 

Heiim. Yo ho ! pull away. 

Tiiyg. Keep it up a little longer. 

Heem. Yo ho ! pull away. 

looked this circumstance in describing 
the pacific inclination of the Laconians. 
The ingenious theory of Paulmier (which 
has been followed by Brunck, Bothe, 
Bichter, and others), that by ol ixo^voi 
rod £v\ov we are to understand the 
framers of agricultural implements, and 
by 6 x a ^ K€ v* the forger of military 
weapons, would, I am persuaded, never 
have been invented, but for his erroneous 
belief that this Play was composed after 
the release of the Sphacterian captives. 
I doubt if there is, in reality, so sharp 
a distinction between the interests of the 
workers in wood and those of the workers 
in metal, as his theory would imply. 
And at all events it is, I think, clear that 
Aristophanes is here referring to some- 
thing special in the circumstances of 
Sparta, and not to any mere general 
distinction between the warlike and un- 
warlike classes, which, if true at all, 
would at any rate be no more true of 

Sparta than it would of any other Hel- 
lenic State. The exact meaning of the 
words 6 x a ^ Ke vs ovk eg is, I think, more 
doubtful : but, on the whole, it appears 
probable that the Scholiast's explanation 
is here again correct, on ebedevro kcu 
7T€pi€K€ivTo avToh 7T€(W. There can be no 
allusion here (as Florent Chretien, re- 
ferring to Knights 469, suggests) to 
Cleon, who was no longer living. 

481. ol Mcyapeis] We have already, 
on 246 supr., had occasion to notice the 
extremity of suffering to which the Mega- 
rians had been reduced by the continu- 
ance of the war. Peace and the restora- 
tion of Nisaea were to them objects of 
the most urgent necessity. Yet they 
were at present holding back from, and 
ultimately declined to accede to, the 
Peace of Nicias, inasmuch as it allowed 
Nisaea, without which peace itself was 
valueless, to remain in the possession of 
the Athenians. 

62 E I P H N H 

TP. ela vij Ata. 

XO. jiiKpov ye Kivovjjiev. 490 

TP. ovkovv Setvbv rov$ jxev Teivetv, 


TrXrjyas A^eo-fl', ihpyeToi. 
EP. ela vvv. 

TP. ela &. 495 

XO. a)? kclkovoi rives elcnv ev i?fi?v. 

TP. v/xec9 fjtev y ovv ol Ktrrcovres 

rrj9 €iprji/7}$ crirar avSpeioos. 
XO. aXX ? eta ot KcoXvovaiv. 

EP. avSpes Meyapeis, ovk Is KopaKas epp-qcrere ; 500 

fu<r€? yap upas rj 6eb? [iepLvr]\ievy]' 
TTpS)TOL yap avrrjv ro?$ orKopoSois rj\et\jrare. 
Kal roc? ^K6rjvaioi(Tt rravcracrOaL Xeyco 
evrevOev eyoiievois odev vvv eX/cere* 

ovSev yap aXXo Spare ttXtjv StKa^ere. 505 

aXX' emep eTTiOvfielre rrjvS' e£e\f<vcrai, 

502. o-Kopobois] The poet is alluding been introduced here to give more point 
to the circumstance that the Megarians to the idea expressed in Bergler's note, 
furnished the immediate cause of, or " Loquitur de Pace, tanquam de puella 
excuse for, the Peloponnesian War. See delicata, odor em allii aversante." 
on 609 infra. And as the Megarid was 503. roh ' Adijvaioicri] (He is not ad- 
the great garlic-producing country (see dressing the Athenian farmers of whom 
on 246 supr.), he expresses himself in the chorus is composed. He is address- 
language borrowed from the custom of ing the Athenians generally, and critieiz- 
priming gamecocks with garlic before ing the attitude of the State, as too 
they commenced to fight. See Acharn. argumentative and captious. They may 
166 ; Knights 494 ; and the Scholiasts of course be considered as represented 
there. The term rjXetyaTe, however, is by the audience ; but so far as the stage 
rather derived from the wrestling-school, is concerned, they are as purely imagin- 
where the trainer (hence called dXeiirrrjs) ary personages as the Boeotians, Mega- 
anointed the intending combatants with rians, and other peoples whose attitude 
oil (see Knights 490) ; and it may have has already been criticized.) 


Tryg. Yes, by Zeus ! a little stronger. 

Choii. Very slow, now we go. 

Tryg. What a shameful dirty trick ! 

Some are working, others shirking, 

Argives, ye shall feel the stick. 
Heiim. Yo ho ! pull away. 

Tryg. Pull away, away, away. 

Choii. Some of you still are designing us ill. 

Tryg. Ye who fain Peace would gain, 

Pull and strain, might and main. 
Chor. Some one's hindering us again. 

Herm. Plague take you, men of Megara ; get out ! 
The Goddess hates you : she remembers well 
'Twas you that primed her up at first with garlic. 
Stop, stop, Athenians : shift your hold a little ; 
It's no use pulling as you're now disposed. 
You don't do anything but go to law. 
No, if you really want to pull her out, 

505. SiKafere] We should, as the arrangements of Hellas Proper, which 
Scholiast observes, have expected some first alarmed the jealousy of Sparta ; or 
other word, ye do nothing but talk, or get else that the recent disasters of her 
in the ivay ; but Aristophanes rarely armies at Delium and Amphipolis had 
misses an opportunity of twitting his deprived her of the power, which the 
fellow countrymen with their litigious victories of her fleets had previously 
propensities. The advice conveyed in placed in her hands, of making peace 
the two following lines is, no doubt, as when, and almost as, she would. In this 
Bergler and Brunck remark, equivalent case, too, the meaning of SiKafere may 
to the celebrated political maxim of be, "Ye should not have haggled like 
Themistocles, on avQzKrka rrjs 6a\doro-r]s pettifogging lawyers over the terms of 
(Thuc. i. 93). Yet it is hard to see how peace (see Thuc. iv. 21), but, withdraw- 
it would tell at this moment in favour of ing frankly from interference with the 
peace, unless the poet means to imply land powers, ye should have devoted 
either that it was not the maritime yourselves entirely to the maintenance 
supremacy of Athens, but her attempt and extension of your maritime ascend- 
to interfere, as a military power, in the ancy." 



TTpbs T7\v Qakarrav bXiyov vTro^coprjaare. 
XO, ay, &vSpe$, avrot Srj povoi Xafi&peff ol yecopyoi. 
EP. \G>p£i ye rot to it pay pa 7roAA<» paXXov, 8>v8pe?,, 
XO. ywptiv to ixpaypa (f>rjoriv' dXXa iras dvrjp 7rpo6vpov, 510 

TP. 01 tol yeoopyol roiipyov egeXfcovai, KaXXos ovSefe. 

XO. dye vvv, aye Tray 

Kal prjv opov 'ctiv ijSr). 

pfj vvv dvcopev, dXX* eirev- 

Teivcopev dvSpiKcoTepov. 515 

7]8rj 'vti tovt eiceivo. 

S> eta vvv, co ela iras. 

co ela, ela, ela, ela, ela, eia. 

co eta, ela, ela } ela, ela it as. 

TP. co iroTvia fioTpvoScope, tl wpocreLTrco a enos ; 520 

TtoQev dv Xd(3oipt pfjpa p.vpidp<popov 
otg> 7rpoarei7rco <r ; ov yap elypv ocicoOev. 
co yalp 'Onoopa, Kal air 8\ w &eoopia. 

511. rovpyov £f-ekKov(rC\ (are pulling 
the business through. Aristophanes seems 
to have selected the word egeX/covo-i to 
express a meaning which does not usually 
belong to it merely because the preced- 
ing lines have been full of TKkclv and its 
compounds : just as in Acharnians 347 
he selected the word ava&eUiv to express 
a meaning which does not usually be- 
long to it, merely because there the 
preceding lines had been full of o-eUiv 
and its cognates. ) 

513. Sfiov] (close at hand. See the 
Commentary on Knights 245.) 

520. g> itorvia] A colossal figure of 
Peace, attended by two handmaidens, 
Harvesthome and Mayfair, is lifted out 

of the pit. See supr. on 173. Dindorf 
refers to the Scholiast on Plato's Apology 
19 C, who says of Aristophanes, K©/za)cVt- 
rcu on /ecu to t^s "ElprjvrjS Kokoaaucbv i^rjp€v 
ayaXfia' ~E>v7ro\is AvtoXvkco, liXdrcov N/jeai?. 
It would seem from 682 inf. that the 
head of the figure could be moved. 
(However in all probability it was not 
the entire colossal figure, but only the 
head and bust of Peace which was drawn 
up from the pit. Hence the lips would 
be near enough to the ear of Hermes 
for her to address him in a whisper. 
Harvesthome and Mayfair, represented 
by Choregic actors, would be lifted out 
on the upper stage. The Platonic 
Scholium is given at the commencement 


Stand back a trifle further towards the sea. 
Chor. Come, let us farmers pull alone, and set our shoulders to it. 
Herm. Upon my word you're gaining ground : I think you're going to do it. 
Chor. He says we're really gaining ground : cheer up, cheer up, my hearty. 
Tryg. The farmers have it all themselves, and not another party. 

Chor. Pull again, pull, my men, 

Now we're gaining fast. 
Never slacken, put your back in, 
Here she comes at last. 
Pull, pull, pull, pull, every man, all he can ; 

Pull, pull, pull, pull, pull, 
Pull, pull, pull, pull, all together. 

(Peace is lifted out with her tivo attendants, Harvesthome and May fair.) 

Tryg. Giver of grapes, O how shall I address you ? 

O for a word ten thousand buckets big 
Wherewith to accost you : for I've none at hand. 
Good morning, Harvesthome : good morn, Mayfair. 

of the first volume of this series as the Certamen Homeri et Hesiodi (p. 482 in 

Second Life of Aristophanes.) Loesner's Hesiod) Hesiod recites one 

522. tlxov oLKodev] (I have not got one line and Homer immediately continues 

of my own. Naber proposed to change it with another. So when Hesiod be- 

flxpv into ?yoz/, but ex €LV o'UoOev is an gins 
extremely common expression. In the 

&s ol filv ZaivvvTO iravrjp.€poi 1 ovfiev 'dx ovTes 
Homer caps it with 

oucoOtv aWa irapeixev &Va£ dvdpcov 'AyapifAvajv. 

The same words ovbev oUoOev exovres between the powers exercised by our 

are found in St. Chrysostom's Horn, vi Lord and those exercised by the apos- 

in 1 Cor. (p. 45 D). And in Horn, xxxv ties. The apostles, he says, ovbh oIkoOcv 

in 1 Cor. (p. 330 A) he says ovtos /ueV eXeyoy, dXX* airep ibi^avro itapa rov 6cod 

o'IkoBcv e'xei to ao-cfraXes, eKtlvos be egcoOev. (Horn, vi in 1 Cor. p. 46 A) ; whereas 

Perhaps the exact force of the word our Saviour ovk avapivzi be^acrOai evep- 

oUodev is most clearly shown by the yeiav, aXX' o'luodev iravra epydfcrai (Horn, 

distinction which the same writer draws xxvi in Matth., p. 315 B).) 


oiov <5 ? 'iyets to TrpoacoTrou, S> &€copia* 

ofav 8\ 7rveis> <b$ fjSv Kara rrjs KapSia?, 525 

y\vKVTaT0V) &cnrep dcrtpotreta? Kal jxvpov. 
EP. \ia>v ovv oyioiov kcu yvXiov crTpaTicoTiKov ; 
TP. aireTTTVor kyOpov tficoTos 'iyQio-Tov ttX£ko$. 

rod fiep yap o£ei KpofifJivogvpey/jLias, 

TavTrjs 8* oTTobpas, v7ro8o)(f}?, Alovvo~loov 3 530 

avXa>v, rpayaScov, 2jo$o/cAeoi/? fieXcov, klxXoov, 

invXXtpa) Evpt7r[8ov } EP. KXavadpa ad 

Tavrrjs KaraylrevSofiepos* ov yap f)8€Tai 

avTrj TroirjTrj prjfiaTtcov 8iKaviK<ov, 
TP. kittov, TpvyoLirov, Trpofiarlcov fiXrjxcdfievcoi/, 535 

koXttov yvvaiK&v Siarpeyovacov eh aypov, 

SotiXt)? fjLeOvovo-rjs, di/arerpafjijiivov yoSts, 

aXXtov re ttoXXcov KccyaOcov. EP. i0i vvv ddpei 

oiov 7rpo9 dXXrjXas XaXovcrw at noXeis 

SiaXXayeiaai Kal yeXcocrw dcrfievaiy 540 

Kal ravra Sai/iovim vTromiao-[x£vai 

528. 7rkeKos] This is a witty adapta- is a very favourite word of Euripides, 

tion of a line of Euripides preserved by He uses it in that sense — generally at 

the Scholiast, aniivTva ix^pov (poaros the commencement of a line, and some- 

txOto-Tov twos. (The Scholiast says that times with, and sometimes without, an 

it comes either from the Telephus or the accusative following— Hec. 1276, Hipp. 

Tlepolemus. No such Tragedy as the 614, Iph. Aul. 509, 874, Iph. Taur. 

Tlepolemus is known ; and some think 1161, Troades 662, Helen 664.) 

that the reference is to the ' ' Licymnius, " 530 . v7roBoxrjs] {reception, in the sense 

as to which see Birds 1242 and the of entertainment. Blaydes refers to Ach. 

Commentary there. Licymnius the 979 ovbiiror iya> ndAe/zoy ot^aS* vnohe- 

half-brother of Alcmene was, either gofxai.} 

wilfully or accidentally, killed by Tie- 532. envWicov] The same diminutive 

polemus the son of Heracles. But the is used with regard to the language of 

present line almost certainly comes from Euripides, Ach. 398, Frogs 942 ; as is 

the Telephus : see Acharnians 454 and also fofiarlcov, infra 534, and Ach. 447. 

the note there. air€7TTv<ra, I abominate , 534. prjfiaTi&v diicapucStp] ("De frigickv 


O what a lovely charming face, Mayfair ! 

(Kisses her.) 

O what a breath ! how fragrant to my heart 5 

How sweet, how soft, with perfume and inaction. 
Herm. Not quite the odour of a knapsack, eh ? 
Tryg. Faugh ! that odious pouch of odious men, I hate it. 

It has a smell of rancid- onion- whiffs ; 

But she of harvests, banquets, festivals, 

Flutes, thrushes, plays, the odes of Sophocles, 

Euripidean wordlets, Herm. O how dare you 

Slander her so : I'm sure she does not like 

That logic-monger's wordy disputations. 
Tryg. (Continuing.) The bleating lambs, the ivy-leaf, the vat, 

Full-bosomed matrons hurrying to the farm, 

The tipsy maid, the drained and emptied flask, 

And many another blessing. Herm. And look there, 

See how the reconciled cities greet and blend 

In peaceful intercourse, and laugh for joy ; 

And that, too, though their eyes are swoln and blackened, 

quidem illo et intempestivo disputandi magis officinam quam affectum sapiunt 
genere non est cur multa disseramus, paternum" he proceeds "Quanto rec- 
cum res in confesso sit, nequeullam facile tius, quantoque ad naturam propius, 
prof eras Euripidis Tragoediam quae non Shakespearius noster, nullo neque sonitu 
leviter quoque aspicientibus hujusmodi verborum, neque sententiarum acu- 
naevos prae se ferat," Keble, Praelec- mine ! qui patrem, audita nece liberorum 
tiones Academicae ii. 586. And after et conjugis, in haec ferme erupisse 
citing the lamentations of Iason over his narrat 
slaughtered children which "rhetorum 

* Num pueros quoque ? ' 

' Uxor, pueruli, cum tota servi domo, 

Quicunque praesto. , < Vah ! fuisse me foras ! 

Uxorem, am* tu ? ' ' Verum.' ' Omnesque liberos ? 

Omnes delicias? nil superesse ais domi? 

Eheu Furiarum ! sustulisse vulturem 

Cum matre pullos, uno crudelem impete ! ' ") 

F 2 


&Tra^diraorat, Kal KvdOois TrpocrKziyLwai. 
TP. Kal TcovSe roivvv tcov 0£(ofJL€vcov orKoirei 

ra 7rp6croo^)\ tva yv&$ ras Te^vas. EP. alfiot rdXas, 

eKeivovl yovv tov Xo<f>o7rotbv ov% Spas 545 

riWovO' kavTov ; 6 Si ye ray a/uvvas noicov 

Karin apSev apTi tov gtcpovpyov ' Keivovi. 
TP. o Se Sp€7ravovpyo9 oi>x opas coy rjSeTat 

Kal tov 8opv£bv olov eo7Ct/*aX£crej> ; 
EP. i0i vvv, dvenre tovs yeoopyovs diriivai. 550 

TP. aKoveTe Xear tovs yecopyov? amsvat, 

ra yeoopycKa o-kcvt) XajScWa? el? aypbv 

coy Ta\ia-T avev SopaTiov Kal gicpovs KaKOVTiov 

m airavT tJStj 'ctI /zeara Tav0d8' elprjvrjs orairpas. 

aXXa Trd9 X^P €L n P° s *py° v *i$ aypbv iraitovicras. 555 

XO. 3) 7TO0€ivri toIs SiKalois Kal yecopyois fjp.€pa, 

dorfxevos cr' iSobv TrpocrenrsLv ^ov\o[iai ra? d/xireXovs' 

Tas re ctvk&s, as eya> '(pvTevov &v veooTepos, 

dff7rdo-aor0aL 0v[xb$ f)jxTv eon 7roXXocrr<3 XP^ V( ?- 

542. Kvddois] To reduce the swell- for the crier to use that common form, 

ings. Bergler refers to Lysistr. 444, because a certain crier, called Leos, had 

where Myrrhina, resisting the attempt betrayed their ancestors. Stratonicus 

of the officers of justice to arrest her the musician made a quibble about it, 

friend, says "If you do but touch her for as he was once in Mylasa, a city that 

with the tip of your finger, KvaBov atr^aeis had few inhabitants, but a great many 

Taxa." (See the Commentary on that temples, he comes into the market-place, 

passage.} as if he would proclaim something : but, 

549. eo-KifAaktacv] filliped. See Ach. instead of *Akov€T€ Xaol as the form used 

444 and the note there. to be, he said 'A/covere vaoL — Athen. viii. 

551. aKovere Aew] This, as Bentley chap. 41." The form is several times used 

remarks (Phalaris, sec. 8), is "the form by Aristophanes. "Apeure, too, in the 

that criers used ; and means the same preceding line, is the proper expression 

thing with our O yes ! or Oyez. Plutarch for a crier's proclamation, as in Acharn. 

(in Thes.) tells us that, in the parish of 11, and many other passages. See too 

the Pallenians of Attica, 'twas unlawful the triumphant flourish of Socrates in 


And all cling fast to cupping instruments. 
Tryg. Yes, and survey the audience : by their looks 

You can discern their trades. Herm. O dear ! O dear ! 

Don't you observe the man that makes the crests 

Tearing his hair ? and yon's a pitchfork-seller ; 

Fie ! how he fillips the sword-cutler there. 
Tryg. And see how pleased that sickle-maker looks, 

Joking and poking the spear-burnisher. 
Herm. Now then give notice : let the farmers go. 

Tryg. yes ! O yes ! the farmers all may go 

Back to their homes, farm-implements and all. 
You can leave your darts behind you : yea, for sword and spear shall cease 
All things all around are teeming with the mellow gifts of Peace ; 
Shout your Paeans, march away to labour in your fields to-day. 

Chor. Day most welcome to the farmers and to all the just and true, 
Now I see you I am eager once again my vines to view, 
And the fig-trees which I planted in my boyhood's early prime, 
I would fain salute and visit after such a weary time. 

the Republic, when he has brought his explains it by iraXaias ml dpxaias, and 

hearers to agree in the thesis which he so Suidas. aairpov* ov to poxO-qphu kcu 

undertook to prove : ''Shall we engage <pav\op } aXKa to naXmov. — Photius.) 
a herald to proclaim it," he says, "or 559. 7r6XKoarT(a xpovco] (Paley objects 

shall I tell it out myself (rj civtos aveinoa) to my rendering, after such a weary time, 

that the son of Ariston has decided that and takes the words to mean "for a 

he who is altogether virtuous and upright moment " ; but they cannot possibly bear 

is of all men most happy, and that he that interpretation. ttoWocttos is never 

who is altogether vicious and unjust is equivalent to, but always the reverse 

of all men most miserable ? " — Rep. ix. of, oXiyoarros. In Demosthenes against 

580 B. Timocrates 224 (p. 761) 7toXXoo-tc3 xP° P( ? 

554. anavTa /xecrra elprjvrjs] (The same means, as here, longo post tempore ; in 

words are used by Lucian (Tyrannicida Lucian's De Syria Dea 2 ov ttoWoo-tm 

10) and St. Chrysostom (Horn, vii in 2 Xpwy means not long afterwards. The 

Tim. p. 703 C). The epithet aanpas is true signification of the word is shown 

to be taken in a good sense as of fruit in such passages as Irenaeus v. 2. 3 

ripe and falling to pieces. The Scholiast 6 kokkos tov o-ltov Treawp els ty]v yrjv, Kal 



TP. vvv pkv ovv, (bvSpe?, irpoaev^oo/jLeaOa irp&Tov ffj 6e&, 
i]7rep Tj/xoop tovs \6(f)ov$ d(pecXe Kal ras Topyovar 
elff ottoos XiTapyiodjiev otKaS' eh ra x^P^f 
kiXTToX-qaavres tl XPW 7 ™ € & dypbv rapiyiov. 

EP # S> H6<T€i8ov y m koXqp to arrlcpos avTcov (paiveTcti 
Kal ttvkvov Kal yopybv Scrrep Lia£a Kal TravSaiaia. 

TP. vr\ AC rj yap afpvpa Xajnrpbv r\v dp egcoirXicrLievr] , 
at re OpwaKes SiaaTiXfiovari npbs rbu tjXlov. 
rj KaX£>$ avT&v diraXXd^eiev dv iieTopxiov. 
&(tt eycoy ^Srj 'ttiOvliqo KavTos eXOecv eh ay pop 
Kal rpiaivovv rfj StKeXXj] Sid yjpbvov to yrj8ioi>. 
dXX* dvafjLvrjcrOivTes, 3>v8pe$, 




Siakvdels, TroWoaros iyepOrj (multiplex 
surgit), the equivalent of the Gospel 
noKvv Kapirov tjbepet. Is is only when 
applied to a fraction that iroWocrrbs 
implies, though it does not itself mean, 
something small ; and that is because 
the more numerous the parts into which 
a thing is divided, the smaller will each 
individual part be. A myriadth part 
will be very much smaller than a tenth 
part; but "in the myriadth year" 
signifies a very much longer period than 
" in the tenth year." That is why such 
expressions as to ttoWoo-tov rrjs d<fiei\r)s 
(St. Chrysostom, Horn, lxi in Matth. 
p. 612 D) and to 7to\\oo-t6p fxipos tg>v 
dvioovTODV avrovs (Lucian, Epist. Saturnales 
26) may be rightly rendered "the least 
part of the debt," "the least part of 
their troubles," though there is no word 
in the Greek actually signifying * ' least." 
So again ttoXXoo-tos as meaning ' ' one of 
very many" comes to mean "common," 
"cheap," "worthless." But 7toWo(tt6s 

Xpovos could never bear the interpretation 
which Paley gives it.) 

560. rfj Beep] (that is "Peace"; see 
below 581, 637, &c> 

563. Tapixiov] (For, as Mr. Graves 
observes, " salt fish must be bought in 
the city : other things would be raised 
on the farm." And the salt fish to be 
bought must, as Paley says, be xpwtov, 
not (Tairpbv such as a soldier would have 
to be content with ; see Ach. 1101.) 

565. Travhaicrla] (a banquet containing 
every luxury ; f) ndo-ais tclls alo-drjo-eaiv 
f)8ovas 7rap€XOvara evax™ *) 7ro\vr€\r)S rpa- 
7T6fa. — Hesychius. 7} ba^CK^s kol iravToia 
evcoxia* — Scholiast, f) navTa e^ofcra a(f>6ova 
Kal /jLrjbev iWeiTrovcra iv rfj datrt. — Photius, 
Suidas. Cf. Alciphron iii. 18 ; Lucian's 
Imagines 15. Both Suidas and the 
Scholiast give the alternative meaning 
of a picnic to which each guest contri- 
buted his share ; but that is not suitable 
to any of these passages. The term 
yopybv properly signifies /been, lively, 



Tuyg. Firsts their, comrades, to the Goddess be our grateful prayers addressed. 
Who has freed us from the Gorgons and the fear-inspiring crest. 
Next a little salt provision fit for country uses buy, 
Then with merry expedition homeward to the fields we'll hie. 

Herm. O Poseidon ! fair their order, sweet their serried ranks to see : 
Right and tight, like rounded biscuits, or a thronged festivity. 

Tbyg. Yes, by Zeus ! the well-armed mattock seems to sparkle as we gaze, 
And the burnished pitchforks glitter in the sun's delighted rays. 
Very famously with those will they clear the vineyard rows. 
So that I myself am eager homeward to my farm to go, 
Breaking up the little furrows (long-neglected) with the hoe. 
Think of all the thousand pleasures, 

kindling, and is specially the epithet of 
an eye. Athene is yopyconis in the 
" Ajax." Both Aeschylus (Septem 532) 
and Euripides (Phoen. 146) apply the 
epithet to the eagle eye of the boyish 
hero Parthenopaeus, the son of Atalanta, 
and one of the Seven against Thebes. 
Achilles Tatius uses it of a maiden's 
quick clear-glancing eye, yopybv iv fjbopjj 
(i. 4). So Xen. Eph., in his First Book 
extolling the wondrous beauty of Anthia, 
which far exceeded that of all other 
oaaidens, says, ocpdaXp-ol yopyo\, (paidpol 
pei> cos Koprjs, (fiofitpol Se a>s craxfipovos. 
So Heliodorus (i. 21 and ii. 31) yopyov 
re Kai iiraywybv iveibe. And of a youth 
epao-Tov ajia Kai yopyov 7rpoo"/3Ae7r6)i>, Id. 
vii. 10. So St. Chrysostom (Horn, vii 
in 2 Cor. 491 C) aAV vypos 6 6(j)$aXfx6s 
Kai yopybs, Kai fjpepos f) Koprj Ka\ ya\r)vov 
to ofifia. Cf. Id. Horn, xvii in Hebr. 
p. 172 A. And so, generally, yopybs sig- 
nifies lively, without a trace of anything 
grim or terrible, which is quite a secon- 

dary meaning derived from the supposed 
connexion of the word with the Gorgons. 
Here where it is applied with comic 
humour to a crowd, it means bright, 
trim, neatly packed.} 

566. i^coTrXicrfiivr]] {shod with iron .) 
568. fxcropxiov] The meaning of this 
line seems to be, "Well will their vine- 
yard-spaces grow clear." (Blaydes re- 
fers to Aeschines against Ctesiphon § 158 
(p. 76) where the orator says "No city, 
no man, ever came out well (koXcds airrjk- 
\a£e) by following the advice of Demos- 
thenes.") Meropxiov is to pLtragv txov 
<j)VT(ov, the space between the rows — 
opxoi—oi vines. And Florent Chretien 
remarks that it is exactly equivalent to 
the interordinium of Columella, avroav 
here, as four lines above, means t5>v 

570. rpiaivovv] (to heave up as if with a 
trident. The word, a rare one, is here 
employed for the sake of the play upon 
its first syllable and that of oWM^.} 


TYJ9 SiaiTtjs rfjs TraXaiaSs 

fjv Trapeiy^ avrrj ttq& fjiMv, 

7W T€ iraXaaitov iKtivcov, 

t3)v t€ (tvkc&v, toov re fivpTcov, 575 

Trjs rpvyos re rfjs yXvKttas, 

rfjs loavids re rrjs irpos 

T® (frpiaTit tS>v t eXaoov, 

&V 7T060V/JL€J/, 

avrl tovtcov TrjpSe vvvl 580 

ry\v Otbv TTpoddiraT^. 

XO. xoupe, X a W> <*>$ ^Atfe? r\piv dcrjxtvois (piXTdTY}. 
<t& yap eSdfirjv ttoOco, 

SaifAovia (3ovX6/xevos 585 

e/y dypov dvepwvcrai. 

rfcrOa yap /xiyicrTOP fjpiv KepSos, S> TTo6ov\ikvr\> 
irdcnv oiroaroL yecop- 

yS>v filov erpiftopLev. 590 

[xovr) yap rj[xas co^eXeiy. 
noXXa yap kirdcrypi 1 * 1 ' 
npiv ttot €ttc (rod yXvKea 
KaSdirava ko! (ptXa. 

574. 7raka(ri<ov] ([Jig-cakes ; dried figs that violets were the favourite flowers at 
chopped up and pressed into a sort of Athens, and the epithet in which she 
brick-shaped cake, r&v TreiraTYjuevtov la- most delighted for herself was that of 
Xabav, Scholiast, Suidas. 7r aXdcria ra loo-rifyavosy the violet-crowned city ( Ach. 
(rvyK€KOfxfjL€pa (rvKa 9 Hesychius, Photius ; 638; Knights 1323). "Even in mid- 
and the latter adds dcrl 8e i£ tV^aoW winter," says Aristophanes in the Sea- 
Pj arvK&v K€KOfi}i4voi jSwXot 7rXtv^oetSeIs.) sons, "Qpais, "you can buy crowns of 

577. Icovtas] It must be remembered violets there." — Athenaeus ix. 14 : 
oipet 5£ \<Ei pantos fieaov gikvovs, &6rpvs, dir&pav, 
. . . <TT€<p&vovs iW, Kovtoprdv kfCTV<p\0VVTa. 
At Athens in mid- winter you will all things nice be finding, 
Grapes, melons, apples, violet-crowns, and dust intensely blinding. 


Comrades, which to Peace we owe, 
All the life of ease and comfort 
Which she gave us long ago : 
Figs and olives, wine and myrtles, 
Luscious fruits preserved and dried, 
Banks of fragrant violets, blowing 
By the crystal fountain's side; 
Scenes for which our hearts are yearning, 

Joys that we have missed so long, 

—Comrades, here is Peace returning, 
Greet her back with dance and song ! 

Chok. Welcome, welcome, best and dearest, welcome, welcome, welcome home. 

We have looked and longed for thee, 

Looking, longing, wondrously, 

Once again our farms to see. 
O the joy, the bliss, the rapture, really to behold thee come. 
Thou wast aye our chief enjoyment, thou wast aye our greatest gain. 

We who ply the farmer's trade 

Used, through thy benignant aid, 

All the joys of life to hold. 

Ah ! the unbought pleasures free 

Which we erst received of thee 

In the merry days of old, 

582. x aL P € > X a *p'] (This is the last of yeapyov which has been generally adopted, 

the three symmetrical systems, the But to piov in this sense Aristophanes 

scheme of which is given in the Appen- usually adds a genitive, fire wp^icav 

dix. The fifth line, a trochaic tetrameter (not wftfputov) 0t ov Birds 161. irpofiariov 

catalectic, is missing in all the MSS.) (not npo^ariKov) fi'iov \eyus Plutus 922. 

589. yecopyaip] (The MSS. give yeap- For yeoopyinbv therefore I have substi- 

yiKov which does not suit the metre, tuted yecopyav.y 
Bothe in his first edition altered it to 

74 E I P H N H 

toTs dy •poiKOiaiv yap rjvOa yl8pa kou a(orr]pta, 595 

ware ae rd r dfjareXia 
kcu ra via avKiSia 
rdXXa ff oiroa €<ttl (f>vra 
irpoo-yeXaveTai Xafiovr dcr/xeva, 600 

dXXa ttov ttot r\v d<fj fjpcDi> rbv ttoXvv rovrov yjiovov 
■fjSe ; tovO fjp,a$ Si8a£ov 7 §> 6eoi>v evvovorTare. 
EP. 3) aocf)coTaTOL yecopyol, rdjia St] ^vviere 

firjfxar , ec fiovXecrB* aKovaai rrjvS o7rco9 dircbXero. 

TTpS>Ta [ikv yap rjp£ev avrrjs QeiSias irpd^as /ca/ca>y 605 

elra TIepiKXirjs <f>o(5r)6eh pr) pLerdtryoi 7-779 Tvyrjs, 

ras cpvcreis vpcov SeSoiKcbs Kal tov auTo8ct£ TpOTTOV, 

iTplv TraOeiv tl 8eivbv avrbs e£e<pXe£e rrjv rroXiv, 

epfiaXcbv omivOrjpa piKpbv MeyapiKov y}rr]<[>i<rfiaTOS' 

595. x^P a Kf " <ra>Trjpia.] This singular that Cleon is able, during the continu- 
expression is illustrated by Knights 806, ance of the war, to do what he will with 
to which Bergler refers, where it is said the needy and bewildered Demus — 

ei 5e ttot' els dypbv ovtos direXO&v elprjvaios hiarpixpy 
zeal xtSpa (paycbv dvaOapprjffy, 

Cleon will find it a more difficult matter gvviere 'Prjfiar seems to have been a very 

to deceive him. With dhdirava of the favourite one. The Scholiast cites 

preceding line, the same commentator from Archilochus and Cratinus, T i2 \nrep- 

compares the " dapes inemtas" of vrjres 7ro\irai, rdpd drj i-vviere 'Prjpara, 

Horace, Epode ii. 48, a phrase found and Bergler adds from Stobaeus iv. 33 

also in Virg. G-eorg. iv. 133. (x^P a a line of Eupolis, dXk' aKover a> Beared 

are grains of barley or wheat, not crushed, rdpd {-rroWd MSS.) kcu £wUre 'Prjparu. 

but cooked whole into a sort of furmety.) (rrjvSe in the following line is the inde- 

603. yecopyol] (The farmers were pendent accusative. See the Commentary 

dismissed supra 551, and are seen a few on Birds 483.) 

lines later marching off to their farms. 605. Qeidias] Plutarch, in his Life 

Yet here they are still. For of course of Pericles, chaps. 31, 32, after enumer- 

their departure would be only a parade ating certain other alleged causes of 

in the orchestra. Being the Chorus of the Peloponnesian War, proceeds to 

the Play they could not leave the what, he says, is the worst (xetpi'cro?) 

theatre.) The expression rdpa 8r) cause of all, but confirmed by the 



When thou wast our one salvation and our roasted barley grain. 
Now will all the tiny shoots, 
Sunny vine and fig-tree sweet, 
All the happy flowers and fruits, 
Laugh for joy thy steps to greet. 

Ah, but where has Peace been hiding all these long and weary hours ? 
Hermes, teach us all the story, kindest of the heavenly Powers. 
Heem. O most sapient worthy farmers, listen now and understand. 

If you fain would learn the reason, why it was she left the land. 
Pheidias began the mischief, having come to grief and shame, 
Pericles was next in order, fearing he might share the blame, 
Dreading much your hasty temper, and your savage bulldog ways, 
So before misfortune reached him, he contrived a flame to raise, 
By his Megara-enactment setting all the world ablaze. 

greatest amount of testimony, exova-a 
ttKcicttovs ixdprvpas. And he tells us that 
the enemies of Pericles wishing, before 
they attacked him personally, to test 
the feeling with which the Athenians 
would regard such attacks, began by 
accusing Pheidias— a man very dear to, 
and of great influence with, Pericles— of 
having subtracted a part of the gold 
assigned him for the statue of Athene. 
And although Pheidias escaped from 
that charge by weighing the gold, which, 
by the advice of Pericles, he had made 
up so that it could at once be severed 
from the other materials, yet falling 
into disgrace on the ground that he had, 
in the battle-scene on Athene's shield, 
introduced likenesses of himself and 
Pericles, he was thrown into prison, and 
there died. Aspasia and Anaxagoras, 
the mistress and the teacher of Pericles, 

were next assailed, and Plutarch pro- 
ceeds, a)? be dia Qeibiov irpocreiTTaHTt [6 
UepiKkerjs] T(S fi^fta), (f)o(3r)0€\s to diKCKrrr)- 


fjL€VOP €^€Kava-€v t eXnifap dincrKeddaciv to. 
cyicXrjfjLaTa. The same story, with varia- 
tions, is told by Diodorus Siculus, xii. 
chap. 39. (By rjpgtv avTtjs we must un- 
derstand began with her, began ttjs 
dircoXeias avrr}?.} 

609. MeyapiKov ^^icry-iaTos] This 
was the famous interdict prohibiting the 
Megarians from all intercourse with any 
part of the Athenian empire (Thuc. i. 
67 ; Acharn. 532-4). That it was the 
immediate occasion of, or pretext for,, 
the war is plain upon all the authorities. 
The issue between the Peloponnesian 
Confederacy and Athens was narrowed 
to this — Aye, or No? Would she, or 
would she not, rescind to nepl Meyap£<oi> 



€£e(j)vo"r)(r€v tovqvtov rroXejiov ooare tZ Kairv& 610 

7rdvTa$ rf lLWr}va$ SaKpvaai, tovs t £k€? tovs t hOdSe. 

coy 5* ana£ to irpcoTOi/ fjKovcr \ €yjr6(pr]o~€i' a/xneXos 

Kal 7TL0O9 nXrjyeh vtt opyrjs avTeXaKTiaev niOco* 

ovKtr rjv ovSels 6 navo-oni/, ijSe 8' rjcpaj/ifcro. 
TP. ravra tolvvv [id rov 'AttoXXco 'yco ttzttvg [nqv ovSevbs, 615 

ov8 ottcos avrfj 7rpocrrJKOi $ei8(a$ rjKrjKoeiv. 
XO. ov8 eyccye, irX-qv ye vvvL ravr dp* evirpoacoiros ?jv, 

ovcra avyyevrjs eKeivov. iroXXd y' rjfJL&s XavOdvei. 
EP. KaT eTreiSfj "yvaxyav if/ids at ttoXus fav rjp^ere 

rjypicofjLevovs eV dXXrjXoicu Kal creo-rjpoTas, 620 

irdvT i/xtj^aucour £(/> v/xcu, rovs (f)6pov9 cpoftovfjievai, 

^r}(f)io-fJLa ? If she would, /xj) av yiyveadat 
irok^xov (Thuc. i. 139). So Aristophanes, 
Ach. 535-9, and here. Andocides de 
Pace, p. 24, running through the mili- 
tary history of Athens, speaks of the 
first ten years of the Peloponnesian War 
in the following terms : — UdXiv bia Me- 
yapeas 7ro\€ixf](TaVT€S 9 Kal ttjv x®P av T f ir )" 
Orjvai TTpoefievot, noX\S>v ayaQcou (TT€prjdevT€S, 
avGis rr)v elpfjvrjv €7roLr)(rdjjL€da. Diodorus 
Siculus (xii. 39), Plutarch (Pericles, chap. 
29), and Aelian (V. H. xii. 53) all treat 
to MeyapiKov yj/rj^io-pa as the point upon 
which the issue of peace and war de- 
pended ; and it is clear, as well from 
the narrative of Thucydides as from the 
anecdotes collected by Plutarch, that it 
required all the authority and all the 
commanding eloquence of Pericles to 
restrain the Athenians from yielding the 

611. Travras 'EWrjvas 8a.Kpvo~ai] This 
statement, though not really inconsis- 
tent with, yet forms a curious commen- 
tary upon, the famous and honourable 

deathbed boast of Pericles, that no 
Athenian had, by any act of his, been 
obliged to put on mourning, ovdcls &* 
e/ue fieXav Ifidriov 7T€piej3aXero. — Plutarch, 
Pericles, chap. 38. (By tovs t 9 eW tovs 
r €vdddc Hermes means the Pelopon- 
nesians as well as the Athenians. ) 

612. rJKovo-'] (The best MSS. read 
aKova invito, ; but in my former edition 
I preferred fJKova\ the reading of an in- 
ferior MS. and of every edition before 
Bekker J s, i l as preserving more distinctly 
the connexion" between the Megaric 
enactment and the ensuing calamities. 
Those who discard fJKova understand 
€yj/6<pr}o-€v of the destruction of the Attic 
vines by the invading army of Archi- 
damus ; but Peace disappeared before, 
not after that destruction, nor has the 
narrative of Hermes arrived at that 
point. It is only in line 624 that he 
reaches the actual outbreak of the War. 
Here he is speaking of something which 
occurred while the hostile states were, 
not yet fighting, but merely showing 



Such a bitter smoke ascended while the flames of war he blew, 

That from every eye in Hellas everywhere the tears it drew. 

Wailed the vine, and rent its branches, when the evil news it heard ; 

Butt on butt was dashed and shivered, by revenge and anger stirred ; 

There was none to stay the tumult; Peace in silence disappeared. 
Tryg. By Apollo I had never heard these simple facts narrated, 

No, nor knew she was so closely to our Pheidias related. 
Choii. No, nor I, till just this moment : that is why she looks so fair. 

Goodness me ! how many things escape our notice I declare. 
Heum. Then when once the subject cities, over whom ye bare the sway, 

Saw you at each other snarling, growling angrier day by day, 

To escape the contributions, every willing nerve they strained, 

their teeth at each other. And the line 
which follows shows that the poet con- 
templates these inanimate objects as 
taking an active part in promoting the 
confusion which he is here describing. 
' ' De vite loquitur," says Bergler, " tan- 
quam de animali, more Aesopico ; ita 
et de doliis.") 

614. ovbeh 6 Travarav] (So Plutarch, in 
the last chapter of his Life of Cimon, 
says that after Cimon's death the Hel- 
lenes did no glorious deed against the 
Barbarians, but being turned against 
each other by demagogues and agitators 
broke out into intestine wars, ovSevos ras- 
X^pas iv fiecra) bia<rx? VT0St> ) 

616. rwriciv] (So all the MSS. The 
termination -etv was invariably em- 
ployed by Aristophanes, excepting 
where some special circumstances ren- 
dered the use of the termination -;? 
necessary or desirable. See the Fourth 
Additional Note to the Birds.) 

621. tovs <j)6povs] It is unnecessary 
here to trace the steps whereby Athens, 

from being merely prima inter pares, the 
First City in a Free Confederacy, all 
the members of which contributed alike 
to the common treasury kept at Delos 
for Panhellenic purposes, had developed 
into a superior inter inferiores, a Mistress 
ruling over subordinate Allies, exacting 
tribute, cj)6povs i as a due to herself, 
issuing orders at her pleasure, and en- 
forcing them with jealous severity. 
eXadov, says Plutarch of the Allies, aim. 
arvfifidxoi>v {>7rore\€tff ko\ $ov\ol yeyovores. 
Cimon, chap. 11. That one Hellenic 
state should reduce others into the con- 
dition of tributaries, v7roT€\els cfropov (see 
Thuc. i. 19), was a phenomenon so re- 
pugnant to Hellenic sentiments, that 
Athens was universally regarded by 
both friends and foes in the light of 
a Tyrant city (Thuc. i. 122, 124, ii. 63, 
iii. 37) ; and the avowed object of the 
Peloponnesians in entering upon the 
war was to put an end to what they 
considered an unnatural usurpation, and 
to leave every Hellenic city free. So 




KCLvzireiOov 7W Aclkcovcov tovs jxeyicrTOVs ^prj/xaaiv. 

ol 6" &t ovTts alaxpoKepSeis koll SitLpcovogevot 

TrjvS* airoppiy\ravTes alcr^pm top TToXefxov avrfpTraaav 

Kara raKeivoDv ye KepSrj tois yecopyof? r\v KaKci' 

at yap kv6£v8' av Tptrjpeis dpTLTt/xcopovjievaL 

ovSev aiTicov av avSpcov tols KpdBas Karr\<jQiov. 

kv SlKfJ fl\v OVV, €7T€l TOL TT)V KOpGOV€<X>l/ yk jXOV 

egeKoyjrav, r)v eyeb ' (pvrevcra Kd£€6peyjrdfxr]i>. 


eager were the tributaries to shake off 
the yoke, that, shortly before the Pelo- 
ponnesian War, we read of a whole 
maritime population giving up their 
homes and migrating inland, where it 
was hoped that the arm of Athens could 
not reach them (Thuc. i. 58). Thucy- 
dides does not actually mention that 
they employed bribes to induce the 
Spartans to commence the war ; but he 
tells us (i. 58) that the Potidaeans, whom 
he calls ^v^fxaxovs <j)6pov v7tot€\cIs of 
Athens, managed matters so well at 
Sparta, that they obtained from the 
highest Lacedaemonians a promise that, 
if the Athenians touched Potidaea, the 
Spartan armies should be led into Attica. 

623. alcrXpoKepdeTs Kal di€ipcov6£*voi] 

Bergler refers to Eurip. Androm. 451, 
where Andromache, appealing to the 
candour of the Spartans, asks, "Are 
ye not aloxpoKepde'is ? " The epithet 
dieipcovogevoi is supposed to allude to the 
gtvrjkcKTia of Sparta. That that harsh 
institution was keenly resented by the 
other Hellenic states, may perhaps be 
gathered from the reply dictated by 
Pericles to the Spartan ultimatum, 
Meyapeas ia<rop.ev ayopa kol Xijueofi xPW@ al > 

rjv Ka\ AaKebatfiovwi £evr}\a(rlas fir} ttoigmti 

fir}T€ fjflQOV flr]T€ T(DV f)fl€T€p(t)V £u/xjaa;£a>i/. — 

Thuc. i. 144. 

624. avripnaaav] For they refused 
the offers of Athens to refer all matters 
in dispute to arbitration, and acted upon 
the advice of the Corinthians, m owtiv 
rbv TroAf/AOi/ clvt elprjvrjs p.€Ta\afipaveLp 
(Thuc. i. 120). In after years, when the 
fortunes of war had turned against them, 
they acknowledged that they had been 
too precipitate in commencing it (Thuc. 
vii. 18). 

625. TCLKeivoiv] That is, of course, 
tcov /xe-yiWa)*/, not, as Richter explains it, 
tcqv 7r6\€fxovvTG)v. Aristophanes is dis- 
tinguishing between the leading men 
and the peasant-farmers of Laconia : the 
former, he says, gained by the war, for 
they were bribed to commence it; it 
ruined the latter, for their lands were 
ravaged by the Athenian forays. Peri- 
cles (Thuc. i. 142) calls the Pelopon- 
nesians in general avftpts ycapyoi. 

626. aPTiTifKopovpevm] Before the 
war commenced, Pericles had laid it 
down as a maxim of policy, fjv em rrjv 
X&pav fjfjLOiv 7re£r} 1(0(riv f fjfie7s eVi rrjv 
€K€ivodv rrXcvaov^da. — Thuc. i. 143. And 



And the chief Laconian leaders by enormous bribes they gained. 
These at once for filthy lucre, guest-deluders as they are, 
Hustling out this gracious lady, greedily embraced the War. 
But from this their own advantage ruin to their farmers came ; 
For from hence the eager galleys sailing forth with vengeful aim, 
Swallowed up the figs of people who were not, perchance, to blame. 
Tryg. Very justly, very justly! richly had they earned the blow, 

Lopping down the dusky fig-tree I had loved and nurtured so. 

accordingly it was while the Pelopon- 
nesians were yet in Attica on their first 
invasion, and while the whole city was 
in an uproar, as Mr. Mitford expresses 
it, about the devastation of Acharnae, 
that the Athenians sent out their first 
retaliatory fleet to ravage the coasts of 
Peloponnesus (Thuc. ii. 23). And thence- 
forward, in every succeeding year, even 
after the Laconian invasions of Attica 
had been stopped by the threat of exe- 
cuting the Sphacterian prisoners, the 
Athenian triremes were constantly dart- 
ing in upon the unguarded shores of 
Peloponnesus, revenging not upon the 
Laconian leaders, but upon the Laconian 
villagers, c ' who were not, perchance, to 
blame," the damage which Attica had 
sustained from the invading armies. 

627. Kpabas] kol avToi avriKOTrrov raff 

CTVKCLS 00O"IT€p €K€lvOL TO.S ap7T€\()VS YjflSiV. 

Kpadj), udos avKrjs. — Scholiast. Kpdbrjv rr]V 



628. Koptoveav] (A fig-tree, which was 
so called because its fruit was as black 
as a crow, Kopavrj, For the same reason 
it was called Kopa/cecoy, the raven-hlack fig. 
Kop<*>V€cos a)ff <I>i/3a\€G)ff (Ach. 802). eari Si 
d$os crvKrjs. ravrrjv $e Ka\ KOpaKewv \e- 

yova-iVy o yap Kaprros avrrjs Kopan eoucc Kara 
to xp£>M a ' — Scholiast. And see Athenaeus 
iii. 11 (p. 77 A).> 

629. cgeKoyjsav] How bitterly the 
Athenians resented the cutting down of 
their vines and fig-trees, and the devas- 
tation of their country-homes, may be 
seen as well in the impressive language 
of Thucydides (ii. 21) as from number- 
less passages in the extant plays of 
Aristophanes. " Peace ! " say the 
choleric Acharnians, in indignation 
(Ach. 183), "what! when they have cut 
down our vines/" "I too hate the 
Lacedaemonians with all my heart," 
says Dicaeopolis, Kapo\ ydp £<ttiv dfXTreXia 
KeKojApha. Andocides (see note on 609 
supr.) speaks of this devastation as the 
most noteworthy event of the Archida- 
mian War. It was, in truth, the 
common practice in Greek warfare ; but 
the existing generation of Athenians 
had never drunk the bitter cup before, 
and they, of all the Hellenic peoples, 
were most wedded to a country life. 
The Mosaic Law forbade the practice 
(Deut. xx. 19) ; and so, as among Hel- 
lenic combatants, did Plato in his Re- 
public, v. 471. 


E I P H N H 

XO. vrj At', co fi£X\ evSiKm ye Srjr , kirel kA/xov XiOov 
<E^j8aA6Vrey i£fj.k8ifxvov Kvy\rkXi]v dir&Xzcrav. 

EP. Kara 8* coy eK rcoV dyp&v gvvfjXOev ovpyccTrjs Xecos, 
top Tponov TTcoXovpLevos tov avTov ovk kfxdvOavev, 
dXX' ar gov avev yiydpTcov kcu <piXwv ray tcr)(d8as 
efiXenev 7rpdy Toi>$ XkyovTas' ol 8e yiyvwcrKovTes ev 
rov9 nevrjTas darOzvovvTas KairopovvTas dX<pLTcov , 
rrjvSe [xkv SucpoTs kcbQovv ttjv Oebv KeKpdyp,acnv 9 
noXXaKis (f)avei(rav avTrjv rrjaSe rfjs X^P as> noO®, 
toov 8e avfifxd)((ois ecreiov roz)y Travels kcu 7rXovaiov$ y 
a/rt'ay dv irpocmOevTe^, cby (j>povoc tcl Bpao~i8ov. 
efr dv vfius tovtov &(nr€p kvvlSl ko"nrapdTT€T€- 
f) 7t6Xl9 yap d>xpiQ0(ra Kav 0o)8a) KadrjjJievr) 
aTTci SiafidXoi ri$ avTjj, ravr dv t\8ictt rjaOtev. 
ol 8e ray nXrjyas opcovTes ay krvirrovG \ ol ^kvoi 
Xpvcricp tgov ravr a ttoiovvtohv kfivvovv to crTOjia, 





633. tov rponov 7ra>\ovp.€vo$ k.t.A.] 
This phrase has been universally, and, 
I think, very strangely, misinterpreted. 
Nothing can be clearer than its mean- 
ing. Aristophanes has just shown that 
the Laconian farmers had been sold by 
their leaders, and now he adds, that the 
Attic farmers, when they came flocking 
in from all the villages to Athens, did 
not observe that they too were being 
sold by theirs, in just the same way, 
i.e. "eodem modo quo Lacones." Yet 
Bergler and Brunck translate it, ' ' eodem 
modo quo urbani" ; Bothe, "eodem 
modo ut antea cum ipsi in agris dege- 
rent " ; and others, otherwise. With the 
phrase itself Bergler aptly compares 
Acharnians 370-4. The word Icrxabas 
in the next line seems to refer to the 
donatives which the orators obtained for 

the hungry populace. 

637. diKpoh €u>0ovv] These words are 
to be taken together as constituting one 
idea, they pitchforked her out with yells ; 
not as Fritzsche on Thesm. 1011 says, 
clamoribus tanquam furcis, which would 
be a strange comparison. The phrase is 
a common one ; and Florent Chretien 
and Bergler have already cited the 
diKpdvois e£ea)0ei of Lucian's Timon ; the 
furcillis ejiciunt of Catullus ; and the 
Naturam expelles furca of Horace. AvTrjv 
in the succeeding line means * ' of her- 
self, of her own accord. " 

640. to. Bpacrldov] Thucydides pic- 
tures, in very forcible language, the 
prodigious agitation and sympathy which 
the operations of Brasidas on the N.W. 
coast of the Aegean excited amongst the 
Athenian tributaries. All were on the 


Choii. Very justly, very justly ! since my great capacious bin, 

Ugh ! the rascals came across it, took a stone, and stove it in. 

Herm. Then your labouring population, flocking in from vale and plain, 

Never dreamed that, like the others, they themselves were sold for gain 

But as having lost their grape-stones, and desiring figs to get, 

Every one his rapt attention on the public speakers set ; 

These beheld you poor and famished, lacking all your home supplies, 

Straight they pitchforked out the Goddess, scouting her with yells and cries, 

Whensoe'er (for much she loved you) back she turned with wistful eyes. 

Then with suits they vexed and harassed your substantial rich allies, 

Whispering in your ear, " The fellow leans to Brasidas" and you 

Like a pack of hounds in chorus on the quivering victim flew. 

Yea, the City, sick and pallid, shivering with disease and fright, 

Any calumny they cast her, ate with ravenous appetite. 

Till at last your friends perceiving whence their heavy wounds arose, 

Stopped with gold the mouths of speakers who were such disastrous foes. 

alert, each wishing to be the first to attention. In Wasps 473 the foiled 

revolt (iv. 108). And Athens, though and irritated dicasts, passing in their 

vigilant and energetic as ever, was yet wrath from the trochaic to the abrupt 

full of alarm and suspicion, not knowing gasping cretic metre, at once charge 

on whom to depend. That an ally was their opponent with Brasidean sym- 

" leaning to Brasidas " was an intimation pathies : 
requiring, and sure to receive, immediate 

crol \6yovs, a> jMcrodrjpce nal fxovapx^s kpaoTa, 
real gvvcbv Bpauida, /cat cpop&v tcpacrireSa 


Words with thee, thou people-hater ! and with Brasidas, thou traitor, 
Hand and glove ! You who dare Woolly fringed Clothes to wear, 
Yes and show Beard and hair, Left to grow, Everywhere ! 

643. 6\a/3c£Xoi] avri tov clnelv 7rapa- wherewith they were stricken, as is the 
ftd\oi 9 a>? inl rpocj)rjs, SiaftaXoi d-rre 8ia cognate accusative. Hermes is referring 
rovs diaftdXkovTas. — Scholiast. to the hardships inflicted upon tqdv <jv[l- 

644. ol i;evoi] (the Allies ; see Ach. 505 ; /xax<w rovs ira-x^s kcll 7t\ovo~lovs, supra 
Knights 326, 1408 ; Birds 1431, &c. So 639.) 

when .they, the Allies, perceived the blows 


&<tt 6K€wov9 pev TTOLrjaai nXovcriovs, rj 8 'EXXa? av 
egeprjpcodelcr av vpas eXade. ravra 8' r\v 6 Spoov 
(3vp<ro7rco\r)9. TP. Trade irav \ 3) Seairoff 'IZpprj, prj Xiye, 
dXX* ea rbv av8p eKeivov, ovnep ear \ elvai Karoo, 
ov yap fjperepos er ear tfcelvos dvrjp, dXXa <ro$. 650 

&tt av ovv Xiyrjs eKecvov, 

feel rravovpyos rjv, or e£rj, 

KCU XdXo9 Kal 0rVK0(/)dvTr)S' 

Kal KVKrjOpov Kal TapaKrpov, 

ravff airagaTravTa vvvl ' 655 

Toi>s creavrov XoiSopel?. 

dXX J o tl aiconas, S Trorvca, Kdreiire pot. 
EP. aXX ovk av einoi rrpos ye rovs Becopevovs' 

opyfjv yap avrols 3>v ewaBe ttoXXtjv e\fi. 
TP. rj 8' dXXd irpbs ae ptKpbv ecTrdrco povov. 660 

EP. ei(f> o tl voets avroTai npbs ep , <£ (pLXrarrj. 

l6 3) yvvaiK&v pKj(mopTraKi<ndTY\* 

elev, aKovco. ravT eTTtKaXels ; pavOdvco. 

aKovcraff vpeis S)v eVe/ca pop<pr}v eyet, 

eXOovad (prjcriv avTopdrrj pera rdv ITt'Xco 665 

ctttovSoov (pepova-a rfj TroXec kl(ttv,v rrXiav 

a7royeipoTOvr)6rjvaL rph ev TrjKKXrjala, 
TP. rjpdpTopev ravr • dXXa crvyyv&\ir\v eye % 

650. cros] In his well-known charac- 660. f) ft dXXd] (But let her at least. 

ter of x^ovlo9 and conductor of departed The combination of de and d\\a may seem 

spirits to the realms below. The words strange, but is by no means uncommon. 

^ Xeye refer rather to what Hermes is crv £' dXkd, Ach. 191, 1033, Clouds 1369, 

about to say than to what he has Lys. 904, Eur. Med. 942, Rhesus 167, 

already said. But, as the Scholiast Heracleidae 565. vvv 8 dXXa, Ion 978. 

remarks, Trygaeus, under pretence of rj^s 8e y dXXd, Ion 1304. That even 

forbidding Hermes to revile the dead, Velsen should propose in the present 

takes the opportunity of doing it him- line to read old 9 dXXd, and that even 

self to his heart's content. Meineke in his Vind. Aristoph. should 



Thus the scoundrels throve and prospered : whilst distracted Hellas came 
Unobserved to wrack and ruin : but the fellow most to blame 
Was a tanner. Tryg. Softly, softly, Hermes master, say not so ; 
Let the man remain in silence, wheresoever he is, below ; 
For the man is ours no longer : he is all your own, you know ; 

Therefore whatsoe'er you call him, 

Knave and slave while yet amongst us, 

Wrangler, jangler, false accuser, 

Troubler, muddler, all-confuser 

You will all these names be calling 
One who now is yours alone. 

(To Peace.) 

But tell me, lady, why you stand so mute ? 
Herm. Oh, she won't speak one word before this audience : 

No, no ; they 've wronged her far too much for that. 
Tiiyg. Then won't she whisper, all alone, to you ? 

Herm. Will you, my dearest, speak your thoughts to me ? 

Come, of all ladies most shield-handle-hating. 

{Affects to listen.) 

Yes, good ; that's their offence : I understand. 
Listen, spectators, why she blames you so. 
She says that after that affair in Pylus 
She came, unbidden, with a chest of treaties, 
And thrice you blackballed her in full assembly. 
Tryg. We erred in that ; but, lady, pardon us, 

approve of it, are facts to be regarded 
with feelings of wonder and awe. ) 

661 . o tl voels] { ' ' quid sentias de istis, " 
Bergler; "quo erga istos sis animo," 

667. rpis] On the proposals for peace 
which were offered by Sparta fiera rav 
Ilv\(p see note on 212 supra ; that Cleon 

was mainly instrumental in obtaining 
their rejection we are told in Thuc. iv. 
21 ; Knights 795, &c. And see note on 
261 supra. (Thueydides says that these 
overtures were made and were rejected 
7roXkaKis, an expression which may well 
be satisfied by their having been thrice 
made and thrice rejected ; but it is 

G 2 


6 vovs yap tjjjloov r\v tot kv to?9 <tkvt€<tu>. 
EP. 1O1 wv } aKOvaov olov apTt p rjpero' 670 

oaris kolkovovs avrfj /idXiarr rjv kvOdSe, 

y&crris tyiXos KacnrtvStv dvai prj pd^as. 
TP. evvovo-raTOS pev rjv paKpco KXecovvpo?. 


6 KXe&vvpos ; TP. yjrvxrjv y dpco-ros, wXrjv y otl Q75 

ovk rjv dp, ovirkp (f>r)o-LV elvai, tov Trarpos. 
el ydp ttot kgiXdoc aTpaTceoTrjS, evOioo? 
diro(3oXi[JLOuos tcov oirXcov kyiyvero. 

EP. €77 VVV &KOVCTOV olov dpTL fl fjp€TO' 

Saris Kparet vvv rod XiOov tov V rfj ttvkvL 680 

TP. 'TrrepfioXos vvv tovt e^et to )(coptov. 

avrrj, ri Troieis ; tt)v KecjyaXrjv irol Trepidyeis ; 
EP. drroarpk^rai tov Srjpov dyOeo-Oetcr otl 

avT$> TTOvrjpbv TTpoa-TaTrjv kireypd^aTO. 
TP. dXX J officer clvtco xprjo-opeQ' ovSev, dXXa vvv 685 

dnopcov 6 Sfjpo? kiriTpoirov Kal yvpvbs gov 

TOVTOV T€C09 TOV dvSpCt 7T€pL€^d)aaTO. 

quite possible that they may have been (Athens and Attica, chap. x). The 

made more frequently, though only limestone rock, upon which Athens 

thrice coming to an actual vote in the stands, is constantly protruding through 

public Assembly.) its meagre superstratum of soil, like the 

669. crKvrecnp] This word involves a bones of an emaciated body (to use the 

twofold allusion : first, to the tanning simile of Plato, Critias 111 B), through 

trade of Cleon ; and secondly, to the its torn and shrivelled skin. Athenian 

shields, scuta, which were made of hides. ingenuity adapted this geological forma- 

678. d7ro(3o\i(jLcuos] rrapa to arroftaXelp tion to architectural purposes, and 

Ta 07rXa, as the Scholiast says (see note everywhere the living rock is itself hewn 

on 446 supr.), with a play on the word into theatres, seats, steps, walls, cis- 

v7ro(36\ifjLalo9, a supposititious child. See terns, and the like. The Pnyx may be 

Plato, Republic, vii. 537 E v7ro(3o\ifxaio$ roughly described as a semicircular area, 

— ov tovtohv carl Tcov (fiao-KovTcop yoveav. along the chord of which ran a project- 

680. \[0ov tov 'v rfj ttvkvL] The Pnyx ing ridge of this solid rock. In the 

is admirably described by Wordsworth centre of the ridge (and therefore 



For then our wits were swaddled up in skins. 

Herm. Well then, attend to what she asks me now. 
Who in your city loves her least ? and who 
Loves her the best and shrinks from fighting most ? 

Teyg. Cleonymus, I think, by far the most. 

Hekm. What sort of man is this Cleonymus 

In military matters ? Teyg. Excellent : 
Only he's not his so-called father's son ; 
For if he goes to battle, in a trice 
He proves himself a castaway - of shields. 

Heem. Still further listen what she asks me now. 

Who is it now that sways the Assembly stone ? 

Teyg. Hyperbolus at present holds the place. 

But how now, Mistress ? Why avert your eyes ? 

Heem. She turns away in anger from the people, 
For taking to itself so vile a leader. 

Teyg. He's a mere makeshift : we'll not use him now. 

'Twas that the people, bare and stripped of leaders, 
Just caught him up to gird itself withal. 

nearly where the centre of the circle 
would be) there juts out a prominent 
piece of rock, 10 or 12 feet high, which 
is hewn into the pulpit or rostra from 
which the Athenian orators addressed 
the Assembly in the area before them. 
This was the famous Bema or Pnyx- 
stone. The Pnyx derived its name 
either from the crowds which thronged 
together there, airb rov ttvkvovo-Ocli tovs 
dvdpas iv rfj eKK\r)o-iq, or from the closely- 
packed stones which propped up a 
sloping part of the arc, so as to keep it 
from lapsing down into the valley of the 
Agora beneath it, napa rr]v t&v XiBoyv 
7TVKv6rr]Ta. See also Schomann's As- 

semblies, Book I, chap. iii. Taking 
the Bema as the centre, the radius of 
the circle varied from 60 to 80 yards. 

681. 'YrrepfioXos] The character of 
Hyperbolus the lamp-maker, the dema- 
gogue who succeeded Cleon in the favour 
of the Athenian people, is pithily and 
expressively described by his contem- 
poraries Aristophanes and Thucydides. 
The former styles him here Trovrjpbv 
Trpoa-raTrjv, and in Knights 1304 fioxOrjpdv 
avdpa, while Thucydides (viii. 73) merely 
notices him as a fioxfypov avBpamov. 

687. Teens] (i.e. " donee melior pa- 
tronus praesto esset," Herwerden ; "as 
a temporary arrangement," Sharpley.) 



EP. 7r£)$ ovv ^vvoiaeL tglvt } epcord, rfj noXet ; 
TP. €v(3ov\oT€poi yevrjaopeda. EP. rpoirco tlvl ; 
TP. otl Tvyy&vei Xvyvoiroios &v* irpb rod pev ovv 

ktyiqXafycoptv kv ctkotco ra TTpdypccTa, 

vvvX 8 airavra irpbs Xvyvov fiovXevaopev. 
EP <&<&, 

old p' eKeXevcrev dvonrv6£o-6ai aov. TP. rd ri; 
EP. irdpiroXXa^ Kctl rdpycu a KareXtnev tot€. 

wpooTOv 8 o tl TTpdrrzi XooboKXirjs dvrjpeTO. 
TP. €vSacpoj/er irdcryei Se OavpacrTov. EP. to tl; 
TP. etc rod HocpoKXeovs yiyverat XipcoviSrjs. 
EP. %ipcoi>L8r}$ ; ncos ; TP. otl yipcov gov kcu aarrpos 

K€p80V$ (EKCCTL KOLV €777 /5l7TO$ TrXZoi. 

EP. tl Sa( ; KpotTLvos 6 crowds* 6crTiv ; TP. dneOavev, 




697. 2i/xg>w'§7?s] Simonides was, as 
the Scholiast observes, the first poet 
who wrote for hire, and many tales are 
current about the mercenary spirit in 
which he practised the "joyous Art." 
(That Simonides was a lover of money, 
says Aelian, is a fact which none will 
gainsay, cos fjv cjyikoxp^aTos 6 ^iixcovid-qs 
ovbels avTi(f)T](rei Y. H. viii. 2; Id. ix. 1.) 
But nowhere else, I believe, is a charge 
of this kind brought against Sophocles ; 
the Scholiasts are utterly at a loss to 
account for it ; and it seems so incon- 
sistent with all that we know of his 
character ; with that fondness for plea- 
sure and social enjoyments, to which he 
gave free rein, even eVi dvo-fials rod (3lqv, 
in the very evening of his life, and 
about which Athenaeus (Book xiii) col- 
lects so many scandalous anecdotes ; 
with that easy and accommodating dispo- 
sition — zvKokia — which distinguished him 

his whole life through, and which Aristo- 
phanes supposed him to have carried 
into his grave (Frogs 82) ; and even with 
the dubious tradition which the writer 
of his life records about the domestic 
troubles of his old age ; that I cannot 
help suspecting that these lines are in- 
tended to be not a personal satire upon his 
actual character, but an allusion to some- 
thing with which we are unacquainted, 
to some passing incident in the poet's 
life, or to some expression in his plays. 
The Scholiast refers to a proverb, Qeov 
6i\ovros kclv iiii pLTrbs irkiois, With God 
to aid, you might put to sea upon a hurdle. 
(The line is ascribed by some old writers 
to the "Thyestes,"but both Euripides 
and Sophocles wrote a Tragedy bearing 
that name, and we are not told to which 
of the two they are referring. Wagner, 
who collects the authorities on the sub- 
ject in his Tragicorum Graeeorum Frag- 



Herm. She asks how this can benefit the state. 

Tryg. 'Twill make our counsels brighter. Heiim. Will it ? how? 

Tryg. Because he deals in lamps : before he came 

We all were groping in the dark, but now 

His lamps may give our council-board some light, 
Heem. Oh ! oh ! 

What things she wants to know ! Tryg. What sort of things ? 
Herm. All the old things existing when she left. 

And first, she asks if Sophocles be well. 
Tryg. He's well, but strangely metamorphosed. Herm. How ? 
Tryg. He's now Simonides, not Sophocles. 
Herm. What do you mean ? Tryg. He's grown so old and sordid, 

He'd put to sea upon a sieve for money. 
Herm. Lives the old wit Cratinus ? Tryg. No ; he perished 

menta ii. 204, himself considers that the 
line comes from the Thyestes of Euri- 
pides, but he quotes Schneidewin as 
contending, in a note to the Anthologion 
of Orion, that it really comes from the 
Thyestes of Sophocles, and that Aristo- 
phanes is here retorting upon that poet 
a line from his own Tragic Play. ) 

700. Kparlvos] This is but a con- 
tinuation of the old joke about the 
convivial habits of Cratinus. In Knights 
526-36, Aristophanes, affecting to con- 
sider him in his dotage, declared it a 
shame that he should be left to wander 
about like a drunken piper, he who, for 
his past services, was worthy (not denr- 
velv, as others, but) mveiv in the Pryta- 
neum. But in the following year the 
jovial old Poet turned the laugh against 
his rival by his celebrated Play of the 
Flagon, HvTivr], which carried off the 
prize from the Kowos of Ameipsias, and 

the Clouds of Aristophanes. In this 
Play he represented the Flagon as the 
mistress who had seduced him from his 
first and lawful love, the Comic Muse ; 
and it was here, in all probability, that 
he gave utterance to the sentiment re- 
corded by Horace (Ep. i. 19. 1) con- 
demnatory of the effusions of water- 
drinkers, "Ydcop 8e TTLVoav ovdev hv tckol 
a-ocj)6v. (See the Commentary on Knights 
536.) The author of the Treatise on 
Longevity (Macrobii,inLucian's Works), 
sec. 25, says that Cratinus lived to the 
age of 97, and that he composed the 
Flagon 7Tp6s t£> reXet mv (3lov, dying not 
long afterwards, fier ov 7ro\v c-reXevra. 
The Scholiast on Birds 521 makes him 
survive that Play many years, and, al- 
though the Scholiast is of no authority 
in a matter of this sort, yet I doubt if 
it is right to look upon the lines before 
us as a conclusive proof that Cratinus 


o& ol Adtccoves kvefiaXov. EP. rl iradtov ; TP. 6 tl ; 

oopaKtdaas* ov yap k^rjvea^eTO 

IScov ttiOov kglt ay vvpizvov oivov irXecov, 

yarepa irocr drr ocec yeyevfjad* kv rfj noXei ; 

coot ovSiiroT , co Searroiv } d(f>r}a6[ie6d aov. 705 

EP. ffli vvv, eirl tovtols rrjv 'Orroopav Xdfifiave 

yvvalKa aavr£> TrjvSe* ko,t kv rots dypols 

ravrrj £wolkgov eKiroiov aavrZ fiorpvs. 
TP. co (pikTarri, Sevp kX6e Kal 86$ fioi Kvaai. 

ap av fiXafirjvac Sect ^povov tl aoL Sokoo, 710 

co Seairoff 'Rpfifj, rfjs 'Oncbpas KareXdaas ; 
EP. ovk, el ye KVKeoov kiwrLOLS fiXrjyxoviav. 

dXX' Gb$ Tayicrra TrjvSe ttjv Qecopiav 

dirdyaye rfj fiovXf) Xaftcov, rjarrep nor'' rjv. 
TP. co [xaKapta fiovXrj av rfjs ®6(opia$ y 715 

oaov pocfrrjaets fajiov rjfiepcdv Tpioov, 

ocras Se KareSet )(6XiKa$ eobOas Kal Kpea. 

dXX', & c/uA' 'JZp/xrj, yalpe noXXd. EP. Kal av ye, 

cbvdpcoTre, yaipoov cfonQi Kal \ie\xvqa6 jaov. 
TP. co Kav6ap\ oiKaS' otKaS' aTTOTrercofieOa. 720 

EP. ovk kv6d8\ 3) rav, eart. TP. ttol yap ofyerai ; 
EP. vcfj ap/xar kX6cbv Zrjvbs daTpairrjcfrope?. 

was now dead. At all events there had the dotage, so now to celebrate prema- 

been no Laeonian invasion, to which his turely the obsequies, of his merry old 

death could even in joke be referred, rival. The humour of the passage 

since the date of the Flagon, the Spar- would certainly not be lessened by the 

tans having been deterred from sending circumstance that Cratinus was still 

an army into Attica by the threat that, alive, perhaps sitting in the theatre, an 

if they did so, the Sphacterian prisoners interested spectator of this very contest, 

should be put to death. It may be, 708. fiorpvs] ovk elrre tovs iraiba^ 

therefore, that Aristophanes is merely ak\a tovs fiorpvs 8ia ttjv ^Oirapav. — 

alluding in jest to the old invasions Scholiast. Tpvyaios the vintner is to 

(rapxcua, as he says supr. 694), intend- marry 'Orroypav the vintage. QecopLa is 

ing, as he before celebrated prematurely to be given over to the Council, 17 yap 



When the Laconians made their raid. Heiim. How so ? 
Tryg. Swooned dead away : he could not bear to see 

A jolly butt of wine al] smashed and wasted. 

Much, much beside we've suffered ; wherefore, lady, 

We'll never never let you go again. 
Herm. Then on these terms I'll give you Harvesthome 

To be your bride and partner in your fields. 

Take her to wife, and propagate youug vines. 
Tryg. O Harvesthome ! come here and let me kiss you. 

But, Hermes, won't it hurt me if I make 

Too free with fruits of Harvesthome at first ? 
Herm. Not if you add a dose of pennyroyal. 

Bdt, since you're going, please to take Mayfair 

Back to the Council, whose of old she was. 
Tryg. O happy Council to possess Mayfair ! 

O what a three-days' carnival you'll have ! 

What soup ! what tripe ! what delicate tender meat ! 

But fare thee well, dear Hermes. Herm. And do you 

Farewell, dear mortal, and remember me. 
Tryg. Home, home, my beetle ! let us now fly home. 
Herm. Your beetle's gone, my friend. Tryg. Why, where's he gone to? 
Herm. Yoked to the car of Zeus, he bears the thunder. 

0oiA?), says the Scholiast, ras Secopias a medicinal draught. The pennyroyal 

e£e7re/i7re. would be mixed with barley water or 

712. KVKccova ftXrixMviav] (kvk.€<0v, like other ingredients. Demeter, we are 

our mixture, was the regular term for told, would not drink the rosy wine, 

dVcwye 5' dp' a\<pi feat vdojp 
bovvai fxi^aaav irU[xev yXrjx 001 ' 1 Tepeivp, 
rj 5e kvkcoj Tev£aaa 6ea iropev. — Homeric Hymn to Demeter 208. 

As to the medicinal qualities of penny- acidity of the fresh fruit affects the heart, 

royal see the Commentary on Ach. 861. but its effect is counteracted by a dose 

The Scholiast here says ol noWrjv onapav of pennyroyal steeped in water.) 

icrdlovreS) iav KVKecova f$ki)XG>viav 7tlvccktlu, 722. yep' appLctr] Returning to the 

ov (SkaTTTovTau And he adds that the subject of the beetle, Aristophanes 



TP. TToOev ovv 6 rXrjfjLcoi/ kv6d8 e£ei aria ; 

EP. rr]v rod Tavv/jLrjSovs afifSpocriav o-irrjorerai. 

TP. wees Srjr eycb Kara^rfaopLai ; EP. Odppa, KaXm- 

TflSl irap avTrjv rr\v 6eov. TP. 8evp\ & Kopai, 
'ineaOov dp! kpol Odrroy, coy noXXol irdvv 
7ro6ovi/T€$ vpLcis dvap,£vovor karvKores. 

XO. dXX' c$i ^aip(ov % rjpie'LS Se recoy rd8e ra crKevrj irapa86vT€S 
toTs dfcoXovOoLS 8oo/i€i> <rco£eiv> m elcodacn pdXiorTa 
irepl tcc9 (TKTqvds TrXeio-TOi kX£tttgu Kvirrd^iv koX KaKOTrotetv. 
dXXd (pvXdrrere ravr avSpeicos* rjfitis 8' av roicri Oearais, 
t)v eyop,ev 68bv Xoyav €L7rcop,ev, ocra re vovs €X €L 

Xprjv p,h> rviTTav tovs pa/3Sov)(ov$, et tis Koopcp8o7roirjrrjs 



recurs also to the Bellerophon of Euripi- 
des. This, again, is a line from that 
Play. The Scholiast explains dpppoo-iav 


726. Tfldi] Hermes points to the 
concealed staircase, (leading to the in- 
terior of the theatre, and Trygaeus, with 
Harvesthome and Mayfair, departs in 
that direction. The statue of Peace is 
lowered through the upper stage, and 
(with it) is during the Parabasis with- 
drawn, leaving the stage exactly as it 
was at the opening of the Play.) 

729. a\V Wi xaipaw] Whilst the 
scenes are being shifted back, so as 
again to represent the house of Trygaeus, 
the Chorus, handing over to the theatri- 
cal attendants the implements employed 
in the recovery of Peace, turn towards 
the audience, and deliver the Paraba- 
sis. UapaftcKTiv inakovv dno rod napa- 

paiveiv top xopov ano rrjs vevofiLorfJLevrjs 
arraaeoos els rrjv Ka.TavTiK.pv tov OeaTpov 
o\Jslv. — Scholiast. The Parabasis before 
us consists of the Commation, or intro- 
ductory verses, 729-33 ; the Parabasis 
Proper, 734-64 ; the Pnigos or Macron, 
765-74; the Strophe, 775-96; and 
Antistrophe, 797-818. The Epirrhema, 
or system of trochaic tetrameters, which 
should have followed the Strophe, and 
the Antepirrhema, or similar system, 
which should have followed the Anti- 
strophe, are both omitted here ; but they 
are supplied, together with a fresh 
strophe and antistrophe, inf. 1127-90. 
(The Commation here contains four 
anapaestic tetrameters ; notwithstanding 
which the Parabasis Proper, which 
follows is distinctively called " the ana- 
paests,' 1 toIs dvajraicrTois , see the Com- 
mentary on Ach. 626, 627.) 

733. fjv txofJLev k.t.a.] (It is certainly 



TryOx. What will he get to eat, poor creature, there ? 

Heiim. Why, Ganymede's ambrosia, to be sure. 

Tryg. And how shall I get down ? Herm. O well enough. , 

There, by the side of Peace. Tryg. Now girls, now girls, 

Keep close to me : our youngsters I well know 

Are sore all over for the love of you. 

Chor. Yes, go, and good fortune escort you, my friend ; meanwhile the machines and the wraps, 
We'll give to our faithful attendants to guard, for a number of dissolute chaps 
Are sure to be lurking about on the stage, to pilfer and plunder and steal : 
Here, take them and watch them and keep them with care, while we to the audience reveal 

The mind of our Play, and whatever we may 

By our native acumen be prompted to say. 

'Twere proper and right for the Ushers to smite, if ever a bard, we confess, 

surprising to find a doggerel trochaic 
line inserted amongst a system of ana- 
paestic tetrameters, the poet's favourite 
and noblest metre ; and its appearance 
in this place can only be accounted for 
by supposing, with Dindorf, that he is 
ridiculing the verses of some contem- 
porary author. The meaning seems to 
be Let us deliver our set speech, and add 
whatever our mind suggests. ) 

(734-64. The Parabasis Proper. 
The first two lines denounce with 
great vigour the employment of "the 
anapaests " by a Poet for the purpose of 
singing his own praises. In all the 
remaining "anapaests" Aristophanes is 
singing his own praises with keen 
relish and equal vigour. The main 
ground of his self-praise is that just as 
Aeschylus had raised and ennobled 
Tragedy, so he himself had elevated and 
exalted Comedy from mere vulgar farce 

and attacks for paltry ends upon paltry 
objects into a high intellectual enter- 
tainment, a mighty instrument for good, 
alike in the social and in the political 
world. In order that none of his merits 
may be overlooked, he actually borrows, 
with but slight alterations, from the 
Parabasis of the Wasps (acted in the 
preceding year) his own description of 
the fearless gallantry with which he 
attacked Cleon in the Knights, when 
the demagogue was at the very height 
of his power. As to the application of 
the term 7rapa(3as to the Poet himself 
see Ach. 629 and the Commentary there. 
And as to the expression rots avairaio-Tois 
the Scholiast says iraaav Uapafiao-iv (so 
we should read for irapeKfiacnv) avcnvaiorovs 

734. pa(3doi>xovs] These were officers 
whose duty it was to enforce order and 
regularity at public spectacles. Thus, 



avrov enrfpei wpbs to Oearpov napafids ev rots dvanaicrTOiS. 735 
el 6' ovv eiKos Tiva Ttfirjaai, Ovyarep Aibs, ocrris dpicrros 
K(o/ia)SoSiSdorKaXo? di/6pa>7T(ov Kal KXeivoraros yeyevr\rai, 
agios elvai §r)<j evXoyias [xeydXris 6 SiSdcKaXos tj/jLcov. 
TTp&rov fiev yap rovs dvrnrdXovs [lovos di/Opdoircou Kareiravcrev 
els rd paKia a-K&TTTOvras del Kal tois obOeipo'lv TroXejxovvras" 740 
rovs & 'HpaKXeas rovs fxarrovras, Kal rovs neivoovras eKeivovs, 
rovs (pevyovras Kd^airarcopras Kal rvirro/JLevovs e-rrirrjSes, 
e£rj\a<r dn/xooo-as rrpooros, Kal rovs SovXovs rrapeXvcrep, 
ovs egrjyov KXdovras del, Kal rovrovs ovveKa rovSl, 
f iv 6 avvSovXos cKcoyjras avrov ras rrXrjyds, elr dvepoiro, 745 

" S> KaKoSat/jiov, ri to Sep// eiraOes ; /xoou vo-rpiyls elcrefiaXev aoi 
els ras irXevpas iroXXfj arparia KaSevSporo/irjo'e to vq&tov ; 

when Liehas stepped into the lists at 
Olympia, and crowned his victorious 
charioteer, vnb rcov pa$bovx<*>v 7rXr)yas 
eXafiev. — Thuc. v. 50. And in the thea- 
tre, it would seem, they were occasion- 
ally called upon to chastise even offend- 
ing actors. Lucian, on his trial before 
Philosophy, pleading that he had at- 
tacked, not the real philosophers, but 
only the impostors who personated them, 
says ol aOXoOerai fiao~riyovv elooOacriv, rjv 
tis viroKpirrfs, ' Adrjvav rj ttooreibeova, ?} rbv 
Ala vrrobebvKcos, fir) KaXcos vnoKplvoiTO firjbe 
kclt a^Lav roov Qecov, Kal ovbev ttov opyi^ov- 
rai ^EkcIvoi, on rbv rrepiKeifievov avra>v ra 
7rpoo~(D7rela Kal to crxqfia evbebvKora inerpe- 
yj/av iraieiv rols fiao-riyo(j)6pois, aXXa Kal 
rjboivro av, officii, fiaa-TLyovfiivcav. — Piscator 
33. And again, in his Apology for the 
De Mercede Conductis 5, he says, toIs 
rpayiKols vitOKpiTcus elKaorovo~LV % ol eirl fiev 
ttjs o~Kr]vr)s ' Ay ctfiefLvcov eKaaros alrcov fj 
Kpecav rj avrbs* HpaKXrjs elo~iv' e£o> be HwXos 
i] Apicrrobrjfios, dnoOefievoi ra Trpoo'coirela 

yiyvovrai VTTOfiicrooL rpaycobovvres, eKmirrov- 
res Kal avpirrofievoi' ivtore be fiao~r ty ovfievoi 
nves avTcoVf a>s av red dear pop boKrj. 

736. Ovyarep AtoV] (jrapa ra HZipoavibov 
eK ra>v iXeyelcov i{ el S 1 apa rifirfO'ai, Ovyarep 
Aibs, oo-tls apicrTOS, brjfios 'AOrjvaicov e^ere- 
Xeo-aa fiovos." — Scholiast. In my former 
edition I took Ovyarep Aibs to mean 
Athene ; and that is, I think, the view 
of all the commentators ; but I am now 
convinced that I was wrong, and that 
by the appellation of " Daughter of 
Zeus," Aristophanes, at all events, is 
addressing the Muse, as infra 775 and 
817. I do not know whom Simonides 
intended to address ; but the words 
Ovydrrjp Aibs, in an appeal of this kind, 
had been appropriated to the Muse from 
Homer's time ; avbpa poi evvene, Movcra, 
iroXvrpoiTOv , . . tcdv ufioOev ye Oea, 0v-' 
yarep Aibs, ei7re Kal rjfjuv. — Odyssey i. 1, 10. 
And so the words are understood by 
the Scholiasts who paraphrase the line 
el be TTpiirov earrlv, J Movo~a, eavrbv enai- 



Were to fill with the praise of himself and his Plays our own anapaestic address. 

But if ever, O daughter of Zeus,, it were fit with honour and praise to adorn 

A Chorus-Instruetor, the ablest of men, the noblest that ever was born, 

Our Poet is free to acknowledge that he is deserving of high commendation : 

It was he that advancing, unaided, alone, compelled the immediate cessation 

Of the jokes which his rivals were cutting at rags, and the battles they waged with the lice. 

It was he that indignantly swept from the stage the paltry ignoble device 

Of a Heracles needy and seedy and greedy, a vagabond sturdy and stout, 

Now baking his bread, now swindling instead, now beaten and battered about. 

And freedom he gave to the lachrymose slave who was wont with a howl to rush in, 

And all for the sake of a joke which they make on the wounds that disfigure his skin : 

"Why, Jwtv now, my poor knave?" so they bawl to the slave, "has the zvhipcord invaded your back, 

Spreading havoc around, hacking trees to the ground, with a savage resistless attack ? " 

vecrai rivd. And more than all, the invo- 
cation itself is part of a comic jest with 
which it would not be becoming to 
associate the great and awful name of 
Athene ; see the Commentary on Knights 
551-64 ; while that no such impropriety 
attaches to a similar use of the Muse's 
name is shown by the passages, to which 
reference has been made above, in the 
Strophe and Antistrophe of this very 
Parabasis. ) 

739. tovs avTL7rd\ovs] The Scholiast 
says that the ensuing criticisms are 
specially directed against Eupolis, 
Cratinus, and others. But they must 
not be restricted to individual cases. A 
gluttonous Heracles was the stock joke 
of the comic poets (see Athenaeus x. 1) ; 
and both in the Birds and in the Frogs, 
Aristophanes himself introduces the 
character. But his Heracles plays quite 
a subordinate part, and is not — as he 
suggests was the case in other comedies 

— the staple commodity of the Play. 

740. els to. paKia k.t.A.] (This line 
has been taken too literally. It is merely 
a comic description of the paltry and 
unworthy objects to which his prede- 
cessors confined their satire. By toIs 
(pdeipvlv, the Scholiast says, we must 
understand evreXels avdpas koi ddo^ovs, 
and he explains els ra paKia by oos elcra- 
yovrcov rcov ciWcov KcofiiK&v paKcxfiopovvras. 
He adds alviTTerai be els Ei/VoXt^, but 
that is hard to believe. Everything we 
know of Eupolis tends to show that he 
went hand in hand with Aristophanes 
in his attempt to elevate Comedy and 
purge it from vulgar farce and attacks 
upon ignoble objects.) 

746. varpix^] (17 e£ veicov rpix&v fxdaTi^. 
— Scholiast. It was a scourge made, as 
the name implies, of hog-bristles, and 
was commonly used for slaves and crimi- 
nals, Frogs 619 ; Alciphron hi. 43.) 



Toiavr dcpeXoou kcckcc Kal (poprov Kal ^(OfLoXox^^^ dyevvrj^ 

enoLTjo-e rkyvr\v \ieydXr\v r\piv Kanvpyoixr oiKoSo/irjo-as 

eireaiv /JteyaXois Kal Biavoiais teal o-Koo/MfLacriv ovk dyopaiois. 750 

ovk ISlootccs dv6pcD7ricrKovs KOdjjLwScoi' ovSe yvvaiKas, 

dXX' 'HpetKXiovs bpyr\v tiv iyc&v roTcn peyLcrTOis kireyeipeL, 

Scafias ftvpacoi/ ocr/ias Setvas KairuXas f3opfSopo6v[iov$ r 

Kal irpcoTOV fieis pd^ofiat irdvTO&v avrco r<2 KapyapoSovn, 

cu Suvotcltcli fxlv an 6(f>6aXfioov Kvvvrjs aKrlves eXafiTrov, 755 

eKarbv Si kvkXco KtcjyaXal KoXaKoav olfjLco£ofievcoi> eXi^ficoPTo 

nepl tt)v K€(f)aXf]y, (pcoi/fjj/ S y €i\€v yapdSpas oXeOpov TeroKvias, 

{pcoKrj? 8' do-firjv, Aafiias op)(€is d-rrXvTOVS, npcoKroi/ Se Kajxivov. 

toiovtov IScov Tepas ov KaTeSeia, dXX' virep vp&v noXepi^ooy 

dvreiyov del Kal rcov aXXcov vrjacov. &>v ei'veKa vvvl 760 

diroSovvai [lot rr]v yapiv vjias eiKcs Kal pLvr\\LOvas eluai. 

Kal yap irporepov irpd^as Kara vovv ovy\ naXalo-Tpas Trepivocrrcov 

749. iTTvpycoae] (He uses the same 
word here to describe his influence on 
Comedy that he uses in Frogs 1004 to 
describe the influence of Aeschylus on 
Tragedy. And the Scholiast tells us 
that, in the Kpa7rara\o\ of Pherecrates, 
Aeschylus says of himself ocms y aurois 
TrapedcDKa T€)(yqv p.eyd\r]V €^OLKo8op.7jcras.y 

752. rolcri fieyio-Tois] The mightiest 
objects, as opposed toIs (fiOeipo-h and rols 
paKWLs. The following description of 
Cleon is repeated, with but slight varia- 
tion, from the Parabasis of the Wasps, 
1030-7, (where the poet is describ- 
ing his own career as that of a Heracles, 
a Destroyer of monsters. The reader 
is referred to the Commentary there. ) 

754. Kapxapodopn] The epithet refers 
to the sharp, irregular, serrated teeth 
with which carnivora tear their food, 
as contrasted with the even, regular, 

flat surfaces which render the teeth of 
other animals more adapted for grinding. 
Aristotle (Hist. Animal, ii. 3. 9) defines 
KcLpxapodovra to be ova eVaXXarret tovs 
odouras tovs o£etff. Lycophron, in his 
obscure enigmatic style, speaks of Hera- 
cles as one ov yvdOois nore Tpiravos 
rjfiaXayj/e Kapxapos kvcdv (Cass. 34) where 
Tzetzes observes, Kdpxapos, 6 Kexapay- 
p.evovs extov rovs 686vtcls fjToi kcx^votus, and 
Canter adds, " Canes et pisces omnes 
carnivori asperos et serratos, non con- 
tinuos, habent dentes." Homer and 
Hesiod frequently apply this epithet to 
dogs, and Theocritus (xxiv. 85) applies 
it to the wolf. The genus to which the 
terrible white shark belongs is called 
by naturalists Carcharodon, from the 
notched three-edged teeth which dis- 
tinguish it. Aristophanes had already 
(Knights 1017) called Cleon, or rather 



Such vulgar contemptible lumber at once lie bade from the drama depart. 

And then, like an edifice stately and grand, he raised and ennobled the Art. 

High thoughts and high language he brought on the stage, a humour exalted and rare, 

Nor stooped with a scurrilous jest to assail some small-man-and-woman affair. 

No, he at the mightiest quarry of all with the soul of a Heracles flew, 

And he braved the vile scent of the tan-pit, and went through foul-mouthed revilings for you. 

And I at the outset came down in the lists with the jagged-fanged monster to fight, 

Whose eyeballs were lurid and glaring with flames of Cynna's detestable light ; 

And around his forehead the thin forked tongues of a hundred sycophants quiver, 

And his smell was the smell of a seal, and his voice was a brawling tempestuous River, 

And his hinder parts like a furnace appeared, and a goblin's uncleansable liver. 

But I recked not the least for the look of the beast ; I never desponded or quailed, 

And I fought for the safety of you and the Isles; I gallantly fought and prevailed, 

You therefore should heed and remember the deed, and afford me my guerdon to-day, 

For I never went off to make love to the boys in the schools of athletic display 

made him call himself, a kvvo. napxapo- 
dovra ; and in line 765 of the same play 
he had already associated Cleon's name 
with that of Cynna, who was a shameless 
Athenian prostitute. 

756. iKorov] Mr. Mitchell (at Wasps 
1033) suggests that Aristophanes is here 
deriving his imagery from the descrip- 
tion given by Hesiod of Typhoeus, Theo- 
gony 825. 

758. Aafiias] The mythological his- 
tory of Lamia is given by the Scholiast, 
who represents her as a Libyan princess, 
beloved of Zeus. Hera, discovering the 
intrigue, deprived her of all her off- 
spring as soon as they were born, and 
the childless mother, roaming about in 
mad despair, endeavoured to indemnify 
herself for her bereavement by stealing 
the children of others ; dia tovto, says 
the Scholiast, Kiu rcis tLtOcis iK<fio(3ovaras 

ra [Specprj Kokelv eV avrols rr}V Aafxiav^ 
He adds, eiScoXoTroiet nvas op)(€is Aap-ias' 
6rj\v yap. And with reference to (paid]? 
do-fjirjv, he cites Horn. Od. iv. 442 — 

Qajfcaajv a\ioTpec[)€QJi> bXoanaros odfjirj. 

760. Toav aXkcov vrjacov] There is no 
special allusion here, as Dindorf sug- 
gests, to Aegina : by "the other islands " 
Aristophanes merely means the Athenian 
Empire. J/ AXkcov is of course used in 
that redundant way, which Elmsley, ad 
Oed. Tyr. 7, illustrates by citing this 
passage and Plato's G-orgias (473 C), 


usage of ciXXos is as old as Homer, Odyssey 
i. 132; vi. 84. 

762. irpa^as Kara vovv] (The Poet, 
having borrowed so much from the Para- 
basis of the Wasps, goes on to borrow 
this phrase from the Parabasis of the 

96 E I P H N H 

ircuSas kirdpodV) dXX dpdpevos rr\v (TKtvrjv evdvs ty&povv, 
iravp avidaas, it6\\' evcppdvas, iravra irapaay&w ra Seovra. 

TTpbs ravra ^pecbv eivai per epov 765 

Kal rovs avSpas Kal tovs TratSas' 

Kal tols (f>a\aKpo?cn irapaivovpev 

£v<jTrov8d£€iv irepl rrjs vcK-qs. 

iras ydp tls epet vikcovtos epov 

Kanl rpanegr) Kal £vpirocriois, 770 

" (pepe ro) (paXoLKpco, 5oy r<3 (paXaKpco 

t5>v TpcoyaXLCov, Kal prj d(patpei 

yevvaiordrov rcbv ttoltitcov 

dvSpbs to percoirov eyovros. ' 

Mo&ra, crv pev iroXepovs aTT(£>crapevr\ per epov \J rT P' 

rod cfriXov ^opevcrov, 
KXeiovaa Oecov re ydpovs dvSp&v re 8a?Ta$ 
Kal OaXlas paKapcov vol yap rdS e£ dpyr\s peXei. 780 

fjv Se ere KapKivos eXBoov 

Knights 549, where it is employed in TrepivocrT&v fiavreis eVe^ret kcu ^7707x0X0- 

exactly the same sense as here. Kept- yovs.} 

vooTcbv, haunting, is frequently used in 763. iraibas eVe/pcw] This imputation, 

a depreciatory sense, Thesm. 796, Plutus too, the Scholiast would fasten upon 

121, 494; Demosthenes de F. L. 285 Eupolis. With the succeeding line com- 

(p. 421). Theodoret (H. E. iii. 3) says pare the opening of the Prologue to the 

that Julian the Apostate rr]v 'EW&ba Eunuch of Terence : 

Si quisquam est qui placere se studeat bonis 
Quam plurimis, et minime multos laedere, 
In his poeta hie nomen profitetur suum. 

The Prologue, both on the Roman and boys, that is, the entire audience, should 

on the English stage, discharged an be on his side, but more particularly 

office humbler than, but not dissimilar such as are bald like himself, since if 

to, that of the Athenian Parabasis. he obtains the prize all bald-headed 

(765-74. The Pnigos or Macron, men will share his popularity. ) Florent 

Therefore, he says, all the men and Chretien cites Plutarch, Symp. ii. 1. 12 



Heretofore when I gained the theatrical prize : but I packed up my traps and departed, 
Having caused you great joy and but little annoy, and mightily pleased the true-hearted. 

It is right then for all, young and old, great and small, 

Henceforth of my side and my party to be, 
And each bald-headed man should do all that he can 

That the prize be awarded to me. 
For be sure if this Play be triumphant to-day, 
That whene'er you recline at the feast or the wine, 

Your neighbour will say, 
" Give this to the bald-head, give that to the bald-head, 

And take not away 
That sweetmeat^ that cake, but present and bestow it 
On the man with the brow of our wonderful Poet ! " 

Muse having driven afar this terrible business of war, 

Join with Me the chorus. 
Come singing of Nuptials divine* and earthly banquets, 
Singing the joys of the blessed : this of old to Thee belongs. 

But and if Carcinus coming 


doicovai tS (TKODTTTetv iavrovs, a>s 'Apioro- 
<j)dvr]s els ttjv (f>a\a,Kp6Tr}Ta. 

(775-818. The Strophe and Anti- 
strophe. In this hastily constructed 
Comedy these do not rise to the lyrical 
elevation attained in the other Plays. 
They are mainly little satirical pieces, 
the first aimed at Carcinus and his sons, 
the second at two worthless Tragedians, 
Morsimus and Melanthius. But in each 
case the satire is prefaced by 3| musical 
lines based on the Choral melodies of 
Stesichorus. As regards the strophe, the 
Scholiast merely says that the commence- 
ment eori 2rr](Tix6peio9 ; but he sets out 
the lines adapted in the antistrophe, from 

which we can see how extremely free the 
adaptation was. The correspondence of 
the strophe and antistrophe is, as Mr. 
Sharpley points out, very close ; the 
Stesichorean melody closes at the same 
syllable (fiaKapav and KeXadfj) ; Melan- 
thius takes the place of Carcinus as 
a bad tragedian in the corresponding 
foot of the antistrophe ; whilst in the 
two long lines filled with abusive terms 
(oprvyas — prj^avodtyas, and Topyoves — 
IxQvokvpLai) each word in the strophe 
has its exact counterpart metrically cor- 
responding to it in the antistrophe.) 
The translation is an attempt to repro- 
duce the exact metrical system of the 



avriftoXfj fiera rcov iraiSoav ^opevaai, 

\xr\& v7Tcckov€ firjr eX- 

6y$ <rvvepi6o$ avTois, 

dXXa v6[XL^e iravras 
opTvyas oiKoyevet?, yvXiavytvas op^rja-Ta?, 
vavvocfrveis, o-fyvpaScov dnoKvicrixaTa, iir)xavo8i<pa$. 
Kal yap e(j>aax 6 iraTrjp b trap kXTrlSas 

el^e to Spd/xa yaXfjv rfjs 

eanepas airay^cu. 

roidSe xprj XapLToav 8 a /ago par a KaXXiKOfiooi/ 




784. 7rat8(Dv] Three sons of Carcinus 
were dancers and one was also a Tragic 
poet : their dwarfish ungainly figures, 
and their extraordinary contortions as 
they danced in their father's choruses, 
were constant subjects for the mirth of 
Aristophanes. See especially the closing 
scene in the Wasps where all three are in- 
troduced. They seem to have invented 
some mechanical contrivances to assist 
their efforts ; for Xenocles, who was one 
of them, is, as the Scholiast observes, 
called by Plato Comicus EevoKkrjs 6 
8cdbeKafir)x av0 ?i an( * nere we find them 
all described as prixp-vobi<f)as. 

788. oprvyas oiKoyevels] Quails were 
domesticated in great numbers at Athens, 
and trained for the sport of 6pTvyoK07ria f 
which is described by Pollux ix, Segm. 
102, 108, 109. (See the Commentary on 
Birds 1299.) A ring was drawn round 
the bird, which was then struck sharply 
on the head with the finger. If it stood 
its ground, its owner won : if it backed 
out of the ring, he lost. Sometimes the 
game was played for money ; at other 

times the bird itself was the stake. 
Quail-fighting is, or was, much in vogue, 
Buffon observes (Wood's translation, xii. 
425, &c), in Italy ; and also in the East, 
where, to use the language of Mr. Curzon, 
in his Armenia, ' ' quails are as plenty as 
flies." (Shakespeare, following Plutarch 
(Antony 33) makes Antony say of Augus- 
tus "His quails Beat mine, inhooped, 
at odds," Ant. and Cleop. ii. 3.) They are 
game and pugnacious little birds : ' ' ecce 
coturnices inter sua proelia vivunt," 
says Ovid, Amor. ii. 6. 27 ; but Buffon, 
who collects much curious information on 
the subject, remarks that they fight with 
their own species only, which implies 
jealousy rather than a temper naturally 
quarrelsome. And this seems to agree 
with the observations of Aristotle, Hist. 
Animal, ix. 9. Antiochus, the unlucky 
lieutenant of Alcibiades, first gained his 
patron's favour by capturing and re- 
storing to him a tame quail, which had 
escaped from its master's robe in his 
flurry and delight at the applause which 
attended his first public appearance 



Ask thee to join with his sons in choral dances, 
Hearken not, come not, stand not 
As an ally beside them, 
Think of them all as merely 
Little domestical quails, ballet-dancers with wallet necks, 
Nipped from the droppings of goats, small, stunted, machinery-hunters. 
Yea, for their father declared that the drama which 
Passed all his hopes, in the evening 
By the cat was strangled. 

These are the songs of the fair sweet Graces with beautiful hair, 

(Plutarch, Alcib. chap. 10). The Scholiast 
doubts whether the sons of Carcinus owe 
their sobriquet of tame quails to their 
appearance or to their tempers ; but we 
may suppose that they were termed 
quails from their diminutive stature and 
oUoyeveis because homebred birds were 
less valuable, as less suited for oprvyoKonta 
than wild ones. Athenaeus (ix. 48) ob- 
serves that Aristophanes has shortened 
the v in oprvyas to suit the metre. (yuXi- 
avxevas , wallet-necked. We cannot tell the 
precise meaning of this epithet, because 
we do not know what was the shape of the 
yvXios, the soldier's wicker wallet ; see 
the Commentary on Ach. 1097. But it 
was probably twisted in some way so as 
to accommodate itself to the soldier's 
person ; so that the allusion here, as 
infra 864, is to their distorted figures 
while dancing, vdwos, or as it is more 
commonly spelled vavos, signifies a mis- 
shapen dwarf. (Kpvpddes de elai to. tcdv 
aiyaw kcu Trpofidrcov aTVOirar rj jxara. ravrats 
ovv aTreucafci avrovs, fiaWop be ovde Tavrais, 
dWa rots diroKvi<riia(Tiv avrcov Kal diroTpir]- 

fjiaa-iv, fjajxavobtyas Se elrrep avrovs, irrfidrf 
TToXkaKis cos Tpaycodol [irjxavas €lore(p€pov f 

f)PLK(l 0€OVS efJUfJLOVPTO aV€pX0fJL6V0VS j) KCLT€p- 

XOfievovs €K tov ovpavovrjaXko tl tolqvtov. — 
Scholiast. ) 

795. yaXrjv] The Scholiast says that 
Carcinus had composed a Play called 
" The Mice," which, though esteemed by 
its author one of his happiest efforts, 
yet proved a total failure. Its untimely 
fate is described, as if it had been in 
truth the animals whose name it bore, 
a witticism not dissimilar to that of the 
Emperor Augustus, who, when asked 
what had become of his " Ajax" (a tra- 
gedy which he had commenced to write, 
but had afterwards obliterated), replied, 
" In spongiam incubuit" in allusion to 
the fate of the hero falling on his sword 
{TveiTTCdTa rcode irepl veoppdvrco £L<j)ci 9 Soph. 
Ajax 828), Macrobius, Saturnalia ii. 4. 

797. rotaSe] The strophe is immedi- 
ately followed by the antistrophe, eWi 
ov Keirai fjLera^v to iiripprjiJLa, says the 
Scholiast. The opening lines of the 
antistrophe are adapted from a passage 



tov (jotyov Troir\rr\v 
v/jivetv, otclv rjpwa jikv (pcovfj ^eXtScbv 
igojievr) KeXaSfj, xopov 8e firj'xfl Mo/m/to? 

fxrjSe MeXdvBios, ov Srj 

TTLKpordrriv ona yrjpvo-avTos tJkovct, 

fjviKa tcov rpay&S&v 

tov yopbv elyp v «^ e ^~ 

(f)6s re Kal avrbs, d/xtpco 
Topyoves oyfrocfxiyoL, fiaTiSoaKOTroi, apirviai, 
ypaoaofiaL, fiiapol, rpayo/xdaxaXoij lyOvoXvpLai* 




in the Oresteia of Stesichorus, which is 
arranged by Bp. Blomfield, Mus. Crit. 
ii. 266, as follows : 

roiaZe xp~h Xapirow dapjo}p.ara 
KaWifcdficov vjAveTv $pvyiov p,£\os egevpSvra 
afipws rjpos ItrepxofJitvov. 

And again orav rfpos &pa KeXabrj ^eXtSow. 
800. xeXidaw e&ixevrj] Meineke, with- 
out the slightest reason, alters efrfxevr) 
into fjdofxevr) (rj^opLevrj, Bergk) ; but the 
MS. reading is better in itself, and is 
strongly confirmed by Frogs 682, Eur. 
Phoen. 1517, Rhesus 547. "The 
swallow," says Gilbert White (Selborne 
ii. 18), " is a delicate songster, and in 
soft and sunny weather sings both 
perching and flying, on trees in a kind 
of concert, and on chimney tops." 
Chaucer (Cant. Tales 3257), speaking 
in praise of a woman's voice, says 

But of hire song, it was as loud and yerne 
As any swalow sitting on a berne. 

Artemidorus (ii. 66) describes the swal- 
low's song as qcrpa ivftoTiKov kcu KcXev- 
(ttlkov 7rp6s epya. And he says that, 

while it is absent, all Nature is stagnant : 
orav de to cap irapa$a\rj, TTpoorrj Trpoeiaiv 
v7TobeiKvvov(Ta rcov tpyoov eKaa-ra, kcu orav 
ye cfaaivrjrai, ovbenoTe ea-Tripas adei, aXX' 
ecaBep ffhlov avio'XOVTOs, "Eotw ovv ayaOr) 
Kai irpbs cpya Kal irpat-cis, Ka\ irpos p.ov- 
o-lktjv. A bronze swallow was, therefore, 
a fit symbol to place over a poet's grave. 
See the Vita Sophoclis. 

801. x°P ov $* A"? *Xd\ For it was not 
every play which could be exhibited at 
the Dionysia, but only the three which 
the presiding Archon had selected as 
worthy the allotment of a Chorus and 
the proper staff of actors. Thus, merely 
to be one of the selected exhibitors was 
in itself a considerable success : napa. 
yap toU *A0r]vaiois, says the Scholiast on 
Plato's Republic, Book ii ad fin., 
Xopov irvyxavov Kcofimbias Kal rpaycodias 
iroirjral ov Tcavres, aXX' ol evdoKipLOVvrts 
Kal hoKipacrBevres a£iot. In Frogs 94 
Aristophanes speaks of a multitude of 
poets, "who get one Chorus, and are 
heard no more," a. (f>pov8a Barrov, yjv p.6vov 
Xopov Xd%. And it is said (though it is 



Which it well beseemeth 
This poet of wisdom to chant, while softly resting 
Warbles the swallow of spring ; and Morsimus no chorus gains, 

No, nor Melanthius either. 
Well I remember his shrill discordant chatter, 

When the tragedians' chorus 

He and his brother tutored, 

Both of them being merely 
Gorgons, devourers of sweets, skate- worshippers, and harpies, 
Pests of old maids, rank fetid as goats, destroyers of fishes. 

not perhaps quite certain whether in 
jest or earnest) that on one occasion, at 
least, Sophocles himself was refused a 
Chorus (Athenaeus xiv, chap. 43). In 
the Republic, ubi supr., Plato is citing 
from Aeschylus a speech of Thetis, ex- 
pressing sentiments which the philoso- 
pher esteems unworthy of a heavenly 
speaker ; and he says that, if a poet 
uses such language as this about the 
Gods, we will take it ill, x°P° v °v 

802. Mopo-tfjios — MeXavQios] This is 
not the only occasion on which these two 
sorry tragedians are assailed by Aristo- 
phanes. "If I hate thee not, set me 
to learn a play of Morsimus," say the 
Chorus to Cleon (Knights 401), by way 
of imprecation. And in Frogs 151, 
those who have transcribed a speech of 
Morsimus are classed in the shades 
below with parricides, perjurers, and 
the worst of villains. Melanthius is 
attacked in the Birds, and inf. 1009 he 
is mentioned as a glutton, which explains 
the use of the epithets 6\lso<fidyoi, lx@vo- 
A{5/xai below. (Indeed he was so notorious 

for his IxOvocfiayia that Archippus in his 
Comedy of the 'lxdvs depicted him as 
cast to the fishes, to be, in his turn, 
devoured by them (Athenaeus viii, chap. 
30, p. 343 C) ; an act of retributive jus- 
tice in which, upon the principles of the 
philosopher Demonax, he ought to have 
cheerfully acquiesced. For when De- 
monax was embarking on a perilous 
voyage, and some friend warned him 
that he would probably be food for fishes, 
' 'And very unreasonable I should be," 
replied the philosopher, " if I who have 
devoured so many fishes, should object 
in my turn to be devoured by £/iem." 
Kapra (so I read for the Kara of the 
MSS. and edd.) dyvcDpoov av e'lrjv, okvcov 
wo Ix^vcov KaradacrOrjvai, toq-ovtovs avros 
Ix^vs Karacfiaywv. — Lucian, Demonax 35.) 
The general, though by no means the 
universal, opinion of modern editors is 
that Morsimus was a brother of Melan- 
thius, and is the person here spoken of 
as ade\(j)6s, but the Scholiasts do not 
favour this view, and we have no data 
for determining the question. 



S>v Kara)(pe/xyjrafJiivr] fieya kcli ttXcltv 815 

Movaa Bed per e/xov £vfi- 
irai£e rr\v eopTrjv. 

TP. co9 -^aXenov ^deiu r\v dp ev6v 7W dean/. 

eycoye tol 7re7r6vrjKa ko/jliStj tq> aKeXrj. 820 

/XLKpol 5' bpdv dvoaOev rjcrr. efioiye tol 

diro Tovpavov '(paivecrOe KaicorjOeis Trdvv, 

evTevQevl Se noXv tl KaKorjdeo-Tepoi. 

3) Secrrroff, iJK€L$ ; TP. m eycb 'irvdofXTji' tiv'o$. 

tl 8' eiraOes ; TP. rjXyovv too cKeXt] fiaKpav 68hv 825 

SieXr)Xv6a>$. OI. id i vvv, Karenre jjlol, TP. to tl; 

dXXov tiv eiSes avSpa kcctcc tov depa 

TrXavGojJLGVov ttXtjv cravTov ; TP. ovk, el /xrj ye nov 

yfrv^ds 8v rj Tpels SidvpafifioSiSacrKdXcov. 

tl 5' eSpcdv ; TP. ^vveXeyovT dvafioXas noTtojievai, 830 

tols evSiaepiavepivqyeTOvs Tivds. 




815. Karaxp^p^a^kvi) TrXarv] (Lucian 
was probably thinking of this passage 
when he makes the dead Tyrant, Mega- 
penthes, complain that after his death 
his slave Cario came, and struck and 
insulted him ; reXos de Trkarv xp^p-^afiEvos 
Kal KaraiTTvo-as fiov, kol "is tov tcdv d<j€(3a>v 
X&pov aiziBi " €iT€L7raiv ca^ero, Cataplus 12.) 

819. cos x a ^ €7r 6v] During the fore- 
going Parabasis the upper stage together 
with the statue of Peace is withdrawn, 
and the scene again, as at first, repre- 
sents the exterior of the house of 
Trygaeus. Trygaeus himself appears, 
leading in Harvesthome and Mayfair. 
We see no more of the colossal statue of 

822. KaKor]6eis] avdv7rr)\\a^€v avr\ tov 
elirslv /diKpoL — Scholiast. 

824. OI.] (This is the Servant who at 
the commencement of the Play was 
superintending the feeding of the beetle, 
and was called "the First Servant." 
As there observed, he is the steward or 
confidential attendant of Trygaeus, and 
in that character he co-operates with his 
master during the remainder of the 
Comedy. The Second Servant, whose 
business it was to feed the beetle, left 
the stage when that duty was performed, 
supra 49, and returns no more. ) 

825. rt 8' e-rraQes ;] The servant's ques- 
tion, "How fared you ?" merely refers 
to the general success of Trygaeus in the 
object of his journey ; but Trygaeus 
chooses to understand it as meaning, 
" What have you suffered ? " 

829. dtSvpa^odLdao-KaXoyp] The Scho- 


Thou having spit on them largely and heavily, 
Join in the festival dances, 

Heavenly Muse, beside me. 

Tryg. O what a job it was to reach the Gods ! 

I know Fm right fatigued in both my legs. 

How small ye seemed down here ! why from above 

Methought ye looked as bad as bad could be, 

But here ye look considerably worse. 
Serv. What, master, you returned ! Tryg. So Fm informed. 
Serv. What have you got ? Tryg. Got? pains in both my legs. 

Faith ! it's a rare long way. Serv. Nay, tell me, Tryg. What ? 
Serv. Did you see any wandering in the air 

Besides yourself ? Tryg. No ; nothing much to speak of, 

Two or three souls of dithyrambic poets. 
Serv. What were they after ? Tryg. Flitting round for odes, 

Those floating-on-high-in-the-airy-sky affairs. 

liast remarks that the dithyrambic poets KaTcarTpapLpevrj 8i r) iv 7repi6dois. k.t.X. 
are constantly (awex^s) being satirized Twining (note 17 to the Poetics) remark- 
as drawing their inspiration from the ing that, by dpafioXai, Aristotle means 
clouds and air. And see Clouds 333-7 ; the long, irregular, protracted odes of 
Birds 1384-90. The word dpaftoXas in the more modern dithyrambic poets, as 
the next line is universally translated opposed to the old and simple poetry in 
"preludes,'* but it would seem from stanzas, compares Cicero, de Oratore iii. 
Aristotle's Rhetoric, iii. 9. 1, that, as 48. A specimen of these dithyrambic 
applied to dithyrambic poetry, it in- dvafioXal is given in the Birds, ubi supr. 
volves the idea of a long, continuous, 831. epdiatpiavepiprjxerovs] (I leave this 
rambling ode, unconfined by stanza or word as it stands in the best MSS. be- 
strophe, and terminating only with the cause the Scholiast's remark Aldvpos 
termination of its subject. Trjp be Xigip TreTrXaprjTai Xeyoap avepivr)X* T0V s' °v W 3 
avayKt] eipai rj elpofievrju kol t<3 avvdeorfjKp Xeyovaip avepa ovtol shows that the SUS- 
liiav, aanep ai iv rots 8idvpdfi(3ois dpafioXai picious -avepi- was a (if not the) reading 
rj Karea-TpapL^vrjv kcu ojxoiav reus to>p dp- before the commencement of our era, 
xaicov 7tolt]tS)p dvTi(TTp6(f)ois. — Xeyo) be and implies that it was regarded as a 
elpofjLcvrjp, rj ovbep e^et reXos kcl& avrrjp, burlesque repetition of -aepi-, Other- 
ftv \xr) to n pay pa Xeyofiepop TeXeiayBfj. — wise I might have preferred ipbibiepoaepi- 


OI. ovk r\v dp ov8' a Xiyovai Kara rbv depa, 
a>9 daTepes yLyv6[xe6\ orav tl$ dnoOavrj ; 

TP. /AaXlO-TCC. OI. KOU T19 k(TTLV dcTTr}p VVV €K€? ) 

TP. "Icov 6 Xtby, ocrTrep kiroirjcr^v ndXat **35 

kv6d8e tqv 'Aoiov troff* <oy 8* rjXd', evdioos 

'P^oiov avTov irdvTts kicdXovv darepa. 
OI. r/Wy yap elcr ol Siarpeyovres darepe?, 

ot KaofMevoi Qiovcriv ; TP. dirb SeiTrvov tiv\s 

tgov TrXovo-icoi/ ovtol fiaSigovcr d<TT€pcov } 840 

iirvovs iyovTes, kv 8e to?$ Ittvolctl irvp. 

dXX' etaay m Td)(i(rTa Tavrrjvl Xafiobi/, 

Kal rr}V irveXov KaraKXvge, Kal Qkp\iaiv vScop- 

(TTopvv r ipol Kal rfjSe Kovpi8iov X&yos. 

Kal ravTa 8pdora? rjK€ Sevp avdts irdXiv 845 

eyco 8' dnoSeoo'co Tr\v8z tj) ftovXf) reooy. 
OI. 7r66ev 8' eAa/3ey ravras crv ; TP. tt66zv ; <ek rovpavov. 
OI. ovk dv en Soirjv T&v Oewv TpccofioXoi/, 

ptjxctovs, those floating in sunshiny have been a mere poetic fancy, and not 
liquid air sort of things, Aristophanes a philosophic doctrine- 
is compressing into a single word the 836. 'AoW| Referring, the Scholiast 
scornful description of contemporary says, to an ode which Ion or Chios (who 
dithyrambists, which in other Comedies seems to have died shortly before the 
he gave at greater length; en- 5 aepias, date of this Play) h ad composed, and 
diepas, yafxyj/ovs olcovovs a€povrjx&> Clouds which commenced 
337 ; aepia Kal (tkoticl ye kcl\ Kvavavyea , 'Aoiov aepo<poirav 
Birds 1389. The final nvas throws an air aarepa p-dvafxev, 
of indefiniteness about the description ; AeXlov XevKovrkpv^ vpfopopov. 
and as to its following the article, ray, at The Star o' the Morn we awaited, 
the commencement of the line, Paley The Star through the atmosphere floating, 
refers to Oed. Tyr. 107, Oed. Col. 289.) The white-winged herald of Day. ^ 

832. <i \4yovai] Various passages Bentley (Epistle to Mill, ^ ii. 304-31, 

bearing on this notion are collected by Dyce) throws a flood of light on the 

Sir George Cornewall Lewis, in his writings of Ion of Chios and discusses 

treatise on the Astronomy of the An- this fragment in particular, 

cients, chap, v, sec. 15. It seems to 838. SiaTpexovres <Wpes] The opi- 


Serv. Then 'tisn't true what people say about it, 

That when we die, we straightway turn to stars ? 
Tryg. O yes it is. Serv. And who's the star there now ? 
Tryg. Ion of Chios, who on earth composed 

" Star o' the Morn/' and when he came there, all 

At once saluted him as " Star o' the Morn." 
Ser/v. And did you learn about those falling stars 

Which sparkle as they run ? Tryg. Yes, those are some 

Of the rich stars returning home from supper, 

Lanterns in hand, and in the lanterns fire. 

But take this girl at once, and lead her in ; 

Deluge the bath, and make the water warm ; 

Then spread the nuptial couch for her and me : 

And when you've finished, hither come again. 

Meanwhile I'll give this other to the Council. 
Serv. Whence have you brought these maidens ? 

Tryg. Whence ? from heaven. 
Serv. I wouldn't give three halfpence for the Gods 

nions of ancient observers on the sub- 15 ; Pollux iii, segm. 43). The bride 

ject of falling stars and aerolites are with reference to whom these directions 

collected and discussed by Alex, von are given is, of course, Harvesthome : 

Humboldt, Cosmos iii. 419 seq., ed. Mayfair is to be delivered to the 

Sabine. Modern science has had great Council. 

difficulty in answering the servant's 848. Tpia>(3o\ov] (This was a symbol 

question ; but it seems now to be es- of worthlessness. Cf. Plutus 125. This 

tablished that they are small planetary use of the word passed from the Greeks 

bodies revolving round the sun, which to the Latins, with whom homo triobol% 

entering the earth's atmosphere with and still more homo non trioboli, signified 

inconceivable velocity become ignited an absolutely worthless fellow. Plautus, 

by the friction and dissolve into fiery Poenulus i. 2. 168, ii. 17 ; Rudens v. 

vapour. 2. 43 and 67, 3. 11. It is frequently 

843. vdcop] The water in which the used by St. Chrysostom, generally in the 

brides of Athens bathed was drawn from form rpicodoXijialos. In Horn, xxi in 

the fountain originally called Callirrhoe, Eph. (162 C) Greek cynics are styled 

and afterwards Enneacrounos (Thuc. ii. rptca/SoXijucuoi civdpes, (piXoaocjyiav dvadega- 


el TTopvoftoo-Kova axmep fjpeis ol (3poroi. 
TP. ovk 9 dXXa KaKel £Sktlv oltto rovroav rives. 850 

OL aye vvv icopev. elire /jloi, 8g> Kara^ayelv 

ravrrj ri ; TP. jxrjSev ov yap eOeXrjaei <f)aye?v 

ovr aprov oiire pdgav, elooOvT del 

irapa rois Qeoicriv dfifipocriav Xelyeiv dvco. 
OL Xefyeiv dp' avrfj KavOdSe aKevaariov. 855 

XO. evSai/xoviKcos y 6 rrpecr- [°~ T P- 

fivrrjs, ocr a y' §>8' ISeTv, 

ra vvv rd8e irpdrreu 
TP. ri SfJT , eneiSav vv/i(f)iov p Spare Xapirpov ovra ; 
XO. ^Acoroy ecrei, yepcov 860 

avOis vios cov irdXiv, 

pvpco KardXenrros. 
TP. olpai. tl Srj6\ orav £vv<bv ra>v nrdicov eywpai ; 
XO. eiSaipov ear epos (pavei rcov KapKivov arpoffiXav. 
TP. oijkovv SiKaioos ; oar is els 865 

°X r H JLa KuvQdpov y m/3as 

eacocra rovs r 'JLXXr]vas, &<rr 

fiepoi TpKopoXL/ialov. So in Horn, xxxvii in the times of vintage, and on the 

in Matth. (421 D) avOpairoi pao-Tiylai kcu occasion of public spectacles : just as 

Tpiafiokiixaioi ; and in Horn, lxiii in both in the Birds 1514-20, &c, and in 

Matth. (633 D) rpi&v dfiokcov ovk. av e^rjv the Plutus 1114-23, &c, the Gods are 

a£iovs chat rovs ovrco 7rXouro{/i/ra?.) represented as depending for their very 

850. ovk, a\\a] The aK\a qualifies existence upon the sacrifices offered 

the universality of the negative ; see upon their altars. 

the note on Wasps 9, " No, they don't 854. d/x/3poow Xe^H (Trygaeus em- 
do that : yet, even there, some get their ploys thewordXet'x^^in its ordinary sense 
living by these girls." 'A7to tovtcdv is of lapping up, eating ; Knights 1089, 
explained by Richter to be dirb t&v nop- Wasps 738. The servant in the following 
v<ov vel rov 7ropvofioo-K€iv, but no doubt line diverts it into a coarse allusion ; elg 
it refers to Harvesthome and Mayfair, to KaKepLcfxiTou rrjs iropvrjs heyerai, as the 
and to the offerings made to the Gods Scholiast says.) 


If they keep brothels as we mortals do. 
Tryg. No, no : yet even there some live by these. 
Sbev. Come on then, mistress : tell me, must I give her 

Nothing to eat ? Thyg. O no, she will not touch 

Our wheat and barley bread : her wont has been 

To lap ambrosia with the Gods in heaven. 
Serv. Lap ! we'll prepare her lap then here on earth. 

Chor. O what a lucky old man ! 

Truly the whole of your plan 

Prospers as well as it can. 
Tiiyg. I really wonder what you'll say when Fm a bridegroom spruce and gay. 
Chor. All men will gaze with delight. 

Old as you are you'll be quite 

Youthful and perfumed and bright. 
Tryg. What, when you see her tender waist by these encircling arms embraced ? 
Chor. Why then we'll think you happier far than Careinus's twistlings are. 
Tryg. And justly too, methinks, for I 

On beetleback essayed to fly, 

And rescued Hellas, worn with strife, 

856-69. evbainoviKcds . . . KaQevdeiv] was " perfumed with myrrh and frank- 

(This little metrical system is repeated incense, with all powders of the mer- 

infra 909-21. The first two speeches chant." fivpoiatv fxvplaai a-raKTols ottotclv 

of the Chorus are glyconics, but all the vv^-qv dydyrjo-Oov, Plutus 529 ; whence 

rest of the system is in the iambic Catullus, lxi. 142, addresses a bridegroom 

metre.) as "unguentate." 

858. ra vvv rdde] ('AttikoI ovtcos eXeyop 864. arpo(3iXa>v] This word signifies 
dvTL rov vvv, — Scholiast. The phrase is any twisted or distorted object, a fir- 
found several times in Euripides. Din- cone, a top, or the like. It is here used 
dorf refers to Eur. Heracl. 841, and to irapa 7rpoo-doKLav for rraibcov, in allusion 
Elmsley's note there citing Iph. Aul. 537 to the twirls and contortions, or the 
and Here. Fur. 246.) strange figures of the sons of Carcinus. 

862. fivpep] For in ancient marriages See on 784 supr. 
the bridegroom (as well as the bride) 



ev tols aypois 

airavras ovras acrcfHiXcos 

Ktveiv re kcu KaOevSew. 


6 ttXclkov? TT€7r€7TTai } a-rjaajirj gv/jLTrXdrTerca, 

Kctl tccXX* aTra^&TravTct* rod ttzovs Se Set 
TP. i0 1 vvv diroScdixev Tr\vSe rr\v Qecopcay 

avv<ravT€ rrj fiovXrj tl. OI. TavTrjvt; Ticprjs; 

avTT] Qecopia '<ttiv, r\v fjfjieis irore 

eTraiojiev BpavpcovdS' v7roire7r(OK ores ; 
TP. <rd(f> L<rOi, KaXfjipOr) ye fioXis. OI. S> Seo-Trora, 

ocrr\v eyei Tr\v TrpcoKTOTrevTerrjpiSa. 


ri$ SiacpvXdgei TijvSe rfj fiovXrj Xafi&v ; 

ovtos, tl TT€piypd(p€i$ ; OI. to 8e?v , etV'Icrfyua 



868. rj 7Tals \e\ovrai] (The Servant, 
who had left the stage at the commence- 
ment of the foregoing system to take 
Harvesthome to the bath, now returns 
to say that his mission is accomplished. 
We should have expected that the mar- 
riage would immediately take place, but 
instead of that the subject is altogether 
dropped for more than 300 lines, and 
only reappears in the closing scenes of 
the Play.) 

869. o-rjcrafirj] The sesame-cake was 
(from the prolific qualities of the sesame, 
dia to 7rokvyovop, Menander apud Schol. ) 
selected as the recognized wedding-cake 
at Athens, iv rots ydfiois e§idoo~av crrjaa- 
ixrjv eVei 7ro\vyova>Ta,Tov errjerapop. — Photius. 
Our old custom of throwing rice at 
weddings was founded on the same idea. 

874. Bpavp&vdd'] Brauron was an 

Attic deme, frequently mentioned by 
old authors, and almost always in con- 
nexion with the great quinquennial fes- 
tival which the Athenian women cele- 
brated there in honour of Artemis, and 
from which she derived her name of 
Brauronia (Hdt. vi. 138; Aristoph. 
Lysist. 645 and the Commentary there ; 
Eurip. Iph. in Taur. 1464 ; Diphilus ap. 
Athene, vi, chap. 1 ; Pollux viii, segm. 
107 ; Pausanias i, chap. 33, viii, chap. 46 ; 
Suidas, sub voc. apKros-, and frequently 
elsewhere). Nor can I doubt that Ari- 
stophanes is here alluding to that re- 
nowned festival. The statement of the 
Scholiast here, e/cei to. Aiopixna fjyero, kcu 
fiedvovres TToWas noppas rjpiraCov, is unsup- 
ported by any authority (for Suidas, 
sub voc. Bpavpwv, and the Scholiast on 
Demosth. inCononem, merely transcribe 



And stored your life 
With pleasant joys of home and wife. 
With country mirth and leisure. 

Serv. Well, sir, the girl has bathed and looks divinely : 

They mix the puddings, and they've made the cakes ; 
Everything's done : we only want the husband. 

Tryg. Come then and let us give Mayfair at once 

Up to the Council. Serv. What do you say ? Mayfair ! 
Is this May Fair ? the Fair we kept at Brauron, 
When we were fresh and mellow, years ago ? 

Tryg. Aye, and 'twas work enough to catch her. Serv. O ! 
How neat her pasterns, quite a five-year-old. 

TRYG. (Looking round upon the audience.) 

Now, have you any there that I can trust ? 
One who will lead her safely to the Council ? 

(To the servant.) 

What are you scribbling ? Serv. Marking out a place 

his words) ; and, although adopted by 
every editor of Aristophanes, and ap- 
proved by Hemsterhuys on Pollux ix, 
segm. 74, seems to me a mere unfounded 
suggestion made in f orgetf ulness of the 
great festivities which really brought 
Athenian women to the little borough 
of Brauron. The word TrpcoKTOTrfvreTrjpida, 
nf . 876, refers to the circumstance that 
the festival was a quinquennial one. 
(In the 54th chapter of the Polity of 
Athens we have a list of all the quin- 
quennial festivals controlled by Athens. 
The list includes the Brauronia, but does 
not include any Dionysian festival ; a cir- 
cumstance which appears to prove con- 
clusively the view taken in this note. 
Instead of saying iirepTropLev (scil. rrjv 

irofXTrrjv) BpavpcbvdSe, the speaker, adapt- 
ing his language to the Mayfair on the 
stage, and regardless of grammar, says 
iiralo^ev (infra 898) Bpavpavafie. The 
Scholiast explains iiralofiev by (rwovcnd- 
£oftev, rjXavvofiep. And had the speaker 
said rjXavvojjLtv (Eccl. 39) his language 
would have been more grammatical, but 
less suited to the festival, and less simi- 
lar to inepi770ix€v.y 

879. els "icrBfiia] This passage, though 
generally misunderstood by the com- 
mentators, is clearly explained by the 
Scholiast. While Trygaeus is speaking 
to the audience (to whom the pronoun 
vfjicov, two lines above, refers), the 
servant seizing the opportunity, tS 
daKTv\(6 7T€piypd<j)€i, draws a line with 



(TK7]vr\v kpavrov r& neei KaraXapfidvco. 880 

TP. ovnco Xeyed* vpecs r($ 6 (frvXagodv ; Sevpo <rv* 

KaraOrjaopai yap e$ fxeo-ovs avros cr ayoov. 
OL €K€ivo<rl vtvei. TP. rfc ; OI. oarcs ; 'ApuppaSr]?, 

ayeiv Trap avrbv dvri^oXcov. TP. dXX* 3 S> peXe, 

tov £(Ojxbv avrfjs TrpoaTreacbv kK.Xdy\rerai. 885 

dye Srj aij KardOov Trpoora ra crKevrj 

(3ovXrj, Trpvrdveis, Spare rr]V Qeeopiav. 

crKtyaaO" 6a vpiv dyaOd TrapaScoaco (pipc/ov, 

govt evOecos apavras v/xas rob (TKeXrj 

ravrrjs perecopa Karayayeiv dvdppvcnv. 890 

rovrl 8' Spare Tovrrrdviov rjpiv KaXov. 

Sid ravra Kal KeKairviKe rdp % kvravda yap 

rrpb rod rroXepov ra Xdorava rfj fiovXr} ttot r\v. 

his finger round ra Jo^ia, so as to include 
to aldoiop, ttjs Qecopias. Being asked 
what he is doing, he explains that it is 
there he wishes to pitch his tent at the 
approaching games, els "icrdfiia. He 
selects the Isthmian games, partly, 
perhaps, with a pun upon tV^'a, and 
partly for the reason given by the 
Scholiast, viz., that the space at those 
games being very confined, people were 
accustomed to take places for their tents 
some time beforehand. At those games, 
too, the Athenians enjoyed certain 
rights of rrpoedpia. See Plutarch's 
Theseus, chap. 25. For to helva see on 
268 supr. 

883. y ApL(f)pdbr)s] The same bestial 
habit is imputed to Ariphrades, in 
Knights 1285 and Wasps 1283. With 
the phraseology here employed compare 
supr. 716 and 855. In its better sense 
Ccojjlos is used both here and supr. 716 of 

the broth consumed iv rdls deoopiats. 

886. o~K€vr]] Mayfair seems, as the 
Scholiast observes, to have brought with 
her certain ' ' symbols of peace and hus- 
bandry" ; possibly, amongst them, a small 
onTaviov, inf. 891 ; unless the word is 
there used solely, as no doubt, it is 
mainly, irpbs to KaKe/x<£aro*/, with a jest 
somewhat similar to that in Wasps 

887. (3ov\r)] In the Athenian, as in 
the Roman, theatre a distinct place was 
assigned to the Senate ; and I imagine 
that, in this address, Trygaeus advances 
with Mayfair to that part of the stage 
which is nearest to the senatorial 
benches (to fiovkevriKov, Birds 794, and 
the Scholiast there). In the address 
itself Geoopta is considered, as she has 
already been in more passages than one, 
in a double aspect, as a woman and as 
a public spectacle ; and anavTa, says the 






To pitch my tent in, at the Isthmian games. 

Well, is there none can take her ? come to me then ; 

I'll go myself, and set you down amongst them, 

Here's some one making signs. Tryg. Who is it ? Serv. Who ! 

Ariphrades : he wants her brought his way. 

No : I can't bear his dirty sloppy way. 

So come to me, and lay those parcels down. 

(Leads her forward towards the povXevriKov.) 

Councillors ! Magistrates ! behold May Fair ! - 

And O remember what a deal of fun 

That word implies : what pastimes and what feasts. 

See here's a famous kitchen-range she brings ; 

'Tis blacked a little : for in times of Peace 

The jovial Council kept its saucepans there. 

Take her and welcome her with joy ; and then 

Scholiast, as iirl avyovains axipdriov Kal 
Oecopias Xeyerau There is, unfortunately, 
abundance of material in both Greek 
and Roman literature for illustrating in 
all its details the grosser meaning of 
the passage. But I have purposely con- 
fined my translation (if the vague para- 
phrase I offer be worthy of the name) to 
the description, which the poet intends 
also to give, of the legitimate amuse- 
ments afforded by a public spectacle : 
irdcras yap Travrjyvpeis Oecopias eKakovv. 
And, so far as seemed practicable, Phave 
done the same with the Commentary. 

890. KCLTayaytlv (? Avdppvviv] 'Avappwis, 
the Day of Sacrifice, was one of the Apa- 
turian feast days, deriving its name from 
dvappmtv, to sacrifice, literally, to draw 
back the victim's head for the purpose 
of slaying it. dvappveiv* Oveiv. avdppv- 
ais* f] 6vcrla, ineihr] Bvovtzs dveKKoav rovs 

TpaxfaoVS TCDV 6vOfl€VCOV, €7rl TCL CLVCO Tp€7TOV- 

T€5. ovtcd Se ioprr) eKaKelro irapa *Adr]vaiois. 
"Ofirjpos (Iliad i. 459) av epvvav. — Etymol. 
Magn. The word Karayayelv has pro- 
bably some unsavoury meaning with re- 
gard to Mayfair, and is therefore em- 
ployed (instead of ayeiv or dvdyeiv) with 
'Avdppvcriv in the sense of "keeping the 

891. 6iTTdvLOv\ (to fxayeipelov, ottov rfj 
fiovXrj (TKevd&TCLt fAeTa ras Ovcrias Kpea. 
— Scholiast. Xdo-ava, we are told by the 
Scholiast and other grammarians, are 
the same as x VT pQ ^obcs, little stands on 
which xvTpai were set over a fire that 
their contents might be boiled or warm- 
ed, €<j) hv e^rerai ti koX (frpvyerai Photius, 
S.V. Xdcrava. rbv de KaXovfxevov xuTpdnoba, 
says Pollux x. 99, eon /zeV Xdcrava kckXt]- 
fjcevov evpelv, cos AiokXtjs iv MeXlrrais 
airb KaadvoiV Otpfirjv atyaiprjca) x^ T P a ^-) 


eneiT dycovd y ev6i>$ e^earat iroieiv 

ravrrjv 'kyovaiv avpiov KaXbv irdvv, 895 

em yfjs TTaXaieiv, T€rpa7roSrjSbv icrrdvai, 

\jrXayiav KarafidXXeiv, £$ yovara kv$8 iardvai,^ 

kou irayKpdriov y v7raX€LyjrapivoL? veaviKco? 

iraUiVy opvTTeiv, ttv£ dfiov kou t<S neer 

TplTY) Se fjL€TO, TCLV(? LTTTToSpOfXiaV d£€T€, 

iva Srj KeXrjs KeXrjra irapaKeXrjTiet, 900 

apfiara 8' kir dXXrjXoicriv dvarerpappeva 

(pvcrcovra Kal irveovra TTpocrKivrjcreTai, 

erepoL Se KeivovTai y aTreyfrcoXrj pivot 

7T€pl ralai Kapirals tjvlo^ol 7re7rroo/c6r€?. 

dXX', S> 7rpvTdvei9, Se^ade tyjv (deo&piav. 905 

6eaa coy irpoOvpm 6 irpvravL? irape8e£aT0. 

dXW ovk av, €t tl irpoLKa Trpocrayayelv <r eSer 

dXX' evpov dv a virkyovra ttjv kKe^Etptav* 

XO. rj Xp7]a-T09 dvfjp ttoXl- \olvt, 

rats kvTiv airaaLv oa- 910 

tl? earl tolovtos. 
TP. orav rpvyar , etareade 7roXX5 paXXov olos elpi. 

898. 7rvt- SfjLov k.t.X.] irapd to Xeyoficvov cation supra 716. Notwithstanding the 
' ' 7tu£ 6p,ov kcutco o-Ke\ei," Scholiast ; that mention of the *Avdppvcris supra 890, it 
is "as well boxing as wrestling," both seems impossible to identify these three 
being allowed in the irayKpariov. Ari- days with the days of the Apaturia.) 
stotle (Rhetoric i. 5. 14) says 6 bwaptvos 908. cKexcipLap] This is rightly ex- 
6\i$ziv Kal Ka.T€x*w> 7ra\ai(TTiK6s' 6 de cocrat plained by the Scholiast to mean that, 
rfj irkr]yfj y ttvktlkos' 6 8* dfKporepoLs tovtols, unless you bribed the Prytanis, he 
TrayKpariacTTiKos. would say, ' ' Tis a holiday, we can intro- 

899. rplrrj] (that is, rrj rj/jLepa fiera ty\v duce nothing into the Senate to-day," 
avpiov, the day after to-morrow. He has eKex^ipio. eo-Tiv, ov bwdp,e6a o~r}fjt,epov dad- 
provided therefore for a three days' fes- yeti>, while all the time he would be 
tival (to-day, to-morrow, and the day holding out his hand for a fee, nai^i 
after), in accordance with his prognosti- rrpbs to ex^iv tl iv Tfj x el Ph npos to V7rex*w 


To-morrow morning let the sports begin : 

Then we'll enjoy the Fair in every fashion, 

With boxing-matches and with wrestling bouts, 

And tricks and games, while striplings soused in oil 

Try the pancratium, fist and leg combined. 

Then the third day from this, we'll hold the races ; 

The eager jockeys riding : the great cars 

Puffing and blowing through the lists, till dashed 

Full on some turning-post, they reel and fall 

Over and over : everywhere you see 

The hapless coachmen wallowing on the plain. 

You lucky Magistrate, receive Mayf air ! 

Just look, how pleased he seems to introduce her ; 

You would not though, if you got nothing by it, 

No, you'd be holding a Reception day. 

Choe. Truly we envy your fate : 

All must allow you're a great 
Blessing and boon to the state. 
Tryg. Ah, when your grapes you gather in, you'll know what sort of friend I've been. 

ty]v x*ip a «r* T< ? XajSeu/. A similar allu- venality and covetousness of the Pry- 
sion is made in Thesm. 936 to the tanes. 

& Trpvravt, irpos ttjs degias, jqwep cj)i\c?s 
KoiXrjv TrpoT€iV€iv, apyvpiov r\v ns St So), 
Xapiaai Ppaxv ri /jloi. 

Sir ! Right honoured ! grant me one request. 
O by that hand I pray you, which you love 
To hold out empty, and to draw back full. 

And compare Lysias against Andocides before I was aware that the same obvious 

29 (p. 105). And generally as to holding emendation had been proposed by 

out the hand for a bribe, Eccl. 782, Hermann, and accepted by Weise, 

Demosthenes, de F. L. 285 (p. 421). Holden, Bergk, and Meineke. The 

910. rroXirat?] I had changed the word rpvyare, two lines below, refers to 

common reading 7ro\irq? into 7roklTai$ the name of the speaker. 



XO. kcu vvv av ye SfjXos er 

aoDTrjp yap airacriv dv- 

0pa>7rois yeyevrjo-cu. 
TP. (prjaeis y, kiretSdv eK7Tir]$ oivov veov Xeitacnriv. 
XO. kcu nXrju ye 7w 6e3>v dei <r fjyrjo-ojJLecrOa irpmov. 
TP. noXXoov yap vplv a£io$ 

Tpvyatos 'AOpovevs eyob, 

Seiv&v diraXXd^as ttovcov 

TOV SrjfXOTT)!/ 

Kal tov yecopyiKov Xeoov, 
'TrrepfioXov T€ Travo-as. 

OI. dye Srj 3 ti va>v kvrevQevl TroirjTeov ; 

TP. ti 8' dXXo y rj tovttjv yyTpais ISpVTeov ; 

OI. xyTpaio~Lv 3 &o"irep pe/xcf)6fjLevov 'EpfiiSiov ; 

TP. ti Sal SoKei; (3ovXecr0e Xapivco /3of; 





916. \ena<TTr)v\ (jdbos TroTrjpiov fxel^ov r) 
kv\i£. — Scholiast. kvXlkcs rjaav fieyaKai, 
Athenaeus (xi. 70, p. 485), who cites a 
number of passages in which the word 
occurs. ) 

920. tov br)fi6rr}v] (S^/xdr^r, in states 
which were not democracies, signified a 
common person as contrasted with the 
ruling person or class, but it was never 
so used by Athenians of Athenians. 
Here it seems to mean persons collected 
into townships, as distinguished from 
the purely agricultural population. He 
demands the gratitude of town and 
country alike for having brought back 
the blessings of peace, and put a stop to 
that state of things in which Hyperbolus 
and other demagogues flourished.) 

922. OI.] I have given to the Ser- 

vant the part in this little dialogue 
which is usually assigned to the Chorus. 
Throughout these scenes the Chorus is 
a mere looker-on, and not an active 
participator in the work. 

923. x^ T P als iSpvTeov] Harvesthome 
and Mayfair being thus disposed of, the 
next duty which devolves upon Trygaeus 
is that of inaugurating the worship of 
Peace Restored, tclvttjv, and he has now 
to decide upon the votive offerings to 
be used for that purpose. The first 
suggestion is an offering of x^ T P a h that 
is, of earthen pots filled with vegetables, 
boiled pulse, and the like : a memorial 
and thank-offering, says the Scholiast, 
both here and at Plutus 1198, for man- 
kind's primitive diet, evxaptcrrfjpia anovi- 
iiovres t?)s Trpnrrjs diairqs. This offering 



Chor. Nay, but already 'tis known ; 

Yea, for already we own 
You have preserved us alone. 
Tryg. I think you'll think so when you drain a bowl of newmade wine again. 
Chor. We'll always hold you first and best, except the Gods the ever blest. 
Tryg. In truth you owe a deal to me, 

Trygaeus, sprung from Athmonfe, 
For IVe released the burgher crew 

And farmers too 
From toils and troubles not a few ; 
Hyperbolus I've done for. 

Serv. Now what's the next thing that we have to do ? 

Tryg. What but to dedicate her shrine with pipkins ? 

Serv. With pipkins ! like a wretched little Hermes ! 

Tryg. Well then, what think you of a stall-fed bull ? 

is, however, at once rejected, as un- 
worthy the occasion, and fit only for a 
liefKpofievov ' Epfiibiov, where fiepcfiofievov is 
said to mean " fretful, grumbling at the 
vileness of his offerings." In the Plutus 
ubi supr. the offering of xvrpai is adopted, 
and the x^ T P al a * s rov @ €ov Iftpvo-ofieOa are 
carried off by the old beldame ; seem- 
ingly for the purpose of introducing a 
poor pun upon the word ypavs, which 
(something like our word mother) may 
designate as well the scum which is 
usually on the top of the pots as the old 
woman who is pro hac vice, below them. 
See the lines from Aristoph. Danaides 
to which the Scholiasts both here and on 
the Plutus refer, (and which are cited in 
the Commentary on the Plutus.) The 
offering to Hermes of a pot containing 
various vegetables was made on the 

third day of the Anthesteria which was 
thence called ol x^ r P ol > Schol. at Ach. 
1076, Frogs 218. 

925. XapLvco] (well-nourished, stall fed. 
Athenaeus (ix. 18, p. 376 B) says that 
Xapivbs is strictly an epithet Xapivav (3o5>p, 
and offers three derivations of the word : 
(1) from XapiveveaQai, to be fattened, and 
he quotes from Sophron /3de<? Xapivzvov- 
rai ; (2) from a village in Epirus, called 
Larina ; and (3) from their herdsman 
Larinus who is said to have obtained 
from Heracles the cattle of Geryon. 
Photius says that Apollodorus called 
tovs evTpafals (Sovs Xapivovs, Xapivevew yap 
to <riT€V€iv, and he himself explains Xa- 
ptvol by ol 7riov€£, o~itio~to\) XnrapoL Hesy- 
chius says Xapivol fioes* evrpafais. Cf. 
Birds 465.) 

I 2, 


OI. (3ot; firjSa/Jicos, tva prj fiorjOeiv ttol Set], 

TP. dXX' vCirayzia Kal peydXy; OI. prj prj. TP. rcrj ; 

OI. iva prj yivrjrai Qeayevovs vrjvia. 

TP. T<p 8fj 80K6? (TOl SfJTCt TGOV XoLTTWV \ OI. 6'L 

TP. 61; OI. vat pa AC. TP. dXXa tovto y Ur 'Icovlkov 930 

to prjpd y\ OI. 67riT7]8e$ y\ lv\ ei V TrjKKXrjcria 

o>S xpr) 7roX€fjL€Lv Aeyct tis, ol KaOrjiievoi 

virb tov Seovs Xiycocr 'Igovikgqs 6c, 
TP. ev tol Alyety. OI. kolI TaXXa y (caw tfiriot. 

&ctt ecropeB' dXXrjXoio-iv dpvol Toi>$ Tporrovs 935 

Kal toTctl avppdyoicn TrpaoTepot noXv. 
TP. lQl vvv, ay 009 Tayio-Ta to irpofiaTOV Xafioov 

eya> 8e Tropica (3a>pbv i(f> otov Ovcropev. 

XO. G)9 irdvff 6V dv 0sb$ OiXy yrj Tvyi KaTopOoT, [crrp. 

Xtopti Kara vovv, €T€pov 8' ere/xp 940 

tovtcov KaTa Katpbv drravTa. 
TP. coy Tama SrjXd y tvff* 6 yap (3co/j,b$ Ovpacn Kal 8rj. 

V/""\ 9 / s 9 ef 

AU. €7T€iy€T€ VW €V OCTCp 

aofiapd 6e66ev KaTtyei 

TroXepov peTaTpOTTOs avpa. 945 

vvv yap Saipeov (pavepoos 
ey dyaOd p€Taj3if3d£ei. 
TP. to Kavovv irdpe&T 6Xa$ iyov Kal ore/j/za Kal pdyaipav, 

926. pot; fiorjOelv] There is, of course, el V for eV. 
a play upon these words, which I have 939. «? 7rdv6'] This line does not 
endeavoured to reproduce in my trans- answer to the first line of the corre- 
lation as between bulwarks and bull-ivorks. sponding system, inf r. 1023, ae tol dvpao-i 

930. 'laviKov] That is, says the xph pevovra roivvv, and (in my former 

Scholiast, in its disyllabic form. The edition I suggested that we should here 

Attics pronounced it as a monosyllable, read cos navS* 6V av BeXrj tvx^] KaropOovv. 

oh. In the succeeding lines I have But the conjunction of 6ebs (or dalfxw) 

followed the reading of the older and rvxn is so common that it seems im- 

editions, except that I have substituted possible to dispense with either idea. 


Serv. A bull ? O no ! no need of bull-works now. 

Tryg. Well then, a great fat pig ? Serv. No, no. Tryg. Why not ? ^ 

Serv. Lest, like Theagenes, we grow quite piggish. 

Tryg. What other victim shall we have ? Serv. A baalamb. 

Tryg. A baalamb ! Serv. Yes, by Zeus ! Tryg. But that's Ionic, 

That word is. Serv. All the better : then, you see, 

If any speak for war, the whole assembly 

Will talk Ionic and cry out Bah ! Bah ! 
Tryg. Good, very good. Serv. And they'll be milder so, 

And we shall live like lambs among ourselves, 

And be much gentler towards our dear allies. 
Tryg. There, get the sheep as quickly as you can, 

Fll find an altar for the sacrifice. 

Choe. Sure each design, when God and fortune speed it, 
Succeeds to our mind, what is wanted we find 
Just at the moment we need it. 
Tryg. The truths you mention none can doubt, for see Fve brought the altar out. 
Chor. Then hasten the task to perform : 
War, with its vehement storm, 
Seems for the instant to cease; 

Its soughings decrease, 
Shifting and veering to Peace. 
Tryg. Well, here's the basket ready stored with barley grain, and wreath, and sword. 

Thus Kara dalfjLova kclI Kara avvTVxiav 938, had entered into his house, now 

ayadqv, Birds 544 ; fj be rvxi kcl\ 6 dalficav returns with a portable altar. At the 

7repie77oir}o-e, Lysias against Agoratus 69 close of the line we should possibly for 

(p. 135) ; a> tvxt) Ka\ daLfJioves, Heliodorus Bvpao-t kcu drj read Bvpaaiv J7S17.) 

vi. 8. And compare Shakespeare's 944. Kare'xei] (refrains, stays itself, 

" Which Heaven and fortune will re- "sistit." With noXefAov iieTaTpoiros avpa 

ward," Two Gentlemen of Verona, compare Eur. El. 1148 pzraTp(moi nve- 

iv. 3}. ov(tlv avpcu 86p<ov.y 

942. (3<Dfi6s] (Trygaeus who, after line 948. to kcivovv'] elcodaac yap eVi to 



Kal irvp ye tovtI, KovSep tvyei ^^ ™ ^P^arov f)/xa?. 
XO. oHkovv afjaWrjcreo-Oov ; coy 950 

tjv X.a?pi$ v/xas i'8r), 
irpoareiGiv a/cXr/roy av\- 
cov, Kara too olo on 
(f)VO-(OVTL Kal TTOvovixivco 
irpooSooo'eTe Srfirov. 955 

TP. aye 5ij, to Kavovv \af3obv av Kal ttjv yepvifia 

7T€pu0L tov ficofxbv Taye<*>$ kmtegia. 
OI. ISofr \eyoi9 av aXXo* 7repLe\rj\v6a. 
TP. obepe 8tj, to SaXiov t68' efi(3dylra> Xa/?c6V. 

aeiov av Taye(o$\ crv Se rrpoTeive tg>v 6\cov } 960 

Kavovv rqv fjLax<upav (frepeiv KaTaKpvirTOVTes 
avrrjv rais oXais Kai rots — 
Scholiast. (In the Electra of Euripides 
810 seq. Aegisthus commences a sacrifice 
by taking out of the Kavovv a straight 
sword, severing the hairs from the 
victim's brow and throwing them into 
the fire. So in Iph, Aul. 1565 Calchas, 
preparing to sacrifice Iphigeneia is 
Kavovv xP V(T *i^ aT0V I ^^V K€V °£^ (poLcryavov. 
And the purpose of the crre/xjLia is shown 
by the next line of the Tragedy Kpard 
r eorcyfrev Koptjs.y 

951. Xalpis] In the Acharnians (866) 
Aristophanes calls the Theban pipers 
XaipiSels fiofjiftavXioi, and the Scholiast 
there says that Chaeris was an avkrjTrjs 
Qrjftalos clfxovo-os. And cf. Birds 858. 
The Thebans were noted in ancient 
times for their skill on the avXos. The 
Athenians disliked it, preferring such 
instruments as left the musician's voice 
free. " Let the young Thebans pipe," 

said Alcibiades, "for they can't talk." 
AvXeiTcoarav Qrjfiaioiv 7ra1$€S' ov yap 'icrao-L 
8ia\eyeo-0ai (Plutarch, Ale. cap. 2). And 
so Maximus Tyrius, running through 
the specialities of different peoples, says 
Qrjftaioi av\r)TiKT]V €7riTr)devovo-i 9 Kal tvriv 
rj bi avXa>v fiovaa emx&pios tols Boicorofs. 
3 A6r]va7oL Xeyetv, Kal eaTiv rj 7rep\ rovs Xoyovs 
a-Trovbrj, rex vr I 'Attikyj. (Diss, xxiii, sec. 
2). And it would seem from Words- 
worth's Athens and Attica, chap. 3, 
that the local reputation is still main- 
tained, and that the Boeotian pipers are 
still in request at the neighbouring 

956. aye br)] The servant returns with 
the victinij and all is now ready for the 
sacrifice. The altar has been erected, 
the fire is there, the knife is concealed 
in the basket beneath the garlands and 
the grain. Trygaeus hurries through 
some of the indispensable preliminaries. 
And first he sends the servant round the 



And here's the pan of sacred fire : the sheep alone we now require. 
Choii. Make haste, make haste : if Chaeris see, 

He'll come here uninvited, 
And pipe and blow to that degree, 
His windy labours needs must be 
By some small gift requited. 

Teyg. Here, take the basket and the lustral water, 
And pace the altar round from left to right. 
Seev. See, I've been round : now tell me something else. 
Tryg. Then next I'll take this torch and dip it in. 

(To the victim, as he sprinkles it.) 

Shake your head, sirrah, (To the servant.) bring the barley, you ; 

altar, tovto yap, says the Scholiast, 7rp£>- 


compare Birds 958. (So in Iph. Aul. 

1568 we are told that when Calchas had 

placed the knife in the basket (see on 

948 supra) 

6 irais 8' 6 IlrjKecos kv kvk\o> Rqjjxqv Beds 
\a@wp tcavovv eOpe£e x*P vl &ds 0* opov.y 

959. daXlov] A flaming brand taken 
from the altar. See Hemsterhuys at 
Lucian's Timon 2. This was dipped in 
the water, to yap vbcop eboKovp KaOaipetp 
a.7rol3aTrTOPTes rt tov rrvpos ' KadapriKop yap 
ncivTcop to nvp, says the Scholiast, who 
cites Eurip. Here. Fur. 928— 

peWcov he da\bv X ei P^ ^ 6 £*9 (pepeiv 

eh x*P vl $' & s Pdxpeiev. 
Florent Chretien refers to Athenaeus, 
who explains x*P vl} r* (* x > ca P* ?6) to be 
vdcop els o a7re(3a7TTOv dakop, £k tqv (Soopov 
Xapftdpopres. kcll tovtco 7repippaiPOPTes tovs 
irapovras ijyvtCov. And Brunck adds 

Hesychius, sub voc. duXlop. £p rah Upo- 
wouais eloaQavi top daXop epftdWeip els tt)p 
\epvi3a ica\ uepippaipeip top /SoojuoV : and 
Lysistrata 1129, 

ot pids etc xepvifios 
ficopovs jrepippaivovTes. 

960. o-elov (rv Taxeoas] These words 
are addressed to the victim, as Trygaeus 
sprinkles him with water from the 
dripping brand, ha aeio-rj ttjp KecfraXrjp, 
says the Scholiast, ko\ emveveip toIs Upois 
doKJj, that he may nod his head, and so 
seem to assent to his own immolation. 
This was esteemed a favourable omen. 
Abp. Potter (Antiq. Book ii, chap. 4) 
refers to Plutarch, de Orac. Defect. 436, 
where it is said that the priests were 
accustomed to sprinkle the victim, ka\ 
t?jp klptjctlv avTOv diroOecape'lp, and to the 
Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, i. 425, 
who, explaining the word irpoxyras, says 
ot pep tcls KpiOas, oi §* to vdcop o elwQacnv 
epftaWeip els to ovs tqv lepeiov, em tov 




kccI ToiaL Oearais pTrrte toov KpiO&v. OI. 18 ov. 
TP. tScoKas rjSf] ; OI. vrj rov ^pjirjv, &are ye 
tovtcov, ocronrkp elari, toov Oeco/jiepcou 

OVK €(TTIV OvSth 0(TTIS OV Kpi6r)V €)(€(. 

TP. oux a ^ yvvaiKes y eXafiov. OI. dXX y eh icmepai/ 

8di)(T0V(TlV aVTCtlS &v8p€$. TP. d\X €V)((0/jL€6a. 

tls rfjSe ; ttov nor* elal noXXol KayaOoi; 
OI. tolctSI (f>epe 8co- noXXol yap eiai KayaOoL 
TP. tovtovs dyaOovs hofjLicras ; OI. ov yap, o'lrives 

rj/jicoi/ KaTayjeovTCov vSoop togovtovI 

es ravTo tovO* kcndcr lovres yaplov ; 
TP. dXX* ci)9 TayiVT evy&ixeff' ev)(co/jieadec 8rj. 

go aeixvoT&TY) fiaaiXeia 6ea, 
ttotvl Riprjvr}, 




imvevtiv to Upelov. Grain, as well as 
water, was sprinkled on the victim's 

961. x £ P VL1TTOV ^ That it was deemed 
absolutely necessary to wash the hands, 
before presuming to offer sacrifice to 
the Gods, is shown in numberless pas- 
sages from Homer downwards ; and 
instances were recorded of the divine 
judgement which had, it was said, at 
once overtaken the impious wretch who 
had approached the altar x^P^ av'nrroi- 
mv. It is to this practice, which found 
a place in the Mosaic ritual, as well as 
in the multitudinous sacrificial systems 
of the heathen world, the clean hands 
typifying the pure heart, that the 
Psalmist alludes, when he says (xxvi. 
6) I will wash my hands in innocency, 

Lord, and so tvill I compass Thine 

965. KptOfjv] 7Tpbs tt]v Kpidrjv 7rcu£«> 
on to T&v dvBpwv aldolop KpiBrjv ekcyov. — 
Scholiast. I have translated it literally, 
though the double meaning of the 
English word "corn" is of course very 
different from that of the Greek word 

968. tls rfjbt ;] It appears from the 
Scholiast that, before the prayers com- 
menced, the officiating priest (or rather 
perhaps the Krjpvg) addressed the con- 
gregation with the words tis TJjde ; Whom 
have we here? To which they replied, 
noXXol KayaOoi, that is to say, "We are 
all pious worshippers ; there is no pro- 
fane person amongst us." The guilty 
had to withdraw from the sacred place : 



I'll hold the bason while you wash your hands. 

Now throw the corn amongst the audience. Serv. There. 
Tryg. What ! thrown it out already ? Serv. Yes, by Hermes ! 

There's not a single man amongst them all 

But has at least one corn, I'll warrant you. 
Tryg. Aye, but the women ? Serv. If they haven't got one, 

They'll get it by and by. Tryg. Now, then, to prayers : 

Who's here ? where are our honest simple folk ? 
Serv. Here : these are simple folk ; I'll give to them. 
Tryg. What, these good simple folk ? Serv. I'faith I think so ; 

Who, though we've poured such lots of water on them, 

Yet stand stock still, and never budge a step. 
Tryg. Come, let us pray, no dallying ; let us pray. 

O Peace most holy, august, serene, 
O heavenborn queen 

they could take no part in the prayers, 
€Kas ems icrre /3e/3^Xot. The congregation 
being thus sifted were, it would seem, 
sprinkled with holy water from the 
dripping brand (see on 959 supra), and 
the prayers hegan. 

969. roLabC] rols x°P €vro ^ St — Scho- 
liast. The servant presses the chorus 
into the ceremony, in the character of 
a congregation, and plentifully besprin- 
kles them with water, which they, it 
seems from 972 inf., huddle together to 

973. akX cos rdxto-r k.t.A.] (Almost all 
recent editors, following a suggestion of 
Bentley, divide this line into two, giving 
the first four words to Trygaeus, and the 
last two either to the Chorus or to the 
Servant. There is much to be said in 

favour of this course ; but on the whole 
it seems to me that evx&peSa is not a 
word to be passed by one speaker in the 
dialogue to another ; it is the solemn 
formula of exhortation to be pronounced 
only, so to say, by the officiating min- 
ister : see 435. In this case Trygaeus 
is officiating. He had already, six lines 
above, said evx&ptQa and, a slight inter- 
ruption having occurred, he now repeats, 
somewhat impatiently, aXX 5 cos raxwr' 
cvxapeP, let us get to our prayers at once ; 
and again pronounces the exhortation 
€vxa>pe(rBa drj. That solemn phrase of 
ritual could, in my opinion, be pro- 
nounced only by the person about to lead 
off the prayer ; and so, Trygaeus having 
again said "Let us pray," immediately 
commences the prayer.) 


8k<nroiva yop&v, 8i<riroiva yd/xcou, 

8i£ai Qvviav ttjv f]/jL6T€pav. 
OI. Sigai Stjt\ & 7roXvTL/JLrjrrj , 

vrj Aia, Kal fxrj ttoUl y' anep at 

fjiOL^evo/xevaL SpoddL yvvatKes. 980 

Kal yap 6K€ii/ai irapaKXivavai 

ttjs atiXzias napaKvirTovcrLi/' 

k&v Tis irpoae^rj rbv vovv avrat?, 


Kar rjv dirirj, TrapaKvirTOvaiv. 985 

tovtcdv air iroiei fx-qSlv €0* fjfjtas. 
TP. /jlo, Ai\ dXX' dnocfrrjvoi/ oXrjv aavrrjv 

yevvaioirpeTTcos tolo-lv kpaaTals 

rj/juu^ 01 gov 7pvyop&& 7]Sr] 

rpta Kal SeK errj. 990 

Xvcrov 8e fxa^as Kal KopKopvycts, 

tva Kvdi[idyj\v ae KaXa>[xev. 

iravaov 8* rjjx&v ras vrrovolas 

ra$ TrepiKOfiylrov?, 

ah a-TCofjLvXXofxeO' eh dXXrjXovs* 995 

[u£ov 8' fj/jLas tovs r, E,XXr)va$ 

tt&Xiv e£ dpyrjs 

983. irpoa-exj] rbv vovv~\ This expres- used "animum adjicere " in the same 

sion is constantly used by the Attic sense, Plautus, Mil. Glor. iii. 3. 35, 

writers (especially by Plato and Aristo- Mercator ii. 2. 62 ; Terence, Eun. i. 2. 

phanes) in the general sense of "paying 63.) I doubt, however, if Hemsterhuys 

attention to " what is being said or done. is right in considering the line before us 

But it is thought that (like the corre- to be an example of that special signifi- 

sponding English phrase) it has a more cation. 

special application in reference to lovers. 990. rpia kcu SeV err)] Reckoning 

See Hemsterhuys on Lucian's Deor. from the first embroilment of Athens 

Dial, v, and to the passages there with the Peloponnesian confederacy in 

cited add Lysias, de caede Erastosth. 6, b.c. 434, by means of the Corcyraean 

( Alciphron i. 37 ad init. The Latins War. (Trygaeus does not profess to be 


0£ the dance and song and the bridal throng, 
These offerings take which thy votaries make. 
Seuv. O mistress dear, we beseech you hear, 

And act not you as the wantons do : 
They love to spy at the passers by 

Through the half-closed door, 
And then if you heed, they are gone with speed ; 
* If you turn away, in an instant they 
Peep out once more as they did before. 
But deal not thus unkindly with us. 
Teyg. No, by Zeus ! but display in a true honest way 

Your perfect entire full, form to our view, 

Who with constant desire 
These thirteen long years have been pining for you. 
When our fightings are stayed, and our tumults allayed, 

We will hail thee a Lady for ever : 
And O put an end to the whispers of doubt, 

These wonderful clever 
Ingenious suspicions we bandy about ; 
And solder and glue the Hellenes anew 

With the old-fashioned true 

speaking of the exact commencement of 992. Avorifidxrjv] Bergler quotes the 
the Archidamian War. Indeed the ex- similar play upon the word in Lysis- 
elusion of Megarian goods from the trata 554 olfiai nore Avaifiaxas rjfias iv 
Athenian markets was not only prior to rois "EXkrjai KaXeio-Ocu. 
that war, but was in some sense the 997. nakiv e£ apxns] (This is a very 
cause of it. And although 13 may oc- common combination. Cf. infra 1327, 
casionally be employed to denote an in- Frogs591,Plutus221,866; Plato, Theae- 
definite number (see the Commentary tetus 30 (p. 187 A), Laches 27 (p. 197 E), 
on Plutus 1082), it could not be used to &c. So Eusebius (Mart. Pal. ix. 1) says 
describe such a precise and well-known that the fires of persecution, quenched 
period as the duration of the Archidamian for a while by the blood of the martyrs, 
War.) The date of this Play is con- broke out ir&Xiv e£ {mapx*}?*} 
sidered in the Introduction. 



tlvI npaoTepa Kepaaov rov vovv* 
Kal Tr\v dyopav tj/jllv ayaOcov 
e/jnrXrjaOfji'ai /xeydXcov, 07co/>66W, 

(TLKVCOV ffp(p(t)V, /JLrjXcOV, pOLOOV, 

SovXomtl yXaviaKiSitov p.iKp$>v 


XW a $> vr\TTa$> <p&TTa$, TpoyiXovs- 
Kal Ka)7ra6W eXOew (rirvpiSas, 
Kal 7T€pl ravras rjfxas aOpoovs 
oyjrcoj/ovPTas TVpj3dge<r6aL 



998. x^<p] The metaphor seems to 
be borrowed from the culinary art. Cf . 
Frogs 943. And with the general sen- 
timent compare Lysistrata 580. {/cepa- 
<tov means temper. Constantine is de- 
scribed by Eusebius (H. E. x. 9. 1) as 
rov crreppov rov SiKaiov Tpoirov (j)i\av6p<07ria 

1000. aKopobcov k.t.X.] We have al- 
ready, supr. 246, seen that garlic was 
one of the chief productions of the 
Megarid. It was thence, too, that the 
Athenian markets were supplied with 
their cucumbers and their xkaviaKia. 
See Acharnians 519-22. These xkavL- 
<riaa, called also e|a>/xi§e?, were in truth 
the staple manufacture at Megara. 
Meyapecov oi 7rXe«rroi arrb i£(DfJLi$07roua$ 
SiaTpecfrovTai, Xen. Mem. ii. 7. 6. 
Apples of the finest flavour were brought 
from Sidus, in the vicinity of Corinth 
(Athenaeus iii. 22 and Schweighaeuser's 
note). I do not know that any part of 
Hellas, except Boeotia (Ath. xiv. 64), 
was specially noted for an abundance of 
pomegranates ; but it seems exceedingly 

probable that in this first group of arti- 
cles Aristophanes is referring exclusively 
to the products of Megara and the Pelo- 
ponnese, and no doubt pomegranates, 
too, were obtainable from those regions 

1004. xn vas k.tX.] A very similar, but 
more complete, enumeration of the fish, 
fowl, and other luxuries, furnished in 
times of peace by Boeotia to the Athe- 
nian markets is given in Acharnians 
874-80. (As to the x^a?, vrjrras, and 
(ftdrras, the geese, the ducks, and the wood- 
pigeons, see the Introduction to the Birds, 
pp. 1, lxx, and lxxv. The pigeons may 
have come, in part at any rate, from 
Homer's 7ro\vTpfjp(ova Qi<rfir]v (Iliad ii. 
502), where Dodwell also (i. 258) noticed 
44 an incredible number of pigeons." 
rpox&os was a generic name including 
probably the plover (whose special name 
however was x a P a 8p L ° s ) an ^ certainly 
the sandpiper, dunlin, curlew, and the 
like. See the Introduction to the Birds, 
p. lxv.) 

1005. KoWcWl Volumes might be 



Elixir of love, and attemper our mind 

With thoughts o£ each other more genial and kind. 

Moreover we pray that our market-place may 

Be furnished each day with a goodly display, 

And for garlic, and cucumbers early and rare, 

Pomegranates, and apples in heaps to be there, 

And wee little coats for our servants to wear. 

And Boeotia to send us her pigeons and widgeons, 

And her geese and her plovers : and plentiful creels 

Once more from Copais to journey with eels, 

And for us to be hustling, and tussling, and bustling, 

written on the subject of the Copaic eel, 
the darling of ancient epicures. Lurking 
about the ' ' katavothra, " or subterra- 
neous channels (minutely described by 
Sir George Wheler, Colonel Leake, and 
others), through which the inland waters 
of Boeotia are discharged into the sea, 
these eels attained a prodigious size and 
fatness. In Ach. 885, Dicaeopolis in- 
vokes the Copaic eel in strains which 
a lover might address to his mistress, or 
a worshipper to his divinity ; and Athe- 
naeus (vii. 52-6) preserves many similar 
passages from the comic poets in eulogy 
of this "Helen of the dinner- table," 
this "holy divine Virgin of Copais." 
In Lysistrata 35, where one speaker 
imprecates destruction on all the inhabi- 
tants of Boeotia, the other at once inter- 
poses with a saving clause, c ' except the. 
eels." And see line 702 of the same 
Play. Some connoisseurs, indeed, pre- 
ferred on the whole the eels of other 
waters, but none were cold to the charms 
of the Copaic eel. Thus the Sicilian 
Archestratus, in his hexameter poem on 
the Art of Cookery, whilst patriotically 

claiming the first place for eels caught 
in the Straits of Messina, yet admits that 

Bards with abundance of rhyming 
Justly have sung the praise 

Of the eels of Copais and Strymon. 
Fine fat beauties are they ; 

Ah well ! in my conscience I feel 
Whatever a person may say, 

There's nothing so good as an eel. 
An eel is the primest of dishes, 

The virgin and queen of the fishes. 

jjceyciXcu re yap elot Kcu to Trayos Sav- 

/j.aarai — Athenaeus vii. 53. And travel- 
lers in every age have, from their per- 
sonal experience, celebrated the Copaic 
eels ; from Pausanias, who says that 
they are yieyiOti fieyicrrai kcu i<r6i€iv rj§MTTai 

(ix. 24) down to Mr. Hughes and 
others, in recent times, who describe 
them as " of an extraordinary size, firm in 
flesh, and of a delicious flavour." (cnrvp\s 
is the proper word for a fish-basket or 
creel. In the 25th epigram of Leonidas 
of Tarentum a fisherman is dedicating 
his IxOvboKovs a7rvpi8as and other fishing 
implements to the Lord of his craft.) 


Mopu^o), TeXea, TXavK€Tfl, dXXois 

TtvOais ttoXXois* Kara MeXdvOiov 

rjKtiv varepov eh tt)v dyopdv, 1010 

rds Se irenpaaOai, rov 8* ororvgeiv, 

elra pov&Seiv e/c Mi; Seta ?, 

6\6{xav bXbp.av, airoyjripQ&Qzls 

rds kv TevrXoLcri Xo^vofievas* 

tovs 8' avQp&irovs kiriyjiipeiv. 1015 

TCLVT, CO TTOXvTlfltJT , €V)(Ofl€VOL$ fjfJLlV SlSoV. 

OI. XajSe ttjv pdyaipav u& onm payzipiK&s 

(rQdgeis rov olv. TP. dXX y ov Qkpis. OI. nfj ri 8rj ; 

TP. ov\ fjSeraL SrinovOev Kiprjvrj a^ayacs, 

ov8 > al/jLarovTcu /3<op6$. aXX' ei'crco (/ykpoov, 1020 

1008. Mopux?] ^ n the passage from whale in Thesmoph. 1033. Teleas is 
the Acharnians, referred to in the satirized in the Birds, but not in the 
preceding note, the eel is described as special character of a glutton. For 
<f>i\rj Mopvx<p* Morychus is again men- Melanthius see the note on 802 supr. 
tioned as an ox/z-o^a-yo? in Wasps 506. 1014. t€vt\olctl] The epicure had 

And " the Morychian" — fj Mopi^/a— of been picturing to himself a delicious eel 
which Plato speaks at the commence- upon his dinner-table, half concealed 
mentof the Phaedrus, is thought to be* 'a by the beet amid which it lay snugly 
species of luxurious hotel, so called from ensconced. " That eels when dressed 
this notorious voluptuary." — Sewell's for the table were enveloped in beet, is 
Dialogues of Plato, chap, xxiii ; plain," says Athenaeus, vii. 56, "from 
Ituhnken's Timaeus, sub voc. Mopv^a/a ; many passages in the ancient comedians," 
Ast on Plato ubi supr. Morychus and and he proceeds to cite two extracts 
Glaucetes are coupled together as well- from Eubulus, in which the eel is 
known epicures by Plato Comicus (see described as a beautiful maiden, with 
the Scholiast on Clouds 110) : and a mantle of beet thrown round her. 
Glaucetes is mentioned as a devouring One is from his Echo : — 
Nu/*<£a 8' aireipoyafJLOs revrXa) irepl <rcvjjia KaXvTTTcL 
XevKoxpas irapkcTai i^x^ Vs - 

Whitefleshed, tender, and sweet, 

Behold the immaculate virgin, 
Wrapped in her robes of beet, 

In peerless beauty emerging : 


With Morychus, Teleas, Glaucetes, all 
The gluttons together besieging the stall, 
To purchase the fish : and then I could wish 
For Melanthius to come too late for the f air, 
And for them to be sold, and for him to despair, 
And out of his own Medea a groan 

Of anguish to borrow, 
"I perish! I perish! bereaved of my sweet, 
My treasure, my darling, embowered in her beet ;" 
And for all men to laugh at his sorrow. 
These things we pray ; O mistress, grant us these. 

Serv. Here take the cleaver : now with clever skill 

Slaughter the sheep. Tryg. No, no, I must not. 

Serv. Why? 

Tryg. Peace loves not, friend, the sight of victims slain : 
Her's is a bloodless altar. Take it in, 

the other from his Ion : — 

There too were heavenly eels 
Divinely nourished in Boeotia's lakes 
Robed in their beet. 

The practice of garnishing eels with beet may have been ras iv KoXxoktl Ao^evo- 

is noticed in Acharn. 894, and by Phere- iLtvas. 

crates apud Pollux vi, Segm. 59. 1020. old 9 alfxaTovraL jSafufc] The 

(Boeotia seems to have furnished the Scholiast says that unbloody sacrifices 

finest beets as well as the finest eels. were offered to Peace on the festival of 

The beet which came from Ascra the Synoecia, which was held on the 16th 

(Hesiod's birthplace) was in special of Hecatombaeon, to commemorate (as 

request. Clement of Alexandria, Paeda- we learn from Thuc. ii. 15 ; Plutarch, 

gogus ii. 1, § 3, p. 164.) The beet was Theseus, cap. 24) the consolidation by 

said to act as a corrective to certain Theseus of the independent Attic com- 

unwholesome properties of the fish. See munities into the one Athenian state. 

Badham's Ancient and Modern Fish- (Another altar to Peace was erected by 

tattle, chap. 17. In the Medea of the Athenians after the battles of Eury- 

Melanthius, from which this and the medon and the close of the Persian 

preceding line are borrowed, the phrase Wars, Plutarch, Cimon 13.) 


Ovo-as, ra [xrjpV e£e\cov Sevp eK(pepe, 

)(0VTO> TO TTpofScLTOV T<3 X ^ 7 ?'/? CF&feTOLl. 

XO. ae tol Ovpacri xprj pevovT \evQaSi \xe& fj/jccov] \avr. 

cryi^as Sevpl TiOevcu radices 

rd re irpocrcfropa irdvr em tovtols. 1025 

TP. ovkovv Sokoo aroi [xavTiK&s to (f>pvyavov TiOecrOai ; 
XO. 7TC09 5' ov%i; tl ydp ere irefyevy 

oca xprj G"o(f)OV dvSpa ; tl 5' ov 
crv (ppoveis, oTrocra yjpe&v ecr- 
Tiv tov ye ao(f)fj Sokl/xov 1030 

(ppevl TTOpLfJiCp T€ ToX/jLTJ ', 

TP. rj o k yiC a y°vv evrjfjLfidvr) tov %Ti\f3i8r}v irie^ei, 

Kal ttjv Tpdiregav otcroficu, teal nouSbs ov Serjarei. 
XO. t/V ovv av ovk eTraivecreL- 

ev dvSpa toiovtov, ocr- 

Tis tt6\\' avoiTXds ecrco- 1035 

ae ttjv lepav iroXiv ; 

1022. rco xopyyy o-coferai] It is hardly referring to the Choregus of the Comic 

correct to say, with Bothe and Pichter, Play in which the line occurs ; and Ari- 

that xwy<p i s used napa irpoG^oKiav for stophanes (Athenaeus iii. 62, p. 103 F) is 

Upcl : the whole expression ro> x o PVy^ certainly not doing so where amongst 

<tg>C€tcu is introduced napa irpoaboKiav, the persons who have experienced vieissi- 

audience expecting to hear how the vie- tudes of fortune he classes a man who 

tim would be sacrificed, and not that the x°P r iy^ )S alpeOeis \ Ifxaria xP V(T <* Trapacrx^v 

sacrifice would be altogether evaded, tg> x°P& paicos 4>opeT. Nor is he doing so 

so as to spare the pocket of the wealthy in Ach. 1155. But, if we may judge 

citizen, whose allotted task it was to from the Latin imitations, this was fre- 

provide the expenses of the Play. (The quently done in the New Comedy. Thus 

Choregus is often mentioned in Comedy. in Plautus, Persa i. 3. 79, when Toxilus 

It is not clear whether Eupolis, in the is instructing Saturio to disguise his 

line cited by Pollux (iii. 115) "Hbr] x°P r }" daughter in a foreign dress, the last- 

yov 7ro)7rore pynapooTepov \ rovS* elbes ; is named says 

Sat. UoOev ornamenta ? Tox. abs chorago sumito. 
Dare debet ; praebenda aediles locauerunt. 


And when you have slain it, bring the thighs out here. 
There : now the sheep is — saved for the Choregus. 

'hoe. But you the while, outside with us remaining, 

Lay; handy and quick, these fagots of stick, 
Whatever is needful ordaining. 
?eyg. Now don't you think I have laid the wood as well as most diviners could ? 
Chor. (Admiringly.) Yes ! just what I looked for from you. 
All that is wise you can do. 
All things that daring and skill 

Suffice to fulfil 
You can perform if you will. 
Fkyg. (Coughing.) Dear ! how this lighted brand is smoking^ your Stilbides is nearly chokii g; 
I'll bring the table out with speed ; a servant's help we shall not need. 
Chor. Sure all with admiration true 

Will praise a man so clever, 
Who passed such toils and dangers through, 

And in the Trinummus iv. 2. 16 : 

Ipse ornamenta a chorago haec sumsit suo periculo. 

Indeed in the Curculio iv. 1 the Choregus rjvexOrj tot* fxrjde p-avriv e\ av efnreipov' 6 

himself is brought on the stage. ) yap o-vvrjSrjs avrov, koi to noXv ttjs dtiondat- 

1023. iv6ah\ f.L€$' fj/jLcov] (These words jxovias a<fiaip£)i>> ^TiXftifys ere6vr\K.ei piKpov 

are inserted merely as a guess to fill up epnrpovQev. — Plutarch, Mcias, chap. 23. 

the lacuna. The MSS. read \xkvovra The yovv in this verse seems to be used 

toIvvv which does not correspond with in deprecation, as it were, of the 

line 939 supr.) Chorus's too fulsome flattery, ^x^h & s 

1032. 2Ti\fti8r)v~\ Stilbides was a the Scholiast observes, is the proper 

celebrated diviner, living at Athens term for the sacrificial wood, 
when the Peace was acted. He pos- 1036. Upav nokiv] In Knights 582 

sessed great influence over Mcias, and Athens is called "the holiest spot of all 

seems to have exercised it with singular the earth." And she is styled "the 

judgement and good sense, so that his holy," in Knights 1037, by Pindar in 

death, some time before the fatal close Fragm. Dith. (No, 3, Heyne), (by 

of the Sicilian expedition, was no incon- Bacchylides xviii. 1), by Timocreon of 

siderable misfortune. T<» Nira'a o-w- Rhodes apud Plutarch, Themistocles, 



grjXodTos aTraviv. 

OI. tclvtI SeSparai. TiBeao too firjpa) Xaj3a>v. 

ey<5> 6' kirl arrXdyyv ef/«u kcu 6vXr^iaTa. 1040 

TP. kp.ol fxeXrjcrei, ravrd y 9 ' dXX* rjKeiv k^prjv. 
OI. ISov, ndpeifja. fxoov kmcrytlv vol Sokco ; 
TP. otttol /caXcoy vvv avrd* koli yap ovto<ti 

TTpocrepytTOLi Sdc/yvrj tl$ eaTecfravco/jiivos. 

ris dpa ttot kariv; OI. 009 dXa(<bv (paivejat- 1045 

[idvTis ris kvTiv. TP. ov fid AC, aXX* 'lepoKXerjs 

ovtos ye ttov crff \ 6 -^prjafxoXoyos ov£ 'Xlpeou. 
OI. tl ttot dpa Xiget ; . TP. SfjXos kvff ovtos y otl 

havTi6(T€Tai tl Tat? SiaXXayais. 
OI. ovk, dXXd KaTa ttjv KvTaav clcreXrjXvdev. 1050 

TP. jirj vvv opav SoKco/xev avTOv. OI. ev Xiyets. 
JE. tls rj 6va(a tto& avTrjl Kal r<3 6ea>v ; 
TP. oiTTa crv cnyfj, Kan ay drrb Trjs 6V0uos- 
IE. otco Sh 6v€T ov <f>pdcreff ; rj Ktptcos iroiei 

KaXcdS. OI. KaXQ>$ Stjt, S> ttotvl JZlprjvr] (piXr). 1055 

chap. 21 ; by Sophocles in the Ajax 1222, 1046. 'UpoicXerjs] Hierocles is said to 
and frequently elsewhere. The epithet, have been a real personage. The Scho- 
however, is merely an honorary one, liastpreservesalineof Eupolis/lepd/cXees, 
conveying no special signification, and ^eXnare xpww§<*v "*"*£> which, as Din- 
is freely applied to any city. dorf remarks, is probably modelled upon 

1040. OvXtJixara] (rot tols Beoh eniOvo- 'Ered/cXeey, <j)epierT6 Kabfieicw ava£, Aesch. 

ficva aXcpira. imppalverai 8e oiVa> kcu Septem 39. The distinction intended 

i\aup, TrjXeKXeLdrjs ^rcppols ; " a> Sto-noB* here between fiduns and xP^^Xdyos is 

c Ep/x^> KCLTrre ra>v 6v\r}p,dra>v. — Scholiast. similar to that drawn between pavTis 

anXayxva were the heart, the kidneys, and 7rpo(j)f)Tr]s by Plato, Timaeus 72 B. 

the liver, &c.) The pavr is predicted future events, the 

1043. 6Vra KaXm vvv alrd] Trygaeus, xPWPoXoyos preserved and expounded 

who had left the stage while the servant the predictions of others. Many of 

was speaking, now returns with the them possessed, or pretended to possess, 

anXdyxva, old prophecies of Bakis and other 


And saved the holy city too ; 
An envied name for ever. 

Serv. I've done the job ; here take and cook the thighs 

While I go fetch the inwards and the cates. 
Tryg. I'll see to this : you should have come before. 
Serv. Well, here I am : Fm sure I've not been long. 
Tryg. Take these, and roast them nicely : here's a fellow 

Coming this way, with laurel round his head. 

Who can he be ? Serv. He looks an arrant humbug. 

Some seer, I think. Tryg. No, no ; 'tis Hierocles, 

The oracle-mongering chap from Oreus town. 
Serv. What brings him here ? Tryg. 'Tis evident he comes 

To raise some opposition to our truces. 
Serv. No, 'tis the savour of the roast attracts him. 
Tryg. Don't let us seem to notice him. Serv. All right. 
Hierocles. What is this sacrifice, and made to whom ? 
Tryg. Roast on : don't speak : hands off the haunch remember. 
Hier. Will ye not say to whom ye sacrifice ? 

This tail looks right. Serv. Sweet Peace ! it does indeed. 

ancient seers, which they produced the passage thus, f] ovpa. icaka ar] naive 1' 

from time to time, as occasion required. e$os yap elx ov rrjv dacfrvv kcl\ ttjv KepKov 

A vagrant ^pqoTxoXoyo? i s introduced imridevai to> irvpi^ /cat ef avrcov crrjiieiois 

in the Birds, in precisely the same way real Karavociv el evTTpoa-beKros f) Qvaria. 

as Hierocles here. So if an oracle was (koXgos is the regular word for favourable 

hard to understand, the xPW^^oyot, omens drawn from a sacrifice. Cyrus, 

as the professional interpreters, were just before the battle of Cunaxa, bids 

called upon to expound it. See Hdt. Xenophon report on to, Upa kol to. a<t>dyta 

vii. 142, 143. The Scholiast says that naXa elrj, Anab. i. 8. 15. Cf. Birds 

priests and prophets wore laurel wreaths 1118 and passim.) Hierocles, there- 

as the badge of their profession. fore, says, " The tail is going on well," 

1054. fj KepKos Tvoiel koKcos] These in a sacrificial point of view. "It is, 

words, which the MSS. and editions indeed," observes the servant, referring 

give to Trygaeus, seem to belong to to the culinary process. 
Hierocles. The Scholiast explains 

K % 





aye vvv dndp^ov, Kara 8b$ Tdirdpypara. 
birrdv d^ivov irpS>rov. IE. dXXd ravrayl 
ijSrj ' <jt\v oirrd. TP. ttoXXoc nparreLS, oans el. 
KaT are five, rrov rpdire^a ; ttju (nrov8r]v 0epe. 
17 yXodTTd \copls TefiveTou. TP. pepLvijpeOa. 


dXX' olcr6' Spacrov ; IE. fjv <f)pdo-rj$. TP. prj StaXeyov 
vZv fjLtjSev Ktprjj/r} yap lepd Ovoptv. 
IE. 3) peXeot dyrjTol kcll vfjTTioi, TP. is KeipaXrjv croL 
IE. OLTwes d<ppa8ir)<rL 6e&>v voov ovk dtovres 

o-vvdrJKas TT€7rotr]<rO' dv8pes yapo-Kolai ttl6tjkol?. 1065 

OI. a//3o? (3ol. TP. ri yeXas ; OI. r\<rQr\v yapOTrotat ttlOtJkols. 
JE. kcll K€7T(poL Tprj peeves dXcoireKLSevcrL 7reVejo-0e, 

S>v 8qXioll -tyvyal, 86Xiai (j>pipes. TP. etde aov dvai 
axfteXev, cbXagobv, ovrcocrl deppbs 6 nXevpcov. 

1056. aTrdpxov] (commence, dwapx^o-dai 
generally means to commence a sacrifice 
by cutting, and throwing into the fire, 
the hair from the victim's brow. But 
that stage is long passed here ; and 
Hierocles must be exhorting them to 
commence the sacrificial feast.) 

1060. f) ykcoTTci x^P 15 T^^rai] This 
formula, which occurs again in Birds 
1705 and Plutus 1110, is said to refer 
to a custom of cutting out the victim's 
tongue, and keeping it apart till the 
close of the feast, to be offered with 
libations of wine to the Herald Hermes, 
when the party broke up to retire to 
rest. There are many passages (all of 
which, I believe, are cited by Morent 
Chretien and Bergler), in which this 
custom is mentioned ; but its origin and 
meaning were obscure, even to the 
ancients themselves. Athenaeus (i, chap. 
28) says that the libation was made to 

Hermes as the patron of sleep, and 
that the tongue was selected Bid. rrjv 
epfjLrjveiap. Various other explanations 
of the rite are suggested by the Scho- 
liasts on Homer's Odyssey, iii. 332, 341 ; 
on Apollonius Rhodius, i. 517 ; and on 
the above-mentioned passages of Ari- 
stophanes ; as, that it was intended as 
a sign that what had passed was not to 
be divulged, or as a peace-offering for 
any idle word which might have offended 
the Divine Majesty, or as a memorial 
of some legendary adventure ; or the 

1061. rjv <fypd(TT]s] I shall, if you tell 
me. This is an Attic colloquialism, fre- 
quently used by Plato : OlvOa ovs 
fjyovfjLai dyad ovs ; *Av eiTtr}s f €(f>rj. — Rep. 
iii. 408 D ; ix. 587 B. 

1063. & fieXeoi] At the word Peace, 
Hierocles at once starts off in heroics. — 
is K€(f>a\r)v ao\ is the common form of 









Now then begin and hand the firstlings here. 

It must be roasted first. Hier. It's roasted now. 

You're over-busy, man, whoe'er you are. 

Cut on : why, where' s the table ? bring the wine. 

The tongue requires a separate cut. Tryg. We know. 

Now will you please ? Hier. Yes, tell me. Tryg. Mind your business. 

Don't talk to us : we sacrifice to Peace. 
O ye pitiful fools ! Tryg. Pray speak for yourself, my good fellow. 
Ye who, blindly perverse, with the will of the Gods unacquainted, 
Dare to traffic for Peace, true men with truculent monkeys. 
O! O! O! Tryg. What's the matter ? Serv. I like his truculent monkeys. 
Silly and timorous gulls, ye have trusted the children of foxes 
Crafty of mind and crafty of soul. Tryg. You utter impostor, 
O that your lungs were as hot as a piece of the meat I am roasting ! 

throwing back upon a speaker an ill- 
omened or offensive observation. Thus, 
in Plato's Euthydemus, chap, xii, when 
some one had spoken of destruction in 
connexion with Ctesippus's boy-love, 
Ctesippus retorts, "If it were not some- 
what unmannerly, I would say 2ol ds 
K€<fia\r)v, ,, where see Dr. Routh's note. 
And compare Ach. 833, Plutus 650. 

1065. x a po7ro7(TL\ (fierce-eyed. Though 
the word may in strictness mean "joy- 
ful-eyed," the joy is almost always, in 
classic Greek, that of the wild beast 
about to spring upon its prey.) 

1067. aAa>7T€/a§e{i(H] A very similar 
phrase is used in relation to the Lacedae- 
monians in Lysistrata, 1268 ; and in the 
Acharnians, 308, they are described as 
people olviv owe (Sodfibs ovre ttlcttls ov6* 
opicos fievei. The Scholiast refers to 
Eurip. Andromache 446 ^Trdprrjs cvolkol, 

d6\i,a fiouktVTfjpia, y^evbau civaKTes. On 
these and similar charges brought by 
Athenian writers against the good faith 
of Sparta, (see the Commentary on the 
Acharnians. Here where the Spartans 
are described as "foxes " the Athenians 
masquerade as KeV^oi rprjpcoves, timorotis 
petrels. The KeV^or, our Stormy Petrel, 
was by the Greeks considered as a 
synonym for a fool ; evades C&ov 6 K€7T<fios, 
says the Scholiast ; see Plutus 912 and 
the Commentary there, rprjpcov is in 
Homer the recognized epithet of the 
timid dove. The words Keirfyoi rp-qpaves 
are intended to throw scorn alike on 
the intelligence and on the courage of 
Trygaeus and his assistants.) 

1069. ovtghtI $€pfi6s] I imagine that 
Trygaeus, as he says this, is burning his 
hands with the roasting meat. Cf. 
Wasps 918 (and the Commentary there). 



IE. el yap fjcrj Nv/Kpac ye 6eal Bclkiv e^arrdraa-KOv, 1070 

[i7]Se Ba/a? 6vr]TOv$ y fj,7]8 y av NvfMpou BaKiv airov, 
TP. e£<&\7]9 diroXot, el /xrj iravcraio {JaKLgcw. 
IE. ovttco Oeatparov r\v JLlprji/rjs Secrfx dvaXvcrac, 

dXXa r68e TTporepov, TP. toT$ dXcri ye iracrrea tolvtL 
IE. ov yap 7rco tovt ecrrl tyiXov fxaKapecra'c Oeoloriv? 1075 

(f)vX6m8o$ Xfj£ai, rrpiv Ktv Xvkos olv vfievaiol. 
TP. Kal nm, oo /carapare, Xvkos ttot av olv v/xevaioi ; 
IE. &$ 7j <T(f)Ov8vXr] obevyovaa Trovriporarov f38e? } 

XV kmScov aKaXavOh eTreiyofievrj rv<p>Xa riKTei, 

tovtolkls OV7TCD XPV U r ^ elpr\vr\v TreTTOirjaOai. 
TP. dXXa tl XP^ V yftMS ; ov Trav&aaOai iroXe/jiovvTas, 1080 

fj SiaKavvidvai iroTepoi KXavcrovfjieda p.el£ov y 

e£ov (nreiGrajievoLS Kotvfj rfjs c JLXXd8o$ apyeiv ; 

1070. Bclkiv] The Bakis here referred 
to was an ancient Boeotian prophet, 
whom Pausanias describes as a man 
possessed by the Nymphs — Karda-x^rov 
avbpa iic Nv/z<£a)i> (x. 12. 6, cf. Id. iv. 27. 
12), which accounts for his being here 
represented as a medium between the 
Nymphs and mankind. His prophecies, 
which are again mentioned in the 
Knights and in the Birds, were held in 
great repute at the time of the Persian 
war. Herodotus cites them four times, 
and always as having been fulfilled to 
the letter. Pausanias, too, repeatedly 
testifies to their veracity. 

1077. kcu 7rS)9] This line was first 
supplied by Invernizzi from the Ravenna 
MS. With the phrase irpiv kcv \vkos 
olv vficvmoL Erasmus compares Horace, 
Ode i. 33, "prius Appulis Jungentur 
capreae lupis Quam," &c. 

1078. cr(f>ov8v\r}] Schneider on Ari- 

stotle, Hist. Animal, v. 7, collects the 
various passages wherein the ancient 
writers have mentioned the afpovdvXr], 
which appears to have been a sort of 
beetle. Kirby and Spence in their 21st 
letter ( ' ' Means by which insects defend 
themselves ") enumerate a variety of 
insects, mostly beetles, which, "when 
urged by danger, endeavour to repel it 
by emitting disagreeable scents or fluids." 
The common cocktail beetle defends 
itself in this manner. "It has the 
power of throwing out a most disgusting 
odour, which is penetrating and persis- 
tent to a degree, refusing to be driven 
off even with many washings." — Wood's 
Nat. Hist. iii. 465. "But of all beetles," 
says an anonymous writer on Insect 
Warfare, li commend me for military 
effect to the famous Bombardier, as it is 
called, which defends itself with a 
report and a little puff of smoke, bang- 









If the prophetic nymphs have not been imposing on Bakis, 

No, nor Bakis on men, nor the nymphs, I repeat, upon Balds, 

O perdition be yours i£ you don't have done with your Bakis ! 

Then is the hour not come for the fetters of Peace to be loosened. 

No ; for before that hour — Tryg. This piece is with salt to be sprinkled. 

Yea, it is far from the mind of the Ever-blessed Immortals 

That we should cease from the strife, till the wolf and the lamb be united. 

How, you scoundrel accurst, can the wolf and the lamb be united? 

Doth not the beetle, alarmed, emit a most horrible odour ? 

Doth not the wagtail yapper produce blind young in its hurry ? 

So is the hour not come for Peace to be sanctioned between us. 

What then, what is to come ? Are we never to cease from the battle, 

Always to chance it out, which most can enfeeble the other, 

When we might both join hands, and share the dominion of Hellas ? 

ing away at its enemy like a gunboat, 
up to twenty rounds. It is true that 
there is vox et praeterea nihil, unless you 
except the smell of the engagement, for 
the piece is not shotted." 

1079. kg>8gov aicaXapBis] He is referring 
to a proverb preserved by the Scholiast, 
and mentioned by many grammarians, 
17 Kixov crirevbovaa rv$ka tlktci. But the 
language is purposely obscure and enig- 
matic, something in the manner of Lyco- 
phron ; ravra de rravra, says the Scholiast, 
ewiTrjdes ddiaporjTOJS €<ppacrep, to do~a(pes tcov 
Xprj(Tfxa>p fjujj.ovfj.evos. (So for- kvoxp he 
substitutes ko)(W aKa\av8\s, the word 
Ka$(Dv, a bell, bearing some resemblance 
to kvcov, and the sounds produced by its 
clapper being compared to the noisy 
yapping of a dog : aKa\av6\$ is properly 
a goldfinch, see the Introduction to the 
Birds, p. xliv) ; but it is here used as an 
epithet of a dog, irapa to alicaWeiv to-cos 

tovs yvcopifjiovs, vXaKTeip 8e tovs ijevovs, as 
the Scholiast on Birds 873 remarks. 

1081. 77 biamvviao~ai\ (j) diaKkrjpoocracBaL 
7TOT€pOL 0; TjfJLQOP Tektov 8ia<pdapr]0'ovTaL 
kovvov yap top Kkrjpou <pao~i f Scholiast, 
who quotes a passage from an unnamed 
Comedy of Aristophanes, and another 
from the Flagon of Cratinus, in which 
Kavpos is used for " a lot.") 

1082. Koipfj Trjs 'EWddos apx^tv] This 
is no mere comic suggestion : it was 
much in men's minds at this epoch that 
Athens and Sparta were in reality coa- 
lescing to obtain the joint supremacy of 
Hellas, and the idea had a powerful 
influence over the political combinations 
of the period. It derived additional 
force from the significant circumstance 
that, in the peace which was concluded 
a few days after the exhibition of this 
Play, a joint power was reserved to 
Athens and Sparta, enabling them, 



IE. oviroTe 7roLrj(r€LS tov KapKivov opda (3a8i£eiv. 
TP. ovnoTe 8enrvrjoreL$ in rod Xonrov V TrpvTaveicp, 

oiff €7n tg> irpayJSkvTi 7roirj(rei9 vcrrepov ovSev. 1085 

IE. ovSinor av Oetrjs Xelov rov rpayyv kylvov. 
TP. apa (f>€vaKi£<ov ttot 'AO-qvaiovs ere Travcrti ; 
IE. iToiov yap Kara xprjo-pbv eKavaare prjpa Oeolcnv ; 
TP. ovirep k&Wkttov S-q-rrov ireTroir)Kev rf O prjpos* 

" (»? ol pep vi<po$ hyOpov dircocrdpevoL noXipoio 1090 

YApr\vt]v eiXovro kcu ISpvaavO' iepd(p. 

avrap hirel Kara prjp eKarj kcu airXdy^y kird&avTO, 

ecnrevSov StTrdecraiv eya) 8 68ov fjyefjLovevov 

without the concurrence of the other 
Hellenic states, to alter the articles of 
the treaty : tovto yap to ypafxixa fxaXidTa 
rr)p JleXoTrovvrjo-ov die6opv(Sei kcu is viro^iav 
KaOicrTT) fxrj jJLtTa *A6r)vaia>v (T(f)ds (BovXcovtcu 
AaKedaifJiovLOL bovXcooacrOaL (Thuc. v. 29 ; 
cf . Id. iv. 20 ; and Diodorus Siculus xii, 
chap. 75). (And some forty years later 
this joint supremacy of Athens and 
Sparta was a favourite dream of Isocrates. 
See, for example, the early part of his 
Panegyrical Oration.) 

1084. d€i7rurj(T€Ls iv 7TpvTaveuo\ A din- 
ner was served up daily at the public 
expense, in the Prytaneum, which was 
considered the domestic hearth of the 
commonwealth (carta rrjs ttoXccos, Pollux 
ix,Segm.40), and as such was embellished 
with consecrated images of Peace and 
Hestia (Paus. i. 18. 3). Hestia was indeed 
the special patroness of all Prytanea, 
whence Pindar, in the eleventh Nemean 
Ode, addresses her as lieu e Pia$, a re ITpv- 
ravcla XcXoyxas, e Eo-ria, and speaks of her 
divaoi rpdireCau The Prytanes for the 
time being had places, ex officio, at the 

table (Pollux viii. 155 ; Puhnken's Ti- 
maeus, sub voc. OdXos ; Scholiast at 
Lucian's Prometheus, 4) ; and there, too, 
were entertained foreign ambassadors, 
successful envoys, and others whom for 
their public services the State delighted 
to honour (Pollux ix. 40 ; cf. Ach. 125 ; 
Knights 281, 535, 709, 1404; Frogs 
764). This was the famous alr^ais iv 
UpvTciveicp, so familiar from the Attic 
orators. So in Plato's Apology, 36 D, 
Socrates says to his judges that, if he 
must fin his own sentence, he should 
name a airqais iv Upyraveico, as to a public 
benefactor ; and Lucian, ubi supr., 
makes Prometheus say that the benefits 
which he had conferred upon mankind 
would have been more aptly recom- 
pensed by a alrrjais iv UpvTavcico than 
by the vulture and the Caucasus. For 
a decree conferring upon some person 
(the name is lost) a perpetual airrjais iv 
TlpvTav€L(p f a perpetual Tvpocbpla at the 
games, and the right of placing his statue 
in any part of the Agora except beside 
the statues of Harmodius and Aristogei- 



Hieh. Canst thou tutor the crab to advance straight forward ? thou canst not. 

Teyg. Wilt thou dine any more in the Hall of Assembly ? thou wilt not ; 
No, nor ever again shall thy cheating knavery prosper. 

Hieh. Thou wilt never be able to smooth the spines of the hedgehog. 

Tryg. Wilt thou never desist bamboozling the people of Athens ? 

Hier. Say, what oracle taught you to burn the thighs of the victim ? 

Tryg. This, the wisest and best, delivered by Homer the poet : 
When they had driven afar the detestable cloud of the battle, 
Then they established Peace, and iveleomecl her bach with oblations, 
Duly the thighs they burned, and ate the tripe and the inwards, 
Then poured out the libations ; and I was the guide and the leader ; 

ton, see Wordsworth's Athens and Attica, 
chap. xiv. The Scholiast tells us that 
this honour was granted to the sooth- 
sayer Lampon, and no doubt he very 
much enjoyed it, if the account given in 
Athenaeus viii. 33 of his gormandizing 
propensities be correct. And probably 
he was not the only member of his craft 
who found his harvest in these times of 
public anxiety and suspense, and there- 
fore of public superstition. 

1085. iirX T(3 irpaxQevTi] «rl ro3 yeve- 
a6ai rrjv elprjvijv. — Scholiast, after what 
has occurred. So em rolade rots Treirpay- 
fievoiS) Aesch. Persae 529. 

1090. <bs ol fxev] These verses are ex- 
temporized by Trygaeus in imitation of 
the Homeric style and phraseology. 
Brunck, Dindorf, and Richter refer to 
Iliad i. 464, xvi. 301, xvii. 243 ; Od. vi. 
261, vii. 137 ; for sundry of the expres- 
sions and sentences here strung together. 
{The phrase ve(j)os dircoo-dpLevoi, or its 
equivalent, is found in other writers. In 
Hdt. viii. 109 Themistocles, dissuading the 
Athenians from intercepting Xerxes at 

the Hellespont, enlarges on the good for- 
tune the Hellenes had experienced vecpos 
toctovto avdpooTTCov dpcoo-dfievoL. Plutarch 
may have had these passages in his mind 
when he speaks of Marius telling his 
soldiers that they were to do battle with 
the Cimbri and Teutones, not to gain 
honour and glory for themselves, but 
ottms i>e(fios roorovrov iroXepov Kai (jk^tttov 
oicrdjievot diao-ao-ovcri rqv 'iraXta^, Marius, 
chap. 16.) The phrase iycb & 6$6v r)ye- 
povtvov is repeated by Theocritus xi. 27. 
The KcoOav was a drinking-cup, much used 
in the Lacedaemonian armies ; its interior 
surface seems to have been broken by 
sundry ridges, apfioovas, and it was found 
that, when the soldiers on campaigns 
were reduced to drink muddy water, 
these ridges arrested the sediment, and 
only the clearer water passed over to 
the drinker's lips. Such, at least, I take 
to be the meaning of the description 
given of this cup by Critias in a passage 
of his Lacedaemonian Republic, cited 
both by Plutarch, Lycurgus, chap. 9, and 
by Athenaeus, xi. 66. 


^prjcrfJLoXoycp 5' ovSels eSiSov Koo6<ova (paeivov. 
IE. ov fieT€^(o TOVTcov ov yap ravT U7T€ ^(fivXXa. 1095 

TP. dXX* 6 crocpos roi vfj At" "Ofxrjpos Segibv uirtv 

" d^prJTcop, ddefxicrTO?, dveartos kanv eKetvos, 

os TToXi/xov eparcu kiri8r]fXLOv otcpvoevros" 
IE. (ppdgeo Srj, jirj nm ere 86Xa> (j>pevas ££airaTr)cra$ 

IktIvos lidp^rj. TP. tovtl \iivToi o-v (frvXarrov, 1100 

coy ovtos cpofiepos rols o-irXdyyvoLS karlv 6 ^prjo'/ios. 

eyX* L $y cttoi'Stjv kgcI tg>v arrXdy^ucoj/ (pipe Sevpi. 
IE. dXX' el ravra Sokgi, ftdycb ' fxavrZ fiaXavevcco. 
TP. cnrov8r) o-novSrj. 

IE. eyj(et 8r) Ka/xol kcci cnrXdy^yoDV [ioipav ope^ov. 1105 

TP. dXX' ov7rco tovt earl (piXov ixaicdpscrcn Oeolcriv 

dXXd roSe nporepov, airiySetp f}fjia$ ) ere 8* aTreXOelv. 

S> TTOTVi JLlprjvri, TrapdfieLvov rbv fiiov rj/iiy. 
IE. 7rp6o-(j)€pe rr)v yXcorrar. TP. av 8e rr)v o-avTov y dirivtyKOV. 
IE. aTrov8r). TP. kccl ravrl fierd rfjs o-irovSfjs Aa/3e Odrrov. 1110 
IE. ovSel? TrpooSdoaei poi anXdy^ycov ; TP. ov yap olbv re 

rj/uv Trpoa8i86vaii irpiv Kev Xvkos olv vpLevaiol. 

1095. StjSuXXa] It is unnecessary collected in the notes of Kuhn and 

here to discuss the various theories Perizonius.) 

which have been advanced respecting 1097. d<ppr)Tcop] This and the follow- 

the origin, the history, the books, of the ing line are cited from Iliad ix. 63. 

Sibyls ; but I may mention Max Miiller's 1100. Iktipos fidpyjrr]] The oracle leaves 

conjecture that Sibylla is derived from in uncertainty the object of the kite's 

sabius, a supposed Italian form of swoop ; but the language naturally 

and so merely means a wise pointed to the cnrKdyxva (see Birds 

woman. — Lectures on the Science of 892), and Trygaeus alarmed at this, and 
Language, p. 95, note. (Both Bakis and by the hungry glances which Hierocles 
the Sibyl are mentioned in the Knights ; is casting at the meat, cautions the 
and both are bracketed together as XPW" servant to be on his guard ; lest Hierocles 
fia>bo\ in the Theages of Plato, chap. 5 himself should be preparing to play the 
(p. 124 D), and are discussed in the thirty- part of the symbolical kite. (The carry- 
fifth chapter of Aelian's Y. H. Book XII, ing off of sacrificial meats by kites was 
where much learning will be found so common a practice, that Aristotle (De 


None to the soothsayer gave the shining beautiful goblet. 
Hier. Nothing* I know of these : these did not come from the Sibyl. 
Tryg. Nay, but wisely and well spake Homer the excellent poet : 

Tribeless, lawless, and hearthless is he that clelighteth in bloodshed, 

Bloodshed of kith and Join, heart-sickening, horrible, hateful ! 
Hier. Take thou heed, or a kite, by a trick thy attention beguiling, 

Down with a swoop may pounce. 

Tryg. (To the servant.) Ah ! take heed really and truly. 

That's an alarming hint : it bodes no good to the inwards. 

Pour the libation in, and hand me a piece of the inwards. 
Hier. Nay, but if such is the plan, I too for myself will be cater. 
Tryg. Pour libation ! pour libation ! 

Hier. Pour it in also for me, and reach me a share of the inwards. 
Tryg. That is far from the mind of the Ever-blessed Immortals. 

Yea, for before that hour — yo% go, we'll pour the libation. 

Holy and reverend Peace, abide with thy servants for ever. 
Hier. Now, fetch hither the tongue. 

Tryg. You, take yours off Fd advise you. 
Hier. Pour the libation in. Tryg. Take that to assist the libation. 
Hier. What ! will none of you give me some meat ? 

Tryg. 'Tis strictly forbidden. 

You no inwards can have till the wolf and the lamb be united. 

Mirabilibus,chap. 123),Pausanias(v.l4. vevs vcodpevrjTai, ko.1 iavrco tls Xafxfiavr] rrjv 

1) and Aelian (N. A. ii. 47) all mention apvraivav kcu diaKovfj' rj dnb tcov tcls /3a\a- 

it as a remarkable fact, that it was never vovs iyKpvfiovrcov ds nvp. — Zenobius iii. 

known to occur at the altar of Zeus in 58 ; Gaisford's Paroemiogr. p. 292.) 
Olympia. In Lucian's Timon, 54, a 1106. aXX' ovnco tovt earl cpLXov] Here 

gluttonous philosopher is described as and in several of the subsequent lines 

TrpoapTrafav axnrtp IktIvos tcl oij/a.y Trygaeus is retorting upon the sooth - 

1103. fiakaveixra)] (I will attend to my sayer his own oracular utterances. 
own wants ; literally, I will be my own 1110. ravrl Aa/3e 6clttov\ These words, 

bathman. 8ia,Kovr)<rcD, vTrovpyrjo-oo. — Scho- I think, are addressed to Hierocles, 

liast. ifiavTcp fiakavevo-co' napoLpla, olove\ Trygaeus at the same time flinging at 

ifiaVT^ 8iaKovr}(T(o. Xeyerai de otclv 6 ftaka- him some of the refuse. 


IE. vol irpbs tcdv yovaTtov. TP. dXXoos, eo r&, iKereveiS' 
ov yap TToirjcreis Xelov top rpayyv e^ii/ov. 

dye Sr), Beared, Sevpo avo-rrXay^vevere 1115 

//.era vcpv, IE. ri Srj 'yob ; TP. Tr\v ^tfivXXav earOie. 
IE. ov rot flee tt]v Yfjv ravra KareSeaOov /jlovco, 

dXX' apndcrojxaL o-fycov avrd' Kelrat 8' ev /zecrco. 
TP. 5 irate ivale tqv BaKiis. IE. iiaprvpojxai, 

TP. Kaycoy , otl Tevdrjs el av K&Xafav dvfjp. 1120 

rrat avrov erre^oop t£ £vXg> tov dXa^bva. 
OI. ai) jxev ovv eyco Se tovtovI tcov kcoSioov, 

aXdfifiav avrhs k^arraT&v, 4/cj3oX/3ico. 

ov KarafiaXecs rd kcoSl, S> 0vr]7r6Xe ; 

rjKovaas ; 6 Kopa£ olos rjXO' e£ 'Slpeov. 1125 

1118. &p7rd(ro fKu] The Scholiast says sider, libelled them in his Vitarum Auctio 

that there was here a stage direction, (the sale by auction of the various philo- 

7rap€7rtypa<pr]' ravra yap €iVa)i> xXeuafa, Sophie systems), and Socrates opens the 

kcu avaiba>$ apirafci. kcu eViSpa/xoVres- ball by exclaiming /3a'XXe /3aXXe top Kara- 

Karika^ov kcu irvTrTrjcrav. parov rot? d<j)66pois XiOois* 7rate reus ^uXoi? 

1121. ijrtxcdv] (keeping on at it. ffkey- top dXiTrjpLop" kcu o~v, a> UXaTap, j3aXXe, ko! 

X*p clp €7rexcop kci\ ovk dpids. — Plato, Theae- av a> XpvariTnre, /ecu o~u, § 1. So in § 32 of 

tetus, chap. 19 (p. 165 D). eVei^e Kpovcop the same dialogue 7rcuW rots £vXois, and 

{kept knocking) Eccl. 317. Both these § 44 to7s £vXois ira U re. So i-vXois jraiopTtS) 

passages have been already quoted by Dr. Longus, Pastorals ii. 12. £vXoi$ enaiov, 

Blaydes. The words naU rc5 £v\co must be Eusebius, H. E. viii. 10. 4.) 

taken together. They are of constant oc- 1122. koo$<W] The skin of the victim 

currence. Cf. Wasps 458. InLucian'sPis- was the perquisite of the priest. Com- 

cator, the dead philosophers, having ob- pare Thesm. 758, where Mnesilochus 

tained a day's leave of absence, ascend insultingly gives back to his feminine 

to the upper world for the purpose of adversary her empty wine-skin, after 

punishing Lucian who had, they con- having drained its contents : 

MN. tovtl to hipfxa ttjs Upuas yiyveTaL. 

FT. t[ ttjs Updas yiyveTou ; MN. tovtl \afie. 

mn. This skin, fair priestess, is your perquisite. 

woman. What is my perquisite ? mn. This skin, fair priestess. 

Hierocles appears to have been clad (Van Leeuwen supposes the tovtovX in 
in an abundance of these perquisites, this line to be an attendant of Hierocles 



Hier. Do, by your knees I beseech. 

TuYa. But fruitless are all your beseechings. 
Thou wilt never be able to smooth the spines of the hedgehog*. 

Come now, spectators, won't you share the mess 

Along with us ? Hier. And I ? 

Tryg. You ? eat your Sibyl. 
Hier. No, by the Earth, you two shan't feast alone ! 

I'll snatch a piece away : 'tis all in common. 
Tryg. Strike Bakis, strike ! Hiee. I call them all to witness — 

Tryg. And so do I, that you're a rogue and glutton. 

Lay on him with the stick : strike, strike the rascal ! 
Serv. You manage that, while I peel off the skins 

Which he has gathered by his cozening tricks. 

Now, sacrificer, off with all your skins. 

What, won't you ? here's a crow from Oreus town ! 

who is carrying off surreptitiously sheep- 
skins belonging to Trygaeus or his ser- 
vant ; a strange idea, which though at 
iirst sight rather attractive, cannot pos- 
sibly be right. The xp^or/xoXoyos- i n the 
Birds has no attendant, nor is it likely 
that the xprjo-fioKoyos in the Peace would 
have one. His entrance is announced 
(supra 1043-51) in terms which seem 
to negative the idea that two persons 
were approaching ; and his exit also 
(infra 1126) is that of a single individual. 
So, two lines below, the bearer of the 
skins is addressed as a> OvrjTroXe, an appel- 
lation which can be appropriate only to 
Hierocles. Nor again is there any reason 
to suppose that either Trygaeus or his 
servant had any sheepskins on the 

1125. Kopag] Can the speaker be in- 

tending to compare Hierocles denuded 
of the skins to the crow (for the fable is 
told of the crow as well as of the daw) 
stripped of its borrowed plumes ? Moveat 
comicula visum Furtiws nudata coloribus 
(Hor. Ep. i. 3. 19). Or is he merely 
alluding, as the Scholiast suggests (ko- 
pciKadiTev eVeiS^ fjp7ra£ev) to the rapacity of 
the soothsayer, who is still clutching 
after the <rn\ayxva, not heeding, and as 
though not hearing (fjitovcras ; ), the 
servant's objurgations ? Elymnium is 
said to have been the name of some 
small place in the neighbourhood of 
Oreus. With these words Trygaeus and 
the servant leave the stage, driving 
Hierocles before them. (Perhaps a 
better explanation of this line is that 
offered by Dr. Yerrall in Mr. Sharpley's 
edition, " ' There's the crow as he came 


ovk d7ro7r€Trja€i Odrrov e/y 'EXvptviov ; 

XO. tJSojjlcll y, rjSofjLcu 

Kpavovs dTTrjWay/xevos 

TVpoV T€ Kal KpOfJLfjLVOOV, 

ov yap (ptXrjSco pdyais, 1130 

dXXd TTpbs irvp SteX- 
Kcop pter dvSpcov Itoll- 

pOOV (j)lX(Ol>, €KK€a$ 

7&V £vXcov &TT dv fi 

Savorara rod Oipovs 

€ K7T€Trp€pLvi(rpeva)v, 1135 

KavQ paKifav TOvpefSivOov, 

ir\v T€ (prjybv kpLrrvpevoav, 

yj&lia tt]V (dparrav kvvgov, 

tyjs yvvaiKos Xovpivrjs. 

ov yap ea6 y rjSiov fj Tvyelv pep rjSrj ' cnrappLeva, 1140 

from Oreus ', that is, naked, or nearly with battles and warfare. ) 

so." Only, one would have thought, 1129. rvpov re kq\ KpopLfivcov] These 

had that been his meaning, he would were part of the soldiers' victuals. See 

have discarded the unnecessary rJKowas supr. 368, 529 ; Ach. 550, 1099 ; Knights 

and written Spare rbv KopaK?, Kopa£ of 600, &c. 

course really means a raven, not a crow.) 1131. SuXkcdv] drinking in friendly 

1127. XOP02] We have here, to- competition. The Scholiasts give two 

gether with a new strophe and anti- interpretations of this word : o-vinriv&v 

strophe, the epirrhema and antepirrhema and didyoov. The former is universally 

which were omitted in the regular Para- adopted, and is undoubtedly right, for 

basis of the Play ; see note on 729 supr. the description of a party sitting round 

(The strophe and antistrophe consist the fire, roasting ipefiiv6oi (chickpease) 

each of fourteen lines, the first ten cretic, and (prjyol (which, if not actually chest- 

the last four trochaic. The second, third, xmts, fagus castanea, were certainly fruit 

and fourth lines have a monosyllabic of that class), would be very incomplete 

base. There is but one paeon in each without some allusion to the wine-cup. 

system, viz. the first foot of the ninth Thus, Xenophanes of Colophon, cited by 

line. They are both pleasant little Idylls Athenaeus in his chapter on ipe&ivdoi 

on the joys of a country life as contrasted (ii. 44) says 


Back to Elymnium ! flutter off : shoo ! shoo ! 

Cuoit. What a pleasure, what a treasure, 

What a great delight to me, 
From the cheese and from the onions 
And the helmet to be free. 
For I can't enjoy a battle, 
But I love to pass my days 
With my wine and boon companions 
Round the merry merry blaze, 
When the logs are dry and seasoned, 
And the fire is burning bright, 
And I roast the pease and chestnuts 
In the embers all alight, 
— Flirting too with Thratta 
When my wife is out of sight. 

(Epierhema.) Ah, there's nothing half so sweet as when the seed is in the ground, 

-nap TTVpl XPV foiavra Xeyetv, \(ayJjjvos kv wpy, 
hv kXlvti /jLaXa/cr} tcaTafcdpevov, epirXeov ovra, 
mvovra yXvfcvv oTvov, viroTpwyovT' 1 epffiivOovs. 

So also Theocritus, Id. vii. 66, and depovs is explained by the Scholiast to 

Plato, Rep. ii. 372 C Tpay/J/xara irapaOrj- mean ^porara r<5 0epet.) 

cropLcv avTols tcov re ctvkcov kol epeftivdcov 1136. KavdpaKifav rovpefiivdov] (pushing 

Kai KvdpLoav, kol /xvpra kol (pr)yovs ottoBlovo-l (a part of) the ehickpease into the red-hot 

Trpbs to nvp, pL€rpi(cs v7TOTrivovT€s, though embers. As to the ipefiivOos see the 

the use of the word rpay^ara there Commentary on Ach. 801. The use of 

shows that the ipefiivOoi were to be eaten the genitive here implies that the guest 

fresh, not dry and roasted ; see Phaenias retained hold of a part of the pod. The 

apud Athenaeum ubi supr. phraseology, common everywhere, is no- 

1135. €K7reTrp€pLVLcrpi€vcop] (having kin- where more common than in this second 

died such of the firelogs as are driest from Parabasis; rav re nvpcov rwv re otvk<qv, 

the summer -heat. £vka eWe7rpe/m(7/xeVa 1145 ; fivppivas tcov KapiripiOdv, 1154 ; tov 

are logs, stumps for firewood, like the Bvpov rpi/3a>z/, 1169.) Thratta is in 

TTpeyLva and crre\e'x?7 of the Lysistrata. Aristophanes the common name for 

See the Commentary on line 267 of that a maidservant ; a nomen gentile, like 

Comedy. The expression bavorara tov Syra below. 



rov Oeov 8* eTriyjraKdgeLv, Kac riv eiffeii/ yetTopa y 

C{ eiire fioi> rt TrjviKavra Spce/iev, S> Kco/iap^LSt] ; " 

" k\mitiv epoiy dpe(TK€L 3 rod 6eov SpcovTos /caAcoy. 

d\\' ac/)€V€ rcov (pacrrjXcov, & yvvai, rpeh xoiviicas, 

tG>v re iTvpoov pi^ov olvtols, tgov re ctvkc&v e^eXe, 1145 

roy T€ Mavrjv rj ^vpa ^coo-rprjo-drco 'k rod ^copcou. 

ov yap olov r earl ndvTCos olvapifciv Tr\p.zpov 

o\)8\ TwrXd^tiv, kneiSr) napSaKov to yaypiov 

Ka£ kjxov 8* heyKaTCo ny Tr)V Ki\Kr]v Kal too cnrtpco' 

r\v Se Kal irvos tls ivSov Kal Xaycoa TeTTapa, 1150 

ec tl prj 'grji/eyKev avToov rj yakrj ttj? eonrepas* 

eyjrocjyeL yovv ev8ov ovk oiS* &ttcc KdKvSoiSona' 

coy eveyK , co ttcu, Tpi rjfJLW, ev 8e Sovvat t<£ waTpi* 

fivppivas t aiTricov e| KlayivaSov t&v Kap7TLficov 

1142. K&fiapx&rj] Comarchides is 
a fit name for the Coryphaeus here, 
whether it means a leader of the revels 
(from kco/jlos) or a village magnate (from 
K&ILYJ), (It is the name of a rustic letter- 
writer in Aelian (Ep. 2) and Alciphron 
(iii. 73).) So Kcofilas is used in Wasps 
230, and there also in connexion with 
Charinades. (The neighbour's speech 
appears to end with this line, and the 
rest of the Epirrhema to be the reply of 
the Coryphaeus.) 

1147. olvapi(eiv] (The leaves of the 
vine were called olvapa ; and olvapifav 
means to prune the vine by stripping off 
the superfluous leaves which would keep 
the sun's ripening influence from the 
grapes. The Scholiast explains rwr\d- 
£eiv by irrjXoTraTe'iv' tvvtXos yap 6 73-77X09. 
rj avTi rod (3co\oKOTre7v. irapbaKop be div- 

1149. o-irLvai] {siskins. See Introduc- 
tion to Birds, p. xliv. ) 

1150. nvos] is the cow's first milk 
after calving, called by the Latins colo- 
strum, which Pliny, xxviii. 33, defines to 
be " prima a partu spongiosa densitas 
lactis," where see Harduin's note. 
Martial, xiii. 38, says, "De primo 
matrum lacte colostra damus." — Xaycoa 
Xeyerat Kpea says Trypho apud Athe- 
naeum, ix. 62, on which Casaubon re- 
marks, ' ' Quemadmodum Kpea aut Kpeddia 
dicebant rpla vel rerrapa pro frustis 
carnium tribus aut quatuor, sic et Xaywa 
similiter." ra. Xaycoa ovrcag eXeyop, ov 
TTpoo-TiOevres ra Kpea, Herodian, " Phile- 
taerus." Beestings and hare are men- 
tioned together in Wasps 709, where 
to live ev ttckti Xaycoois Kcu o-recpdvoioiv 
TravTobaTroicriv ko\ irvca Kal irvpidrrj is held 
up as a tempting picture of luxury and 
good cheer. (On the yaXr) see the Com- 
mentary on Ach. 255.) 

1154. p.vpplvas] There were many 
purposes for which the myrtle would be 



God a gracious rain is sending, and a neighbour saunters round. 
' Comarchides ! " he hails me : " how shall we enjoy the hours ? " 
" Drinking seems to suit my fancy, what with these benignant showers, ■ 
Therefore let three quarts, my mistress, of your kidney-beans be fried, 
Mix them nicely up with barley, and your choicest figs provide ; 
Syra run and shout to Manes, call him in without delay, 
3 Tis no time to stand and dawdle pruning out the vines to-day, 
Nor to break the clods about them, now the ground is soaking through. 
Bring me out from home the fieldfare ', bring me out the siskins two, 
Then there otight to be some beestings, four good plates of hare beside 
{Hah! unless the cat purloined them yesterday at eventide; 
Something scuffled in the pa?itry, something made a noise and fuss); 
If you find them, one' } s for father ', bring the other three to us. 
Ask Aeschinades to send us myrtle branches green and strong; 

required at a convivial entertainment. 
A myrtle branch was the badge of 
minstrelsy, passed to each guest as his 
turn arrived to sing (Plutarch, Sympos. 
i. 4. 8 ; see Clouds 1364, and Dicaear- 
chus quoted by the Scholiast there). 
Myrtle-wreaths, too, were worn by the 
revellers themselves (Eurip. Alcestis 
759) ; and it would seem that the very 
couches were sometimes strewn with 
myrtle ; thus Plato, Rep. ii. 12 (p. 372 B) 
KaraickivevTes eVt crTifidbav icrTpcofxevcdv 
fxiXaKi re Kal pvppivais iirnrivovTes tov 
ofoov, and Heliodorus iv. 16 cm^dbos fju 
pvppivai Kal dd<fivai tols ^evots i(TTp(OK€(Tav. 
Moreover a thrush has just been ordered 
(1149 supr.), and that thrushes when 
served up for the table were garnished 
with myrtle may, perhaps, be gathered 
from the lines of Pherecrates quoted at 
1197 inf. With respect to the epithet 
Kap7riiJ.cov, "myrtles of the fruitful kind," 
it must be remembered that the fruit of 

the myrtle was formerly applied to a 
great variety of culinary and medicinal 
uses. See Pliny, Nat. Hist. xiv. 19, xv. 
7, 35-8, xxiii. 81-3. Columella (xii. 
38) gives some very precise recipes for 
the manufacture of myrtle wine, some 
species of which are highly recom- 
mended by Pliny as a wholesome bever- 
age, very grateful to invalids, and one 
"which cheers but not inebriates." 
Useful oils were extracted from the 
myrtle : its leaves and berries were alike 
esteemed for their healing properties ; 
and, before the introduction of pepper, it 
was in common use as a condiment. 
Myrtle-berries, too, seem to have been 
ordinarily eaten as a fruit. Athenaeus, 
more than once, quotes comic fragments 
in which pvpra are enumerated among 
other dainties (ii. 39, iii. 7, xiv. 67, 68) ; and 
one Athenian was said to live on nothing 
else, Id. (ii. 21). See also the passage 
cited from Plato on 1131 supr. and 

146 E I P H N H 

yayia 799 airrjs SSov Xapivd8r]v tls ficoo-dTco, 1155 

coy ecu e/xmrj jj,e6' tj/jlcov, 


rod deov Tapcopara!* 

tTT / » -> S> « ' 

Hulk av ayeras 

aSy top rjSvu vSjiov, 1160 

Siao-KOTTcov rjSopcu 
ra? Arjfxvias d/nriXovs, 
el it err aiv over iv f\- 
Srj* to yap (f>lrv npep- 

OV (f>VG6l* TQV T€ (prj- 1165 

^X* °P& V olSdvovT* 


icrdico Kaireyto) 

yapa (j>rjp\ " T £lpai <f>ikaf" kgu 

rod Ovfiov rpificov KVKoopaf 

Kara yiyvo\iai irayys 1170 

rrjviKavTa tov depovs 

pdWov 77 OeoTo-LV kyQphv Ta£(apyov 7rpoo~(3\iiTG)i/ y 
rpeTs X6(f)0V9 tyovra kcll (ftoiviKitf 6£eiav irdvv, 

cf. supr. 575. And it appears that an unnamed Play of Sophocles ovt «XXo 

" the fruit of the myrtle is eaten by the (plrv 7rpcSov, a passage which Aristophanes 

modern, as it was by the ancient, may be imitating here. Lemnian wine 

Athenians." — Dr. Daubeny, " Trees of was famous in very early times; vrjes 

the Ancients," p. 94. & in Arjfivoio rrapeo-Tacrav oivov ayovaai | 

1159. ax*Tas] 6 r)x* Tr ) s > the Chirruper, TroWaL Iliad vii. 467.) 

the Doric name for the rerrt^, the cicala, 1166. (frfavx] ( a fi9* e7rt T °v »^ ^ &v- 

See the First Additional Note to the kov Kexprjrai, cikoou olbaLpovra' oldalperai 

Birds, p. 234 of that Comedy. yap ore ap^erai TreiraivecrOai. — Scholiast.) 

1164. to yap (jnrv irp&ov] {For the 1168. iu6ia> nairix**] ( ea ^ an ^ ^ ee P on 

plant (that is, the Lemnian vine) is an at it. The words are equivalent to eV- 

early ripener. The Scholiast quotes from dico iirex^v kq\ ovk dviets ; see supra 1121 


Bid Charinades atte?id us, shouting as you pass along. 
Then we'll sit and drink together ^ 
God the while refreshing, Messing 
All the labour of our hands" 

(Antisteophe.) O to watch the grape of Lemnos 

Swelling out its purple skin, 
When the merry little warblings 
Qf the Chirruper begin ; 
For the Lemnian ripens early. 
And I watch the juicy fig 
Till at last I pick and eat it 
When it hangeth soft and big ; 
And I bless the friendly seasons 
Which have made a fruit so prime,, 
And I mix a pleasant mixture, 
Grating in a lot of thyme, 
— Growing fat and hearty 
In the genial summer clime. 

(Antepirrhema.) This is better than a Captain hated of the Gods to see, 
Triple-crested, scarlet- vested, scarlet bright as bright can be. 

and the note there. ) nians, and is clad in the brightest scarlet 
1172. ra^iapxov] (The ra&apxos was uniform. Compare what the Scholiast 
the commander of the infantry brigade says of Peisander, supra 395. The$omKty, 
contributed to the Athenian army by though the special uniform of the Spartan 
the tribe to which he belonged, and troops (Ach. 320 and the Commentary 
forming of course one-tenth part of the there), was by no means confined to them; 
entire body of hoplites. See supra 444. it was worn by civilians as well as by 
Ach. 569, Birds 353, Thesm. 833, and soldiers of all nations. Pollux (vii. 55) 
the Commentary on the Birds. This includes it in his list of garments corn- 
particular taxiarch, in order to assume monly worn by men. All Cyrus's Ten 
a more terrifying appearance, wears tri- Thousand Greeks were clad in x L ™ va * 
pie plumes such as those which nodded <})olvikovs, says Xenophon, Anabasis i. 
over Lamachus's helmet in the Achar- 2. 16.) 

L % 

148 E I P H N H 

rjv kiceivos fyrjcriv eti/qi $ayL\xa l^apSiaviKov 

rjv 8e 7rov Sirj ^idy^aff iyovra rr)v (poivuctSa, 1175 

TTjPiKavr avrb? (3e(3a,TTTCu ^dfi/xa KvgLKrjvLKov 

Kara (pevyet 7rpooro?, &o-irep £ovdbs LTnraXtKTpvcbv * 

TOVS \6(f)0VS <T€L(DV kydd 8 (ECTrjKa \LVOTTTobfJL€l'0$. 

tji/ik av 8' olkol yivo&vrai, SpSxriv ovk avavyjera, 

tov9 pkv kyypa<j>ovT€$ r)fjLooj/ } rovs S' avco re kol kcctco 1180 

egaXefyovTes Sis rj rpk. avptov 8 ecrO i) "£oSo$' 

tS> 8e ctltC ovk eoovrjT- ov yap #6W e£ia>v * 

€ltol irpoa-Tas irpos rbv avSpiavra tov TlavSiovos, 

1174. pdppa SapdiaviKov] biafyepovvi vii. 57) that the art of wool-dying was 

yap at Avdncai /3a$ou, says the Scholiast. invented by the Lydians in Sardis ; and 

The expression fidppa *2ap§iaviKov is also Kuster adds a fragment of Plato Comicus 

found in Acharnians 112, where Paul- from Athenaeus ii. 30 : 
mier refers to Pliny's statement (N. H. 

/car* ev Kkivais kkecpavToiroaiv /cal orpupaai nopcfivpoPcnrTOis 
kclv (poiviKiGi ^apSiavaiGiv KoaprjadpLevoi fcaratceivTcu. 

<AehillesTatius(i.4),givinganinventory (see the Scholiast here, and at Birds 

of a maiden's charms, says Xevitr) rrapeid' 800), as a description of a naval ensign ; 

to Xevkov els fieaov ecfroivio-creTo K.a\ ipipelro he explains it himself in Frogs 933 

7rop(f>vpav oiav els tov eXecftavra Avblij cnjpelov ev rais vavo~\v, ^padearar, eveye- 

(3a7TT€i yvvrj.y Nothing is known of any ypairro. 

Cyzicene dye ; and Brunck has introduced 1178. iyca 6' earrjKa XivoTTTapevos] This 

into his text Markland's conjecture of sentence, I imagine, is a quotation, or 

Xe(t.Kr)viKov y with which compare Birds parody, of some passage unknown : 

68. But though, perhaps, the epithet possibly the one from which Suidas 

Kv&KrjviKov was selected as a play upon extracts the word XivoTrrafxevr], explaining 

some derivative of x*C<*>9 Y e ^ its more it by \ivov dXiecos \jfvxdpevov eTrorrTevovcra. 

direct reference seems to be to the Pollux v, Segm. 17, enumerates the 

character of the Cyzicenes, who, accord- Xlvotttyis amongst the attendants of the 

ing to the Scholiast, eVi deiXia. kol SrjXvrrjTL chase, and the metaphor may be drawn 

€KcopL(p8ovvTo. from, either the birdcatcher at his nets, 

1177. gov86s l7nra\€KTpvQ)u] This un- the hunter at his toils, or the fisher at 

lucky phrase, upon which the comic his line, wasting the day in fruitless 

writers fastened with such zest (bv del expectation, while the prey he is watch- 

KcofitaBovo-iv, Scholiast) was introduced by ing is escaping unharmed. 
Aeschylus in his Play of the Myrmidons 1180. eyypdcpovTes — e^aXeifyovres] 



'Tis, he says, true Sardian tincture, which they warrant not to run; 

But if e'er it gets to fighting, though his scarlet coat be on, 

He himself becomes as pallid as the palest Cyzicene, 

Running like a tawny cockhorse, he's the first to quit the scene ; 

Shake and quake his crests above him : I stood gaping while he flew. 

Ah, but when at home they're stationed, things that can't be borne they do, 

Making up the lists unfairly, striking out and putting down 

Names at random. ,r Fis to-morrow that the soldiers leave the town; 

One poor wretch has bought no victuals, for he knew not he must go 

Till he on Pandion's statue spied the list and found 'twas so, 

Meaning that they tampered with the 
special muster-roll, Karakoyos (of soldiers 
" wanted at the camp with three days' 
rations," see supr. 312, for an immediate 
expedition), by striking out names which 
ought to have been there, and substi- 
tuting others which ought to have been 
omitted. The same complaint is made 
Knights 1369. Lysias (adv. Nicoma- 
chum 3) says thatNicomachus for bribes 
rovs fiev iveypafpe tovs be e^XeK^ev. The 
words igakeicfreiv and iyypafatv are simi- 
larly contrasted by Plato, Rep. vi. 501 C, 
(and by St. Chrysostom in his thirtieth 
Homily on St. Matthew (p. 355 A), where 
he says that in moulding the immortal 
souls committed to our charge we should 
spare no trouble, nor shrink from going 
over the same ground again and again 
and again. ' ' See you not, " he asks, ' ' how 
much and how often painters are rubbing 
out and writing in, noa-a i^aXei^ovai, jrocra 
7rap€yypd(j)ov(Ti, and that merely to im- 
prove the picture ? And shall we take 
less trouble than they ? " See Id. Horn, 
xi (p. 158 C-E), Horn, xli (p. 450 C).> 
And iyypafaiv is used in precisely the 

same way in the much discussed lines of 
Aeschylus, Choephoroe 685, 686: 

larpos £\ttis rjv irapovaav hyypd<p€L. 

where, as I venture to think, every ex- 
positor without exception has gone 
wrong, from not observing that napova-av 
refers to the Family Curse to which the 
whole speech is addressed. The death 
of Orestes proves that the 'Apa is still 
present at its post, still engaged on 
active service. 

1183. Uavbiovos] The ten Athenian 
tribes were named after ten ancient 
heroes, the 'Enwu/xoi, whose statues 
were erected in the Agora, at no great 
distance from the Prytaneum. They 
were still standing when Pausanias 
visited Athens, and he gives a detailed 
account of them (i, chap. 5), doubting, 
however, which Pandion it was that 
gave his name to the tribe Pandionis. 
That the proposer of a new law was 
bound previously to exhibit it on notice 
boards, iv aaptcFLv, placed before the 
Eponymi, is plain from Demosth. in 



elSep avTov, KOLTTop&v 6eT tg> kcckw (SXzttodv qttqv. 
TavTa 8 rj/Moc? tovs dypoiKovs Spooo-i, tovs 8' e£ dareco? 1185 

?jttov 3 oi 6eot(TLu ovtol KavBpdaiv pt^rdcnnSes. 
§>v er eiOvvas kpol Sooo-ovgtlv, fjv 6ebs OeXrj. 
noXXd yap 8rj p! rjSiKrjcrai', 


kv pdyj) 8' aXco7T€/cey. 1190 

TP. LOV 10V. 

o<rov to XPVf* * 7r * fewvov rjXff is tovs ydpovs. 
6%, dnoKdOaipe tccs Tpanegas TavTflr 
naPTCos yap oif8ev ocfreXos ear avTrjs en. 

€7T€LT €iri<p6p€L TOVS dpvXoVS Kal TO,? KL^XaS 

teal toois Xayoaoov TroXXd Kal tovs KoXXdfiovs. 
AP. nod nov Tpvyalos karriv ; TP. dvafipaTTto KiyXas. 


Timocr. 707, and Aeschines in Ctesiph. 
p. 59. (It was here that the charge of 
XinoTat-iov brought against Demosthenes 
was affixed, Dem. v. Meid. 132 (pp. 547, 
548). ) See also the passages referred to in 
Alberti's note to Hesychius, sub voc. 
^TTcawyiou And here, too, were sus- 
pended, in times of war, the special 
muster-rolls of soldiers called out for 
immediate service, the list for each tribe 
being probably affixed to its own Epony- 
mus. See Aeschines, de F.L. 179 (p. 50). 
Florent Chretien remarks that Pandionis 
was the tribe to which Aristophanes 
himself belonged. (See the Greek Life 
of the Poet at the commencement of 
Vol. I.) 

1184. o7roV] {ottos is the milky sap 
{succus lacteus) of the fig-tree, which is 
very acid, and is used for curdling milk. 

' ' Fici succus lacteus aceti naturam habet, 
itaque coaguli modo lac contrahit," Pliny 
xxiii. 63. See the Commentary on 
Wasps 353. ^XeVeti/ oirbv is to have a 
wry or acid look.) 

1186. pi\//w7rides] (The word expect- 
ed was €x0poi, but the Chorus change it 
to pi^dcnnbes as a compliment to Cleony- 
mus,and any others in the like situation.) 

1192. oa-ov to XPW*] (The close of the 
second Parabasis finds Trygaeus in the 
midst of his preparations for the marriage 
feast (ydpovs, Birds 1689), which has 
been forgotten since line 870. oo-ov t6 
Xpw\ without a genitive, is used here, 
as in Thesm. 281, to describe an ap- 
proaching crowd. It is extraordinary 
that any should have supposed the first 
course to be over and the second to be 
now in preparation. The guests would 


Reading there his name inserted ; off he scuds with aspect wry. 
This is how they treat the farmers, but the burghers certainly 
Somewhat better : godless wretches, rogues with neither shame nor — shield, 
Who one day, if God be willing, strict accounts to me shall yield. 

For they've wronged me much and sorely : 

Very lions in the city, 
Very foxes in the fight. 

TftYG. Hillo! Hillo! 

What lots are coming to the wedding supper ! 

Here, take this crest and wipe the tables down, 

IVe no more use for that, at all events. 

And now serve up the thrushes and the cates, 

And the hot rolls, and quantities of hare. 
Sickle-maker. Where, where's Trygaeus ? Tryg. Stewing thrushes here. 

not be arriving, nor Trygaeus stewing Commentary on Ach. 1092, Frogs 507. 
thrushes, when the banquet was half However before the banquet begins Try- 
over.) gaeus has to receive two groups of tra- 

1193. ravTfli] Giving him a military ders, the first group consisting of a maker 

crest. See 1218 infra. The Scholiast of sickles, and a maker of casks. The 

mentions that there was a stage direction former addresses Trygaeus in almost the 

to that effect. (Herwerden, I know same words, 6V rjpids rdyada ftedpaKas, as 

not why, takes it to be a (froiviicis, but those with which Dermis expresses his 

that was not confined to soldiers or to gratitude to the Sausage-seller, Knights 

times of war. See on 1172 supra. It 1336.) 

would still be serviceable in times of 1197. dvaftpaTToa icixXas] This seems 

peace.) to have been the favourite mode of 

1195. dfivXovs] (These were cakes made cooking thrushes. Pherecrates apud 

of wheat not ground, but steeped in Athen. vi. 97, speaks of a country flowing 

water and squeezed into a sort of pulp. dx^ais dvaftpdo-Tois, and in the previous 

KoXXajSot were small white rolls. See the chapter the same poet is quoted as saying 

dirTai fcixkcu 5' knl ToTah' dvd&pa<JT r\pTvp.kvai 


vtto (xvppivaco'i fcav€p,wvaLs Kexvfievai, 
See also Frogs 510. Thrushes were both Greeks and Romans ; and con- 
highly prized for the dinner-table, among noisseurs could at once detect from the 


AP. & (pLXTCLT, 3) Tpvyat , ocr fjpas rdyaOa 

SeSpcucas, elprjvrjv 7roirj<ra$' ob? irpo tov 

oiSels kirpiar av Spenavov ovSe KoXXvfiov, 1200 

vvvl Se TrevTTjKovTa Spa^poop epnoXco* 

681 Se rpiSpd^povs tovs KaSovs els tovs dypovs. 

dXX\ co Tpvyaie, tS>v Speirdvaw re Xdpfiave 

Kal tg>v8 o tl fiovXec irpoiKa* Kal tccvti Se^ov. 

d(f> ooi> yap direSopecrOa KaKepSdvapev 1205 

ra Scopa ravri vol (pepopev es tovs ydpovs. 
TP. 10 1 vvv> Kara0epevoi Trap epol ravr eiaire 

em SeTirvov &s rd^LcrTa* Kal yap ovtoo-1 

onXcov KdwrjXos dy06pevos Trpoaep^erai, 
AO. oifi &s TTpo0eXvpv6v p , d> TpvyaV, dndoXeaas. 1210 

TP. tl S 1 earn/, co KaKoSaipov ; ov tl ttov Xocpas ; 
AO. aTTtoXeads pov tt)v Te^yqv Kal tov f$iov 3 

Kal tovtovl Kal tov Sopvgov y KeivovL 

taste whether the thrush upon their on the part of Lucullus, that fat thrushes 

plate was wild or tame, male or female, could be obtained from his preserves all 

See Persius, vi. 24, and the Scholiast the year round (Plutarch, Luc. chap. 40, 

there. Varro, de R. R. iii. 2, speaks of and Pompey,chap. 2). The judgement of 

thrusheries which produced a prodigious Horace (Ep. i. 15, 40), " obeso nil melius 

income to their owners : and it was turdo," is fully confirmed by Martial, 

esteemed a singular refinement of luxury, xiii. 92 : — 

Inter aves turdus, si quis me judice eertet, 

Inter quadrupedes mattya prima lepus. 

Both the " turdus" and the "lepus" aiv ; the folk who dwell Where for a doit 

are to be served up on the tables of the primest ox they sell. "Festiva de- 

Trygaeus. scriptio t&v iv "Adov," says Bentley, Call. 

1200. ovde ko\\v(3ov] {no one tvoidd Fragm. 85, " qui cum umbrae et simulacra 

give a doit for it. k6\\v(3os' eldos €i>re- sint, non amplius carnes solent come- 

Xovs vofAianaTos. — Scholiast. Xgtttovtivo- dere." From the expression \eirrbv vo- 

fiLorfiaTLov. — Pollux ix. 72. The last-named fiio-fJcaTiov we may perhaps conjecture 

writer quotes a choliambic line of Calli- that the k6\\v(Sos was identical with the 

machus who, speaking 7repi tg>v iv "Al8ov, diminutive coin called the Actttw, which 

says €K tcov okov (3ovv KoWvftov 7ri7rpr)crKov- being the j\ or ^ part of an obol can 



S.M. O, my best friend, Trygaeus ! O what blessings 

Your gift of Peace has brought us. Till to-day 
No man would give one farthing for a sickle ; 
And now ! I'm selling them two pounds apiece. 
And my friend here sells casks for country use 
Half a crown each. Trygaeus, freely take 
As many casks and sickles as you please. 
. And take this too (giving money) ; out of our sales and gains 
We bring you these, we two, as wedding presents. 

Tryg. Well, lay your presents down, and hie you in 

To join the marriage feast : here comes a man 
Who trades in arms : he seems put out at something. 

Crest-maker. O you've destroyed me root and branch, Trygaeus. 

Tryg. How now, poor wretch! what ails you? got a crestache? 

CM. You have destroyed my living and my trade, 

And this man's too, and yon spear-burnisher's. 

have been hardly larger than a pin's 
head ; ofioXos irapa 'Adrjvaiois eg eW* x a ^~ 
kS>v (Pollux ix. 65 and others say o/cro) 
XclKk&v), 6 $e xa^ K °vs XeirTav eirra. Pho- 
tius s.v. o/3oXd?. The widow's "two 
mites " were hvo \e7rra, St. Luke xxi. 2. 
And from the coin k6XXvj3os came the 
term KoXkvfii(TTr)$, money-changer, ras rpa- 
TrtfosTodv koWvPicttcov, St. Matt. xxi. 12.) 

1204. Tcovbe] Alluding, as Florent 
Chretien observes, to the casks. By 
ravri we are, I suppose, to understand 
either a portion of the money which 
they had made, or else gifts purchased 
with that money. 

{1210. The group of agricultural tra- 
ders having gone in to join the wedding 
banquet, the next comers are the traders 
in military implements whose occupa- 

tion is now gone and who therefore re- 
gard Peace in a very different light. 
The first to enter are a crest-maker 
and a breastplate-seller, who will pre- 
sently be followed by a spear-burnisher, 
a military trumpeter, and a helmet- 

1211. Xocpqs] Troubled with a plethora 
of crests. The word is coined, as the 
Scholiast observes, on the analogy of 
vbepiav, irohaypav, cnr\r)VLav, and other 
verbs, expressive of diseases. 

1213. tovtovl] (He is referring to the 
breastplate-seller who has entered with 
him. The spear-burnisher is further off 
and possibly not yet visible on the stage. 
If he is, he must be represented by a 
Choregic actor who is always either a 
mute or a man of few words. ) 


TP. tl SfJTct tovtolvI KaraOoo aoi T0LV Xocpoiv ; 

AO. avrbs av tl 8i8m ; TP. 6 tl 8l8co/S ; al<rxvvopaL 1215 

0[XG)$ 8 OTL TO (TCfyrfKCOlX €)(€l 7TOVOV TTOXVV , 

Soltjv av aifTO?v IcrydSo&v rpels yolvucas, 

tv airoKaQalpco ttjv Tpdn^av tovtcoL 
AO. eVey/ce roivvv elaicbv tccs IcryaSas* 

KpziTTov yap, co tclv, kvnv r) p,rj8ev XafieTv. 1220 

TP. dnocfrep' dno^ep e$ KopaKas dnb rrjs olicias. 

rpiypppvuTov, ovSiv iorov tod Xocfxo. 

ovk av TrpLatfiTjv oiS* av iay&Sos pua$. 
012. tl Sal SeKa/jLvop T&Se OcoprjKos kvt€l 

evrjppivcp KaXXicrTa Yjpf\< raXa? ; 1225 

TP. ovtos fjtev ov p.f\ aoi notrjo-eL grjfiiav. 

dXX' alpe jxol tovtov ye 7-779 iorcovias' 

ev anon are iv yap ear' eTriTrjSeios ndw, 
®£2. Trader at p. vfipigcov tols kpolvL yjpr\pLacriv. 

TP. <5o8l, napa6£vTi Tpet? Xidovs. ov 8e£im ; 1230 

0X1. iroia 8 d7royfrrjar€L ttot, ODpaOeaTaTe. 
TP. TflSl, Steh ttjv X^ipa Sid Trj? OaXapias 

Kal Trj8\ 012. dpi dfLCpoiv 8t]T ; TP. eycoye vrj Ala, 

tv a pr\ y aXco Tpvnrjpa KXenTOOv ttj? vedos. 

1216. to o-^ry/coo/i'] {This appears to be Photius says a-^Koncrai' to drjam, ovtcos 

the binding whereby the plumes were Qpyvixos, with which may be compared 

fastened at the bottom. It was doubt- Frogs 1038.) 

less made of metal and pinched in, wasp- 1217. tcrxacW] The Attic laxade^ 

like, at the centre ; and was so fashioned (dried figs) were famous all over the 

as to be capable of being fixed securely world, ^(podpa tS>v lo~xdBcop iOavfid^ovro 

into the aperture in the ridge of the al 'Attlkcu, Athenaeus xiv. 67, who 

helmet. The Scholiast and gramma- collects a budget of anecdotes on the 

rians refer to Iliad xvii. 52 where it is said sub j ect. 

that a youth's graceful locks XP V(T< ? T€ 1224. tl da\ k.tX] (The crest-maker, 

Kal dpyvpa icrfy-qKavTOj and "where Eusta- it would seem, goes out crestfallen ; 

thius observes i< ttjs t&v crcprjKcbv Kara, to and the Breastplate-seller now takes up 

p.£o-ov ii/TOixrjs eikr]iYTai to cr<pr]KOvo~6ai. the tale.) 


Tryg, What shall I give you, then, for these two crests ? 

CM. What will you give ? Tryg. Faith, Fm ashamed to say : 

Come, there's a deal of work ahout this juncture ; 

Fll give three quarts of raisins for the pair. 

'Twill do to wipe my table down withal. 
CM. Go in, then, go, and fetch the raisins out. 

Better have that than nothing, O my friend. 
Tryg. Consume the things ! here, take them, take them off 

The hairs are dropping out ; they're not worth having. 

Zounds ! I'll not give one raisin for the pair. 
Breastplate-seller. O what's the use of this habergeon now? 

So splendidly got up : cost forty pounds. 
Tryg. Well, well, you shan't lose anything by that : 

I'll buy it of you at its full cost price. 

'Twill do superbly for my chamber-pan. 
B.S. Come, don't be mocking at my wares and me. 
Tryg. Placing three stones anent it : aint that clever ? 
B.S. And how, you blockhead, can you cleanse yourself ? 
Tryg. How ? slip my hands in through the portholes, here, 

And here. B.S. What, both at once ! Tryg. Yes; Fll not cheat. 

I'll have fair play : an arm for every hole. 

1227. Icrcovias] (at cost 'price, that is at \afiia is in strictness the hole through 

the ten minae you mention. As to Tvoielv which a rower on the lowest tier pro- 

C^p-lav see Plutus 1124.) truded his oar, but here it seems to 

1230. rpets \idovs\ kol yap irapoi^ia signify, generally, any oar-hole. 

" rpets ela\viKavo\TTp(OKTbv cnroixa£ai\idoi" 1234. Iva /jltj y aXco] Clepsisse navis 

— rives $e irpocrriOeaai /cat rovro, &s (jxio-iv, ne foramen judicer. — Florent Chretien. 

" av wo-i Tpaxets, av be \e7oi, rerrapes" — The trierarchs were bound to supply their 

Scholiast. Florent Chretien refers to triremes with the proper complement of 

Plutus 817. rowers. Whether they had to defray 

1232. 8ia rrjs BakafAias] Subaud. otttj?. the whole expense out of their own 

See Blaydes on Ach. 553. 8ia rrjs eicfiokrjs pockets, or whether the Government 

rrjs x CL pos (the arm-hole) rrjs iv rS Soopaia contributed its quota, is uncertain : but 

ttjp avrov x^ L P a KaOrjKev.— Scholiast. 6a- the better opinion seems to be that they 


E I P H N H 

0ii. €7T€iT em SeKcc/xya) )(eaei KaBrjfievos ; 
TP. eycoye vrj Al\ toiriTpnTT. oUt yap av 

tov irpcoKTOP diroSocrOai fie ^lXloov Spa^fioov ; 
©H. Wi Srj, ' givey K€ rapyvpiov. TP. dXX' > 3>ya6e\ 

6Xi(iei tov oppov. d7r6(/)€p\ ovk covrjo-o/xat. 
2 A. tl 8' apa rfj o-dXiriyyi rfjSe xprjcro/iai, 

fjv eTTpLajjirji/ Spa)(pcov rroff egrjKovT eyco; 
TP. fjioXvfiSov eh tovtI to kolXov ey^eas, 

eireiT avcoOev pd/38ov kvOeh v7rop.aKpov } 

yevrjcreTai cot tcov KaTaKTcov KOTTafioov. 
2JA. oifjLot KCLTayehas. TP. d\X' erepov irapaiveaoo. 




were allowed a certain proportion out of 
the public treasury, and had to find the 
residue themselves. See Boeckh's 
Public Economy iv. 11. And it seems 
that certain trierarchs defrauded the 
State by supplying an insufficient 
number of seamen, and stopping up the 
vacant oar-holes, so that the deficiency 
might be less apparent to the eye. 
Compare the (i dead pays " of which our 
old dramatists complain : Massinger's 
Unnatural Combat, Act iv, Scene 2, and 
Gifford's note. Trygaeus will have an 
arm through every hole, lest he, too, be 
found guilty of similar frauds. 

(1240. Here the Breastplate-seller 
goes out. But probably some lines ear- 
lier the actor who had represented the 
Crest-maker re-enters as a Trumpeter. 
And the other actor who represented the 
Breastplate-seller will shortly return as 
a Helmet-seller, apparently accompanied 
by the Spear-burnisher, who in any case 
would have to be represented by a Chore- 
gic actor.) 

1244. rap KaraKTcov KOTTaftcdJt] The 

(rakiriy^ a tall straight instrument, was 
to be set erect on its broad bell-shaped 
base (called f) k&Scdv, to 7rXaru, and here 
ro koIXov, rrjs ordkmyyos), which was kept 
steady by being weighted with lead. A 
light rod, pdfidos, was to be fastened at 
the top, i.e. at the mouth-piece, of the o-aX- 
TTiyg, extending from it at right angles. 
There would then be the instrument re- 
quired for playing the cottabus, which was 
the art of throwing a few drops of liquid, 
Xdrayes, at a mark with correct and dex- 
terous aim. The Scholiast on Lucian's 
Lexiphanes, 3 (whose account is gene- 
rally accepted as being at all events the 
most intelligible), says that there were 
two kinds of cottabus : (1) the KaraKTos, 
and (2) the cottabus St* df-vftdcjxov. And 
referring to this passage of Aristophanes, 
he explains the kcltciktos thus : — A tall 
candelabrum-like shaft was set up, to 
which was attached a small bronze statu- 
ette, called Manes (a common name for a 
slave, cf. supr. 1146). Above the head of 
the Manes a little scale, irkdo-Ttyt; or 
7riya/«oy,was suspended fromarod, pdfihos 



B.S. Sure, you won't use a forty pounder so. 

Tryg. Why not, you rascal ? Marry, I suppose 

My seat of honour's worth eight hundred shillings. 
B.S . Well, fetch the silver out. Tryg. Plague take the thing ; 

It galls my stern : off with you : I won't buy it. 
Trumpeter. See, here's a trumpet, cost me two pounds ten : 

How in the world am I to use it now ? 
Tryg. I'll tell you how. Fill up this mouth with lead, 

Then fix a longish rod, here at the top, 

And there you'll have a dropping cottabus. 
Trumpeter. O me ! he mocks me. Tryg. Here's another plan : 

KOTTafiiKr), and if the winedrops were 
cleverly flung into this scale, it would fall 
and strike the Manes with a sharp ringing 
sound. The game was of course suscep- 
tible of an infinity of modifications, but it 
would seem by comparing the descriptions 
given by Pollux vi, Segm. 109, 110, Athe- 
naeus xv. 4, 5, and the Scholiasts here, 
that the distinguishing characteristic of 
the kcltclktos kottci[3os was the dropping or 
falling scale, rj Kara^aWojievr] 7rAaoTiy£, 
whilst in the cottabus bi dgvfidcjxov there 
was no scale, but a number of tiny boats, 
whether with or without lamps, were set 
afloat upon water, and the object of the 
player was to submerge as many as pos- 
sible with one throw. Divers complica- 
tions were introduced into the KaraKros 
Korraftos for the sake of increasing the 
amount of skill and ingenuity required. 
Sometimes there was a pair of scales, fas- 
tened as in a balance, with a bronze sta- 
tuette under each, and the wine being 
thrown into one scale sent it down upon 
the Manes beneath it, whence it sprang 
up with a rebound sufficient to drop the 

other scale upon the other Manes. Or 
again, water was placed under each scale, 
and the wine flung into one scale sub- 
merged it beneath the water, until 
brought up by a cast into the opposite 
scale. Or again, the scale, detached, 
had to strike the Manes at such an angle 
as to fall into a bason placed below it. 
Sometimes the frame that supported the 
apparatus was a chandelier swinging from 
the ceiling ; sometimes the winedrops 
were not flung from the cup, but squirted 
from the mouth. Athenaeus (xv. 1-7 
and elsewhere) quotes from the Come- 
dians a vast number of pleasant passages 
illustrative of the game. In one extract 
from the 'A^poStrq? yovai of Antiphanes, 
all the details of the game and the proper 
mode of making the throw are very hap- 
pily explained to a wondering novice. 
The special mention of the irkao-Tiyf; in 
connexion with the balance, inf. 1248, 
must not be understood as implying that 
a TikacTTiyt; was not also to be employed 
for the cottabus. 


tov [iev p.6\v/38ov, &cnr€p elirov, eyyeov, 

evTevdevi 8e cnrapTLOLS rjpTrjjJLevrjv 

TrXdorriyya irpoaOes, kolvto <tol yevrjcreTai 

ra avK kv dyp<p tols oiKkraicnv lardyac. 
KP. S> SvatcdOapTe Saifxov, &$ \i dirodKccras, 1250 

or dvTeSooKa y dvTi TcovSe fivav work* 

kcli vvv tl Spdaco ; ris yap out cbvrjcreTaL ; 
TP. ncoKeL fiaSifav avra tols KlyvrrTLOLS* 

eGTiv yap eiriTrjSeia crvpjxaiav p.€TpeTv. 
2) A. oifM , go KpavoiTOi , coy dOXicos nerrpdyafxei/. 1255 


€T earl tolctl tcpdveaiv o tl tis y^pfiaeTaL ; 
TP. edv TOLavTaorX fidOflS \a(3d? 7tol€lv, 

a/xeivov fj vvv avTa y dnoSooaeL ttoXv. 
KP. dTTLQdjxev, 3) 8opv£k. TP. firj8aji&? y\ €7rel 1260 

tovtco y kycb to, SopaTa ravr <bvrj<rop,aL. 
AO. irocrov 6Y6W Srjr ; TP. ei SLairpio-OeUv 8iX a > 

\d/3oLfi av avT k$ ydp aKa $> kxaTov ttjs Spa)(fifj$. 
AO. v/3pi£6fJLeda. ycopoo/Jiev, 3> Tav> eK7ro8d>v. 
TP. vr) tov Al, coy tol iraL8i ijSr] 'gkpyeTaL 1265 

ovprjarofieva to. tcov €7TLK\rJTCQV 8evp\ Iva 

cctt acreTaL 7rpoava(3d\r)Ta(, fiot 8ok€L. 

aXX* o tl nep a8eiv kirLvoeis, S> watSiov, 

avTOv Trap e/xe gtqlv TTpoTepov dva/3a\ov 'vOaSi. 

1254. avpfiaiav] This was a strong So in Thesm. 857 Aristophanes speaks 
purge or emetic, which in certain parts of " Egypt's white plains and black-dosed 
of Egypt the whole population, accord- citizens," iieXavoo-vpucuov \ecbv, black- 
ing to Herodotus, took for three con- dosed, with an allusion to black-dressed, 
secutive days every month. 2vp}iai£ov(n the syrma being a long trailing robe. 
rpeis rjjjiepas eire^ijs fxrjvbs cKaorov, ijxkroHri 1258. roiavracri \a$as\ wrapia rots 
fypayfievoi. rrjv vyielrjv Kal K\v<rfia(ri. — ii. 77. Kpdvecriv, 'iva yevcovrai kclSoi. deUvvcri de 



Pour in the lead as I advised before, 

Then at the top suspend a pair of scales 

With little cords, and there's a famous balance 

To weigh out figs for labourers on the farm. 
Helmet-sellek. Thou hast destroyed me, dread unpitying Fate ! 

These helmets stood me in a good four pounds. 

What am I now to do ? who'll buy them now ? 

Take them to Egypt : you can sell them there. 

They're just the things they measure physic in. 

O, helmet-seller, we are both undone. 

Why, he's received no hurt. H.S. Received no hurt ! 

Pray what's the use of all these helmets now ? 

Just clap on each a pair of ears, like these, 

They'll sell much better then than now they will. 

O come away, spear-burnisher. Tryg. No, no. 

I'm going to buy his spears : I really am. 
Spear-burnisher. What are you going to give ? 

Tryg. Saw them in two, 

I'll buy them all for vine-poles, ten a penny. 

The man insults us : come away, my friend. 

Aye, go your way, for here come out the boys, 

Those whom the guests have brought us ; I suppose 

They're going to practise what they're going to sing. 

Come and stand here by me, my boy, and then 

Let's hear you practise what you mean to sing. 







to. a>TCL civtov' kcli €(ttl 7rap€mypa(fir). — 
Scholiast. But it does not seem to have 
been observed that this was also a gesture 
of derision. "O Jane, a tergo quern nulla 
ciconia pinsit, Nee manus auriculas imi- 
tata est mobilis altas" (" Twinkling fin- 
gers, perked like asses' ears," Gifford.) — 

Persius i. 58. 


aofxaiy clvtl rod irapa tovtov aii/fjcrofJLcU) says 
the Scholiast. So in Acharnians 815 
wvrjorofjLai croi. See Mr. Tate's paper in 
Museum Criticum i. 533, on what he 
calls Dawes's eleventh canon. 


JQAI2J A'. Nt)*> av& oirXoTepcov dvSpciov dp^co/ieOa TP. irava-ai 1270 

dirXorepovs d§ov, Kal ravr , 3> TpicrKaKoSaip.ov, 

elprjvrjs ovcrrjs* dpa6e$ y el Kal Kardparov. 
IIAIS A. O/ S ore Srj a\e8bv -qcrav en dXXijXoLcni/ lovres, 

(riv p efiaXov pivovs re Kal dcnriSas ofufraXoecrcras. 
TP. dairiSas"} ov navaet p.ep,vr}pevo$ dairiSos r]puv ; 1275 

ETAIS A'. 'JLvddS' dpi oipLCoyq re Kal evycoXr] neXev dvSp&v 
TP. dv8pS>v oipcoyrj ; kXccv(T€l ptj rov Aibvvaov 

olpcoyds aSobv, Kal ravras opcfraXoecraras, 
II A IS A'. dXXd ri Sfjr aSoo ; ai> yap dire, p.01 6l<ttlctl \aipei$. 
TP. *£l$ ol p.ev Saivvvro /3ocou Kpia, Kal rd roiavrL 1280 

apivrov rrporiOevro Kal &t0 rjSio'ra TrdcracrOai. 
II A IS A'. ^Xl? ol pcev Saivvvro fiocov Kpia, Kavyevas lttttcov 

zkXvov ISpcoovras, eirel iroXepiov eKopeaOev. 
TP. elev eKopeaOev rod noXepov Kar rjadiov. 

ravr a8e, ravd\ a>9 rjaOtov KeKoprjpevoi. 1285 

IIAI2 A'. Qcoprjo-o-ovT dp eneira n en av pcevoc. TP. acrpevoi, 

1270. Nvp avO' SirXorepcov] This was was commonly attributed to Homer him- 
the commencement of the Epigoni, one of self, although Herodotus suspected its au- 
those epic poems which forming, in con- thenticity, 'Earn; 'Oprjpcp 7repi e Y7rep/3opeW 
nexion with the Iliad and Odyssey, an elprjpeva iv ^iriyovoio-i, d drj t<3 iovn ye 
almost continuous chronicle of the heroic "OpLrjpos ravra ra eVect inotrja-e. — iv. 32. 
age down to the death of the last survivor (The author of the Certamen Homeri 
of the heroes who conquered Troy, were et Hesiodi says that after that contest 
thence commonly called the Cyclic poems. Homer travelled about, reciting as well 
It is not known who was the author of the seven books of the Thebais which 
the Epigoni : in the time of Herodotus it commence 

"Apyos aetde, 0ea, TToXvdixpiov evOtv avaKT€s, 
as the seven books of the Epigoni which commence 

NtV at>0' dirXoripoov avdp&v apx&ptQa. Movaai. 

<fraar\ yap rives, he adds, kol ravra 'Oprjpov Epistle to Mill ii. 322, ed. Dyce.) The 

ehai. The iravcrai with which Trygaeus Scholiast here says that the words vvv 

closes the line is intended to mimic the av6' oirXorepcov dvBpcov dpx^^Oa form the 

Movaai of the original. See Bentley's commencement of the Epigoni of Anti- 



First Boy. " Sing of the younger bloody whose deeds " — Tryg. Plague take you, be quiet 
Singing of deeds of blood : and that, you unfortunate ill-starred 
Wretch, in the time of Peace; you're a shameful and ignorant blockhead. 

Boy I. " Slowly the hosts approached, till at length with a shock of encounter 
Shield was dashed upon shield, and round-bossed buckler on buckler." 

Tryg. Buckler ? you'd better be still : how dare you be talking of bucklers ? 

Boy I. " Rose the rattle of war commingled with groans of the dying." 

Tryg. Groans of the dying ? by great Dionysus, I'll make you repent it 

Singing of groans of the dying, especially such as are round-bossed. 

Boy I. What, then, what shall I sing ? you, tell me the songs you delight in. 

Tryg. " Then on the flesh of beeves they feasted ; " something of that sort. 

" Then a repast they served, and whatever is best for a banquet." 

Boy I. " Then on the flesh of beeves they feasted, aweary of fighting ; 

Then from the yoke they loosed the reeking necks of the horses." 

Tryg. Good : they were tired of war, and so they feasted : 

Sing on, O sing, how they were tired and feasted. 

Boy I. " Quickly, refreshed, they called for the casques." Tryg. Casks? gladly, I warrant. 

machus ; but he is no doubt, as Tyrwhitt 
(in Kidd's Dawes 530 note) and Brunck 
observe, confounding the Cyclic poem 
of the Epigoni with the Thebais writ- 
ten by Antimachus of Colophon in a 
much later age, indeed about the era of 
the Peloponnesian War. The Epigoni 
recorded the second and successful attack 
which the Argive army, under the com- 
mand of Adrastus and fehe younger war- 
riors, the sons of the original Seven, 
made upon the city of Thebes. The 
epithet oTrKorepcav merely signifies 
4 'younger," but Trygaeus objects to 
everything connected with onXa. 

1273. ol 8' 6Ve] This line occurs eleven 
times in the Iliad, avv p e$a\ov pivovs 
is found iv. 447, viii. 61, and ofx^ako^crcrat 

is a common epithet of ao-7riSes-, but the 
two phrases are not conjoined in one line. 
Line 1276 is found in iv. 450 and viii. 64. 
The subsequent lines, though couched in 
Homeric phraseology, are not actually 
found in Homer. 

1280. kol ra roiavri] These words 
may be in apposition, either with fto&v 
Kpea, " they ate the flesh of beeves and 
the like," or with the whole preceding 
clause, " Sing how they feasted and the 
like." The latter is the construction 
universally adopted, and I have, though 
with some doubt, followed it in my 

1286. dcoprja-aovr] The boy uses this 
word in the sense of " they donned their 
breastplates," but Trygaeus understands 


IIAIS A'. Tlvpyoav 8* egeyeovro, ftor) 6" dcr^ecrro? opcopei. 
TP. kolkktt dnoXoio, iraiSaptov, avrah [idyai^ 

ov8ev yap aSeis ttXt^v TroXefiovs* rod Kai nor el ; 
TL Alt A', iyoo ; TP. cri> iievrot v^ At. n A IS A', vibs AafjLd X ov. 
TP. alfioi. 1291 

rj yap eyco 6avp.a£ov olkovo&v, el <ri> p.rj ei'rjs 
dvSpbs (3ovXofid)(ov Kal KXavatfid^ov twos vlos. 
dneppe Kal to?$ Xoyxpcpopoicriv dS 1 Icov. 

nov p.OL to rod KXecovv fjiov 'arc iratSiov ; 1295 

dtrov irplv elcrievai rr av yap ev o?8' ore 
ov TTpdyyLar acreiv vcbcf)povo$ yap el irarpbs. 
ITAIS B'. 'ActitiSl [i\v ^atcov ns dydXXerai, fju napa Odfivcp 

evros dfjicofjLrjTOP KaXKiirov ovk eOeXcov. 
TP. elire fioc, S> ttoctOcov, els rbv cravrov irarep aSecs; 1300 

IIAIS B'. ^u^tjv 8 egeadcoo-a, TP. Karr/or^yvas 8e TOKrjas. 
dXX' elo-LOD/xep, ev yap olS 1 eyco cra(/)cos 

it in the signification which it notunfre- discretion which, as Falstaff says, " is 
quently bears of "they fortified them- the better part of valour." FlorentChre- 
selves with draughts of wine." A similar tien cites the saying with which Demo- 
play on the double meaning of the word sthenes excused his flight from the battle- 
occurs in Ach. 1132-5 to which Bergler field, dvrjp 6 favycov ml ttclKlv /xa^o-erai 
refers. (Aulus Gellius xvii. 21. 9), the original, 

1297. o-dxppovos] Discreet; with that I suppose, of our familiar rhyme, 

"He that fights and runs away, 
Will live to fight another day." 

And compare Ralph's argument in Hudi- own flight, ' ' relicta non bene parmula, " 

bras iii. 3. 243. On Cleonymus see the from the field of battle : and in conse- 

note at 446 supr. quence of which the Spartans, it is said, 

1298. 'Ao-nidi] This is the famous forbade him to enter their territory. The 
elegy of Archilochus (Fragm. 3 , Gaisford) , lines are as follows : — 

the first poet who recorded in verse his 

'AamSi pev SaiW tls ay&Wercu, fjv irapa Odfivco 

evros afJubnTjrov KaWirrov ovk kOeXcvv, 
aiiros S' kgtyvyov Qavarov riXos' ao"trh k/ccivrj 
kppirca' 4£atms KT^aofxai ov kclkioo. 


Boy I. e< Out from the towers they poured, and the roar of battle ascended." 
Teyg. Perdition seize you, boy, your wars and all ! 

You sing of nought but battles : who's your father ? 
Boy I. Whose ? mine ? Tryg. Yes, yours, by Zeus ! Boy I. Why, Lamachus. 
Teyg. Ugh, out upon it ! 

Truly I marvelled, and thought to myself as I heard your performance, 
This is the son of some hacker, and thwacker, and sacker of cities. 
Get to the spearmen, sing to them : begone. 
Here, here, I want Cleonymus's son. * 

You, sing before we enter : sure I am 
You won't sing wars : you've too discreet a father. 
Second Boy. cc Ah ! some Saean is vaunting the targe, which I in the bushes 

Sadly, a blameless shield, left as I fled from the field." 
Thyg. Tell me, you pretty baboon, are you making a mock of your father ? 

Boy II. " Nay, but my life I preserved." 

Tuyg. But you shamed the parents who gave it. 

Well go we in, for sure I am that you, 

Some would read for the third line, yp>v- Archilochus in his flight, imitated him 

Xn v &* egeadaxra (pvycbv, aAV arms iK^lvrj. also in the unblushing frankness with 

See Liebel's voluminous notes, and which he proclaimed his shame. — Hdt. 

Colonel Mure's Literature of Greece, iii. v. 95. But the fragment, as given (No. 

8, 7. Cf. Eur. Heracleidae 15, where 32) in Bergk's Poetae Lyrici Graeci, is 

Iolaus says, "We fled the country, so almost entirely the composition of Bergk, 

our home we lost, Our lives we saved." and contains little which can with cer- 

y^vxq 8 y io-codq. Alcaeus, who imitated tainty be ascribed to Alcaeus : — 

tcapv£, dyyciXov fxev kfJLOis krdpoicnv kv oikco, 

am 'A\KaTos*Apri. 

evrea 8 ? ovk aveveifcov, ci dr] KTepas ks TXavKairob 

Ipbv av€Kp£p,acrav 


Horace made a similar confession, referred 1300. n6<r6cov\ On the use of this 

to above. With the reproach Kar^axwas word to signify a boy, see Scaliger's note 

Se roKrjas, applied to Cleonymus, compare on th3 Asinaria of Plautus iii. 3. 104. 

Aelian, H, A. iv. 1, 'ApiarTodrjfws 6 rpearas, Hoo-dcov' Kvpias Xeyerai iraibapiov* ovtcos 

kcu KXeavvpios 6 piyjsas rrjp aovritia tcai 6 yap vrroKopi&fjLevoi eXeyov airb tov alboiov' 

beCKbsTl.€lcravbposovT€TasTraTpibasrjbovvro f irocrOiov yap tovto koXovctiv. — Photius. 
ovt€ ras yapL€ra9, ovt€ Ta 7raidia. 

M 2 



OTL Tdvff OCT TjCraS dpTL 7T€pl T7J$ do"iri§0$ 
OV fJLT) '7Tl\d6rj TTOT, WV €K€ll>OV TOV TTGLTpoS. 

v/xcov to Xonrbv epyov ijSrj 'vravda tcop /levovrodP 1305 

<pXdv ravra iravra Kal cnroSew, Kal prj Kevas napeXKeiv. 
a A A' dvSptKCds e^/3aAAer ovv 

KOU (T/JiCO^eT dfJL(f)OLV TCUV yvdOoiV* OV$\v ydp, 3) TTOVqpOL, 

XevKcov oSovto&v epyov ecrr, fjv [ir\ n Kal fiaarnvrau 1310 

XO. f)p>w fJLe\rj<reL ravrd y • ev Troiels Se kou av (f>pd(cov. 
TP aAA', co ypb rod rreivrnvTes, efx^dXXeo-de 7W Xaycpw 
a)? ovyl iravav r\p.kpav 

ttXolkovcfiv io-Tiv kvrvyeiv wXavcofxepot? eprjpois. 

npbs Tavra (3pvK€T, fj rax i)\uv (prjixL fiera/xeX^creLy. 1315 

XO. eixprjixeiv \pr] Kal rrjp vv\L§t)V e£oo riva Sevpo kojjll£€Lv, 

SaSds re (pepeiv, Kal Trdvra Xehv 0-vyyaips.1v Kairiyopeveiv. 

1305. vfiav to Xol7t6p] I fear that 
these lines will not go far towards re- 
deeming the character of the iambic te- 
trameter catalectic, of which Mr. Frere, 
in his translation of the Knights, says 
that it is so essentially base and grovel- 
ling, that he could find no respectable 
English song to adduce as an example of 
the metre, until Sir George Cornewall 
Lewis suggested the sufficiently vulgar 
but otherwise inoffensive ditty of ' ' Miss 
Baily " (" A Captain bold of Halifax, who 
lived in country quarters ") which does 
in truth give a very tolerable notion of 
the rhythm of the Greek. 

1306. K€pas irape\KtLv\ We are em- 
barrassed here by the very multitude 
of the substantives which may be ap- 
propriately supplied for Ktvas^ and 
between whose claims it is really im- 
possible to decide. Kco7ras is suggested 

by the Scholiast (as if the meaning 
were, ' ' Dip your oars well in ") : yvadovs 
or o-Layovas by Florent Chretien and 
Bergler (the latter comparing Kapybvs 
eyeiv p,r)heiroTe ras aiayovas, Alexis apud 
Athen. xiv, chap. 49) : and kvXikcis also 
by Bergler, who cites Antiphanes apud 
Athen. x. 65 /jltj fiecrras aa e\Ka>[jL€i>. 
And see 1131 supra. KvXiKasis adopted 
by Bothe also, whose observation, 
" irapa in irapekKeiv vitium actionis signi- 
ficat," is, I think, correct, whatever be 
the word supplied. But no exhorta- 
tion to drinhing seems intended here ; 
and perhaps a new claimant for the vacant 
place may be suggested in the person of 
vavs, in which case the metaphor would 
be drawn from ships hauled up and laid 
aside as not intended for immediate use : 
the converse of such expressions as that 
of Thucydides ii. 90 ro)i> veav Tivas elXKoi/ 



Being your father's son, will nevermore 
Forget the song you sang about the shield. 
Now then 'tis right, my jolly rogues, that you should, here remaining, 
Munch, crunch, and bite with all your might, no empty vessels draining ; 

With manly zeal attack the meal, 
And saw and gnaw with either jaw, there's no advantage really 
In having white and polished teeth unless you use them freely. 
Choe. O aye, we know : we won't be slow ; but thanks for thus reminding. 
Tryg. Set to, set to : you starving crew : you won't be always finding 

Such dishes rare of cake and hare 
An easy prey in open day thus wandering unprotected. 
Set to, set to : or soon you'll rue a splendid chance neglected. 

Chou. O let not a word of ill-omen be heard, but some of you run for the bride ; 

Some, torches to bring while the multitudes sing and dance and rejoice by her side. 

K€vas, and Id. 93 ras Tpirjpets a<j)el\KVO-av 

1309. (r/xa>xer']<eV0kre, rpi^ere.— Scho- 
liast. dvTiTov fiacraaSe. — Suidas. That is 
doubtless what it comes to here, but its 
real signification seems to be "Work 
away with energy;" anov^fj ivepyelp, Pho- 
tius ; ivepyelv ftera (T7rovbrjs, Hesychius. 
According to the Et. Magn., s.v. afxcodi^ 
the Ionians said o-jLto>£ai for 7rara£ai.) 

1312. ipPdWecrOe] ("scil. is rrjv ya- 
a-Ttpa ; Lys. 562 of a soldier cramming 
porridge into his helmet."— Graves.) 

1317. Kdmxopevew] There is not much 
to choose between KairiKekeveiv, the read- 
ing of the Ravenna MS., and Kamx°~ 
pevnv, the reading of the Venetian. The 
latter seems rather more appropriate to 
the occasion (although that circumstance 
may, no doubt, be urged as affording a 
greater probability of its interpolation), 

since it is rare to find either the choruses, 
or the torches, or the wedding-songs 
omitted in a description of a marriage 
procession. See, for example, the plea- 
sant picture which in Lucian's Sea Dia- 
logue, No. 15, the West Wind draws for 
the Wind of the South, of Europa's 
passage to her nuptial bed across the 
Mediterranean waters: "The sea was 
hushed, and the winds were still, as they 
gazed upon the scene, and little Loves 
skimmed lightly over the waves, holding 
up the lighted torches, fjupevas ras Babas 
4>€povT€s, and chanting the hymenaeal 
song. The Nereids rose, half -naked from 
the deep, riding upon their dolphins, and 
clapping glad welcome with their hands : 
whilst all the Triton race, and whatever 
else the Ocean holds of mild and gra- 
cious aspect, danced in happy chorus 
round about the bride, nepiexopeve tt\v 


kcci toc (TKevrj tt&Xiv els rov aypbv vvvX yjpr\ iravra Ko/iifcii', 
opxriaajxevovs kcu (nreiaavTas ko.1 ^TwepfioXov e^eXdaraj/ras, 

Kairev^apevovs roicri Oeolcriv 1320 

SiSovai itXovtov rots 'RXXrjcriv, 

KpiOds re iroieiv fjfjias iroXXds 

fravras dfjLoicos olvov re ttoXvv, 

(tvkol re rpooyeiv, 

rds re yvvcuKcs riKreiv tj/jllp, 1325 

kol rdyaOd iravO' ocr dircoXi (rap,ev 

avXXegaaOcu ttclXlv e£ dpyfjs, 

Xrj£ai r aWoova (rcSrjpoi'. 

TP. $*vp, 3> yvvai, els dypov, [_°" r P' 

^Sttcos {ier efxov KaXrj 1330 

kclXoos KaraKetaeu 
^TfjLTjy, 'Tpivai 3). 
f TpLrji/ y lf Tp.evai S>. 

TralSa." (So again Musaeus (line 274) says of the stolen loves of Hero and Leander : 
?}v yafios, d\\' &x6p€VTOS' et]v \ixo$, dAA' artp vjjlvqjv' 
ov dadcuv TJGTpaiTTe criXas OaXaiirjiroXov evvrjv 
ou5e TTo\va/cdp6fjiq} tis k-rr^JKipTijcre xopuriSy 
See, too, Iliad xviii. 490-5 ; Hesiod, And the old men rise from their bench, 
Scutum 274-7. I may add from Mr. M. When the youths bring home the bride. 
Arnold's Merope a chorus which illus- 
trates the subject, and is otherwise appro- 

priate to the closing scenes of this Play : 

1320-8] While these lines are being 
sung one division of the Chorus carry in 
Harvesthome, whom we last saw going 

Peace, who tarriest too long ; to her bridal bath supra 842. 

Peace, with Delight in thy train ; 1328. aWcova aibrjpov] (the glowingiron. 

Come, come back to our prayer ; He is borrowing the phraseology of the 

epic poets ; Homer, II. iv. 485, vii. 473, 

Then shall the revel again 

Visit our streets, and the sound or?0 r , , . ^ OA TT . ,__. 

•vc j-r. u u -J j -XT- j.i xx - ^72 ; Od. l. 184 ; Hymn to Hermes 

Of the harp be heard with the pipe, __ . ___ ' J 

When the flashing torches appear 180 * Heslod > W « and D - 743 ' The ex ~ 

In the marriage-train coming on, pression is found also in the Ajax of 

With dancing maidens and boys : Sophocles in a passage redolent with 

While the matrons come to the doors, epic flavour. ) 


We'll carry the husbandry implements back our own little homesteads about, 
When we've had our ovation, and poured our libation, and hunted Hyperbolus out. 

But first we'll pray to the Gods that they 

May with rich success the Hellenes bless, 

And that every field may its harvest yield, 

And our garners shine with the corn and wine, 

While our figs in plenty and peace we eat, 

And our wives are blest with an increase sweet ; 

And we gather back in abundant store 

The many blessings we lost before; 

And the fiery steel — be it known no more. 

Teyg. Come then, come, my bride, 

Midst the free green fields with me 

Sweetly, sweet, abide. 
Hymen, Hymenaeus O ! 
Hymen, Hymenaeus O ! 

1329. devp* S> yvvai] <The remainder of equal length : the last three lines of the 

the Play consists entirely of glyconic Play, the farewell of Trygaeus, standing 

lines with a monosyllabic base; some by themselves. One line, the third in the 

of them being full (acatalectic) glyconics first antistrophe, is lost. The glyconics 

^|-uu-|u-| and others shortened commence with the welcome of Trygaeus 

(catalectic) glyconics, ^ | -v^~ | k. It to his bride on her reappearance.) 
will be observed that the refrain 'Y/^, 1330. Ka\rj kuXoos] The collocation, 

c Y/ueW a> is catalectic. In order to make kclkos *«*&$•, is more common in Aristo- 

it a full glyconic, Bentley changed the phanes ; but KaXf) mX&s is found in Ach. 

w into la (referring to Catullus lxi who 253 and Eccl. 730, and the Latin equiva- 

in his glyconic Ode "in nuptias Juliae lents "bella belle," "pulchra pulchre," 

et Manlii " gives it as occur in Plautus, Asinaria iii. 3. 86 ; 

Io Hymen, Hymenae' Io. Curculio iv. 2. 35 ; Miles Gloriosus iv. 

Io Hymen, Hymenaee), 2. 63 ; and Rudens ii. 4. 12. (The con- 

and Dawes into 'Yfirjv. But this is ne- junction of an adjective with its corre- 

cessary only in the last antistrophe. It sponding adverb is as old as Homer, 

appears to me that the lines are divided fieyas /neyaXocrri, Iliad xvi. 776, xviii. 

into five strophes and antistrophes of un- 26 ; Odyssey xxiv. 40.) 


XO. oo Tpio-fictKap, coy Slkcil- \_dvr. 

cos rdyaOd vvv eyets. 

'TfiTjp, 'T/jLivai co, 1335 

'T/jltjVj 'Yfiivai a). 

HM1XOP. tl Spdcroftev avrr\v ; \orrp. 

tl Spdcro/ieu avTqv ; 
HMIXOP. Tpvyr\<JO\Ltv avT7]v } [dvr. 

rpvyrjcro/xeu avTrjv. 

HMIXOP. dXX' dpdfievoi <j)ipc*>- [vrp. 

fief ol it poT€Tcly pkvoi 

rov pvpcf)LOP, <bvSpe$. 

tf T[ir]v, l Tpevai S>. 

"Tprjv, Tpivai oo. 
HMIXOP. oiKrjcreTe yovv koXoos ^dvr. 

ov Trpdy/jtaT eyovres, dX- 1345 

Xa arvKokoyovvTes. 

^firjv, 'Tfievai 3>, 

Tprji/, Tpevcu co. 

HMIXOP. rod [X€v piya koX irayjj, [crrp. 

HMIXOP. T7]$ $ f)8i> TO CTVKOV. [dvr. 

TP. (fyrjaeis y, oTav kaOirjs \p"^P* 


XO. "*>V, 'T/ieW Lcb, \dvT. 

^T/jltjv, 'T/jLevaL loo. 

1339. Tpvy-qaojiev] An allusion, as Dawes for 7rpocrreray/iei/ot. While these 

Florent Chretien and Bergler observe, to lines are being sung a second division of 

the names of Trygaeus and Opora : the the Chorus raise Try gaeus in their arms, 

marriage of the Yintner with the Vintage. There was, in fact, a stage direction, ol 

1341. TTpoTerayfiivoi] So Bentley and x°P €VTai < * m ^ a ft6 l/re S) which crept into the 



Chor. Happy, happy, happy you, 

And you well deserve it too. 
Hymen, Hymenaeus O ! 
Hymen, Hymenaeus O ! 

Semichoh. What shall with the bride be done, 
What be done with Harvesthome ? 

Semiohor. She shall yield him, one by one, 
All the joys of Harvest-home. 

Semichor. Ye to whom the task belongs 

Raise the happy bridegroom, raise 
Bear him on with goodly songs, 
Bear him on with nuptial lays. 
Hymen, Hymenaeus O ! 
Hymen, Hymenaeus O ! 

Semichor. Go and dwell in peace: 

Not a care your lives impair, 
Watch your figs increase. 
Hymen, Hymenaeus O ! 
Hymen, Hymenaeus O ! 


He is stout and big. 


She a sweeter fig. 


So you all will think 

When you feast and drink. 


Hymen, Hymenaeus ! 

Hymen, Hymenaeus ! 

text, and maintained its place there, until 
the intrusion was discovered, and the in- 
truder summarily ejected, by Bentley. 
The rest of the Play is sung as the double 
procession is filing off the stage. 

1349. o-vkov] (So (tvkcls in Alciphron, 
Fragm. 6, § 2, where see Seiler's note. 
And as to the preceding line see Ach. 
787, Lys. 28, and Eccl. 1048.) 



TP. 3) ^aipere ^aiper, av- 
8pe$, Kay £vP67rr)a6e jioi, 


1356.] Mr. Frere, in a note to his 
translation of the Birds, describes the 
close of this Play as a rustic Epithala- 
mium. He should have said ao-fia yapj- 
Xiop or apfidreioy, for the Epithalamium, 
as the name implies, was a sort of sere- 
nade sung in! tw daKd^ito rrjs yafiovfxivr)S. 
See the notes to Ilgen's Disquisitio de 
Scoliorum Poesi, pp. xl, xli. Very beau- 
tiful Epithalamia are given us by Theo- 
critus, Catullus, and our own Spenser. 
The English reader may find a character- 

istic version of the first among the works 
of Dryden, and the second has been ele- 
gantly rendered by (Sir Theodore) 
Martin. I may perhaps be allowed to 
close these notes with a translation of 
one of Catullus's smaller poems (Carm. 
xxvi) turning upon a legal witticism 
(for opposita means both exposed to and 
pledged for) which in (Sir Theodore's) 
version is hardly brought out with 
sufficient distinctness to satisfy a legal 



Tuyg. Away, away, good day, good day ; 
Follow me, sirs, if ye will, 
And of bridecakes eat your fill. 

Furi, villula vestra non ad Austri 
Flatus opposita est, nee ad Favoni, 
Nee saevi Boreae, aut Apeliotae, 
Verum ad millia quindecim et ducentos. 
ventum horribilem atque pestilentem. 

Furius, your little country-seat 

Is never called upon to meet 

The angry winds which issue forth 

From East or West, from South or North. 

'Tis only called upon to meet 

One hundred thousand pounds complete. 

O wind of all the winds that blow 
To house and lands the deadliest foe ! 

(The Venetian MS. has against this 
final speech of Trygaeus, either as a nap- 
emypacfrr) or as a gloss, the words npos 
tovs Beards ; and no doubt Trygaeus here, 
like Praxagora's maid and Blepyrus in 
the Ecclesiazusae, is giving a general 
invitation to the spectators to join in the 
approaching festivities.) 



The Peace is found, in a more or less perfect condition, in eight MSS. 
They are : — 

R. The Ravenna MS. 

V. The first Venetian (No. 474, St. Mark's Library, Venice). 

I. The Vaticano-Palatine (Pal. No. 67, Vatican Library). 

F. The first Florentine (No. 31, 15, Laurentian Library). 

P 1 . The second Parisian (No. 2715, National Library, Paris). 

P 2 . The third Parisian (No. 2717, National Library, Paris). 

V 2 . The third Venetian (No. 475, St. Mark's Library). 
D. Havniensis (No. 190, Royal Library, Copenhagen). 

A careful collation of the first six MSS. has recently been published 
in Zacher's edition. It was commenced by Velsen who collated R. V. F. 
and the first 131 lines of I. The collation of this MS. was completed by 
A. Wilmanns, "cujus collatio," says Bachmann, " non semper satis 
accurata videtur." On Velsen's death the work was continued by 
Zacher who collated P 1 . and P 2 ., but he too died before the edition was 
ready for publication; and it was finally revised, and published with 
a careful preface, by Bachmann. V 2 . is said in Bachmann's Preface to 
be a mere copy of V., and D. to correspond with I. P 2 . The publication 
of Velsen's collations, and still more the photogravures of R. and V., 


have shown how inconceivably inaccurate were all previous collations, 
and I have thought it better to confine myself to the readings given 
in Zacher's edition, though invariably verifying from the photogravures 
the readings of those two all-important MSS. 

R. and "V. are the only MSS. which give the Play in its entirety. 
All the other four omit from 947 to 1012 ; and none of them have lines 
1355, 1356. F. and P 1 . indeed end the Play at line 1300. And in addition 
to these gaps F. omits the first 377 lines; from 490 to 548; from 837 
to 893; and from 1126 to 1190. 

The first printed edition of Aristophanes was that published at Venice 
by Aldo Pio Manuzio, a.d. 1498, the immediate editor being Marco 
Musuro, a native of Crete, and afterwards Abp. of Monovasia. It was at 
first intended to comprise seven Plays only, the Plutus, the Clouds, the 
Frogs, the Knights, the Acharnians, the Wasps, and the Birds. At the 
end of the Birds is the following finis : 

* kpivTofydvovs kco/xwchwz; kurd kcu t&v d$ avras o-yoXmv dpyaiois <tvvt€- 
OevTODV ypa\x}xaTiKois' a br), cnropdbrjv £v avTiypcupois /cet/xeua hiafyopois /cat 
TtetyvpiJiivoos, avveiXeKTaC re kcu &s olov re fjv' ipLfxeXiaTaTa hitopOtorai irapa 
MdpKov Movaovpov tov Kpyrbs 


But before publication the editor had obtained and added to the work 
two more Comedies, the Peace and the Ecclesiazusae ; so that the Editio 
Princeps, as published, contained all the Comedies we now possess except 
the Lysistrata and the Thesmophoriazusae. 

Of course we cannot tell with certainty what were the avriypcHpa 
hidcj)opa from which Musuro collected the nine Plays and their Scholia, 
but it is generally agreed that he had before him amongst other 
documents I. or a very similar MS. ; and there is no doubt that for the 
two additional Comedies he had also P 1 . or a duplicate of P 1 ., since almost 
all the numerous liberties with the text in which the writer of that MS. 


indulges are reproduced in the pages of the Aldine edition. Probably 
some of the MSS. employed by the early editors have ceased to exist : 
they would be used as copy for the press and so become soiled and torn ; 
and might well be cast away as worthless when their contents had been 
committed to print. 

The Lysistrata and the Thesmophoriazusae remained unpublished for 
seventeen years longer. But in the year 1515 two small volumes were 
issued at Florence by the Giunta family ; the earlier containing the nine 
Comedies published by Manuzio, the later the two theretofore unpublished 
Comedies. The two volumes are, I believe, always found bound together, 
and go by the name of "Junta." Ten years later the same family 
published a third edition of Aristophanes under the editorship of Antonio 
Fracini. Fracini is supposed to have had access to the Ravenna or some 
very similar MS., since the important improvements which he introduced 
into the text correspond very closely with the readings of R. In the 
present Play, amongst other things, he was the first to print the 65 lines 
from 947 to 1012 which are omitted in Aldus and Junta, as in every 
known MS. except R. and V. In all these the line ds ayaOa /xera/3t/3a£et 
is immediately followed by etra fxov^beTv eK MribeCas. He did not, however, 
include in his edition either the Lysistrata or the Thesmophoriazusae, 
nor did his successor Gormont in his Paris edition of 1528 (the first 
edition published out of Italy) ; and the eleven Plays were not published 
in one volume until Cratander so published them at Basle in the year 
1532. Thenceforward the eleven Plays have always been printed 

The text as settled by the earliest editions remained substantially 
unaltered for some two centuries. A few slight corrections were made 
by Zanetti, and others, more numerous and more important, by 
Grynaeus, but as a rule editors were content to hand on the text as they 
received it from their predecessors. The edition which Aemilius Portus, 
another Cretan scholar, published at Geneva in 1607 has perhaps been 
unduly depreciated. If the editor added little of his own, he generally 
contrived to select the best of the various readings adopted by earlier 


scholars. And lie was the first to publish, together with the Greek, 
a Latin translation and notes. It is true that neither the translation nor 
the notes were his own ; the former was a combination of the verse 
translations of Florent Chretien and Frischlin, and for the remaining 
Plays the prose translation of Andreas Divus ; the latter consisted of the 
Greek notes of Bisetus on all the eleven Comedies, and of Bourdin on the 
Thesmophoriazusae, and the Latin notes of Girard on the Plutus, and 
of Florent Chretien on the Wasps, the Peace, and the Lysistrata. He 
also published the Greek scholia on the nine Aldine Plays as Aldus, 
Fracini, and Gelenius had already done. And, on the whole, his edition 
made the Comedies far more intelligible to the ordinary reader than they 
had ever been before. It was however altogether superseded by Kuster's 
edition published in 1710, a work on much the same plan, but carried 
out with far greater erudition on the part of the editor, and with much 
more important subsidiary appliances than existed in the time of Portus. 
Kuster was the first editor to avail himself systematically of the help 
afforded by the MSS. He tells us that he had consulted five which he calls 
Vaticano-Urbinas, Vaticano-Palatine, Bodleian, Arundel, and Vossianus, 
and which have been identified with the MSS. called in this series 
U. (No. 141), I. (No. 67), the MS. x. 1 in the Library of Lincoln 
College, Oxford, L 3 . (the fourth London, Arundel 530), and Bentley's 
copy, now in the Library of Trinity College, Cambridge, of 1. (No 52. 
in the University Library, Leyden). See Professor John Williams 
White's articles on "the MSS. of Aristophanes/' Apparently he relied 
mostly, and very wisely, on the two Vatican MSS. which enabled him 
to effect several important improvements. But his text is very unequal. 
Many of the most glaring errors, both in language and in metre, are 
entirely overlooked. Except that for the three versions by Andreas 
Divus he substituted versions of the Birds by Hemsterhuys, of the 
Ecclesiazusae by Le Fevre, and of the Thesmophoriazusae by himself, he 
retained everything that was in Portus's edition. But he added a series 
of valuable annotations by various scholars; by himself on all the 
Comedies except the Wasps and the Peace; by Paulmier on the 


Lysistrata ; by Casaubon on the Knights ; by Spanheim on the Clouds, 
Frogs,, and Plutus; by Le Fevre on the Ecclesiazusae ; and by Bentley 
on the Clouds and the Plutus. Moreover the copy of the Leyden MS. 
which Bentley sent him contained the Scholia on the Lysistrata which 
were for the first time published in this edition. No Scholia on the 
Thesmophoriazusae were published until more than a century later, 
viz. in Bekker's edition of 1829. 

Kuster was followed half a century later by Bergler, whose brief notes 
enter fully into the spirit of Aristophanes, and teem with apt illustrations 
and terse and happy comments. He made too some brilliant conjectural 
amendments, but did not turn his attention to a systematic improvement 
of the text. And unfortunately he died before the work was published, 
and its publication was undertaken by Peter Burmann the younger, 
a dull man incapable of appreciating either Aristophanes or Bergler. 
Consequently the text which he prepared for Bergler' s edition is as 
infelicitous as Bergler's own annotations are brilliant. 

Brunck's edition was originally published at Strasburg in the year 
1783, and the assistance afforded him by the Parisian MSS., and his own 
sound practical judgement, enabled him to effect a very material improve- 
ment in the text of Aristophanes. He seems to have been the first 
editor who went carefully through each Comedy, weighing every line, and 
endeavouring to detect, and, so far as he could, to remedy, every 
inaccuracy either of metre or of language. Hardly any error escaped 
his notice, but not having access to the best MSS. he frequently failed 
to administer the right remedy for the disease. Indeed on more than 
one occasion, in reliance on the unsafe MS. which is called P 1 ., he 
unquestionably "left the right path for the wrong." But his edition 
was a remarkable advance on all preceding ones; it was universally 
recognized as giving the standard text of Aristophanes; and would 
doubtless have held its own till now, but for the flood of light unex- 
pectedly thrown upon the text by the discovery (or rediscovery) of 
the great Ravenna and Venetian MSS. 

The Ravenna MS. was brought to the notice of Western scholars by 


Invernizzi in the year 1794. The edition which he commenced was 
continued by Beck and completed by Dindorf. But Invernizzi's tran- 
scription of the MS. was of a deplorably imperfect and faulty character. 
And the whole MS. together with the Venetian (which for the Peace is 
hardly less valuable than the Ravenna) was again collated by Immanuel 
Bekker, whose excellent Variorum edition, published in London in the 
year 1829, professed to show, either in the text or in the footnotes, 
every variation of these two important MSS. The results were embodied 
in Dindorf s Oxford edition of 1835. But Bekker' s own collation, though 
vastly superior to Invemizzi's, was itself very far from accurate; and 
the only thoroughly trustworthy collations that have ever been published 
are those by Adolphus von Velsen of the Knights, the Peace, the 
Thesmophoriazusae, the Frogs, the Ecclesiazusae, and the Plutus. 
However the importance of collations has been considerably diminished 
by the publication of photogravures of both these MSS.; that of the 
Venetian in London and Boston, 1902, and that of the Ravenna in Leyden, 

I did not, in my former Appendix to. the Peace, attempt to criticize 
any editions published in my own lifetime, nor do I propose to do so 
now, beyond observing that with Cobet and Meineke an era of 
systematic corruption of the text was, most unhappily, inaugurated. 
Empty irrational rules are formulated by anybody who has the audacity 
to formulate them, and when the MSS. show them to be unfounded, it is 
the MSS., and not the rules, which have to be altered. And he is acclaimed 
the aptest scholar who can make the most numerous alterations. If 
Aristophanes wrote one thing an editor will remark " Malim some other 
thing/' and merely on the ground of the editor's preference that other 
thing at once takes its place in the text. Another editor considers his 
suggestion " multo elegantius " than what Aristophanes wrote, and again 
this much more elegant suggestion is substituted for the genuine reading. 
That is the right way to correct a schoolboy's exercise, but it is most 
emphatically the wrong way to deal with the writings of an ancient 
poet, towards whom our attitude should be that of learners, and not that 


of a dictatorial schoolmaster. One can imagine the indescribable mess into 
which the Plays of Shakespeare would be thrown were they to be treated 
in a similar manner even now, and much more 2000 years hence when 
tastes and ideas may have undergone a complete transformation. 

I observed in my former Appendix that no complete edition of 
Aristophanes, and indeed no complete edition of the Peace, had ever 
been published by an English scholar ; but although that was true in 
1866, it is not true now. It is, however, still true that (as I proceeded to 
say) no country has contributed more than our own to the improvement 
of the Aristophanic text. The marvellous sagacity of Bentley had 
already anticipated a great number of the corrections which were sub- 
sequently supplied from the MSS. ; and " it is not too much to say," 
as Bp. Monk (Life of Bentley, i. 195) most truly observes, "that had 
he given his mind to such a work, no person ever lived who was so well 
qualified for an editor of the great Comedian of Athens." His letters 
on the subject to Kuster, published more fully in the Museum Criticum 
than in Kuster's own edition, are specimens of literary criticism only less 
delightful and instructive than his own immortal Dissertation on 
Phalaris ; and his marginal jottings on Aristophanes, printed in the same 
Museum and in the Classical Journal, are altogether worthy of his 
unrivalled reputation. The Aristophanic criticisms of Dawes are famous 
all over the world ; and truly, to pass from his Miscellanea Critica to 
such works as the Vindiciae Aristophaneae of Meineke and Herwerden, 
is like passing from the Garden of Eden to a barren and dry land where 
no water is. Nor are the conjectures of Thomas Tyrwhitt, though briefer 
and less concerned with general principles, unworthy to stand by the side 
of the conjectures of Dawes. Porson, to use the language of Bps. Monk 
and Blomfield in their Preface to his Adversaria, "in Aristophanem 
expoliendum semper incumbebat, et in hoc omnes nervos intendebat; 
quin etiam credibile est, si vita suppeditasset, Comicorum principem 
demum exiturum fuisse, a principe Criticorum innumeris fere locis 
restitutum, Atticoque suo nitore postliminio donatum." His numerous, 
though brief, criticisms were, after his death, edited by P. P. Dobree, 


whose own acute lucubrations were similarly given to the world by the 
late Professor Scholefield. And finally no Aristophanic scholar is more 
constantly cited or more highly appreciated by foreign critics than Peter 
Elmsley, whose notes on the Acharnians are full of careful and patient 
observation upon the text, not only of that Play, but also of Aristophanes 

The editions of the Peace in my own possession from which the 
following synopsis is compiled are as follows : — 

(1) Aldus. Venice, 1498. 

(2) Junta. Florence, 1515. 

(3) Fracini. Florence, 1525 (sometimes called the second Junta). 

(4) Gormont. Paris, 1528. 

(5) Cratander. Basle, 1532. 

(6) Zanetti. Venice, 1538. 

(7) Junta II. Florence, 1540 (sometimes called the third Junta). 

(8) Farreus. Venice, 1542 (hardly more than a reprint of Zanetti). 

(9) Grynaeus. Frankfort, 1544. 

(10) Gelenius. Basle, 1547 (sometimes called Froben). 

(11) Bapheleng. Ley den, 1600 (sometimes called Plantin). 

(12) Portus. Geneva, 1607. 

(13) Scaliger. Leyden, 1624 (called Scaliger's because containing 
a few notes of his). 

(14) Faber. Amsterdam, 1670 (hardly more than a reprint of 
Scaliger's with the addition of Le Fevre's Ecclesiazusae). 

(15) Kuster. Amsterdam, 1710. 

(16) Bergler. Leyden, 1760 (posthumous. The text is Burmann's). 

(17) Brunck. London, 1823 (originally published at Strasburg, 

(18) Invernizzi. Leipsic, 1794-1823. 

(19) Bothe's first edition. Leipsic, 1828. 

(20) Bekker. London, 1829. 

(21) Dindorf. Oxford, 1835. 

N 2 


(22) Weise. Leipsic, 1842. 

(23) Bothe's second edition. Leipsic, 1845. 

(24) Holden's first edition. London, 1848. 

(25) Bergk. Leipsic, 1857 (reprinted 1888). 

(26) Meineke. Leipsic, 1860. 

(27) Richter's Peace. Berlin, 1860. 

(28) My own first edition was published in the year 1866. 

(29) Holden's second edition. Cambridge, 1868. 

(30) Green's Peace. London, 1873. 

(31) Paley's Peace. Cambridge, 1873. 

(32) Blaydes. Halle, 1883. 

(33) Herwerden's Peace. Leyden, 1897. 

(34) Hall and Geldart. Oxford, 1900. 

(35) Merry's Peace. Oxford, 1900. 

(36) Mazon's Peace. Paris, 1904. 

(37) Sharpley's Peace. Edinburgh and London, 1905. 

(38) Van Leeuwen. Leyden, 1906. 

(39) Zacher. Leipsic, 1909. 

(40) Graves's Peace. Cambridge, 1911. 

The Destructive Criticism of these latter days has dealt gently with 
the old Attic Comedy. No one has yet discovered, so far at least as 
I am aware, that a Play of Aristophanes is a thing of shreds and patches 
put together by the order of Peisistratus ; or that it was composed by 
cc Lord Bacon," or in the days of the Maccabees. Doubtless these things 
will come in good time ; else how will the Professorial mind amuse itself 
in all the centuries to be. 

I think that my original Appendix to this Play was the first attempt 
to bring together the various readings of the MSS. and editions. In it I 
proposed " to give the whole of the variations of the Ravenna and Venetian 
MSS. according to Bekker's recension; the whole of the variations of the 
Parisian MSS. so far as they are recorded by Brunck; and a tolerably 



complete collection of the various readings found in all the most 
noteworthy editions which have been published since the collation of the 
Ravenna and Venetian MSS./' besides giving a general account of the 
readings of the earlier editions. But since then many similar collections 
have been made, fuller and better than mine, and it did not seem 
desirable in the present Appendix to repeat all the minute variations 
of the MSS. and editions. Indeed the most important MS. readings, 
those of the Ravenna and the Venetian MSS., are now brought within 
the reach of every scholar by the publication of the two photogravures 
as mentioned above. The present Appendix therefore contains only such 
variations as appeared to be of some little importance or interest. 

1. cos rdxiCFTa KavBdpco MSS. vulgo. cos 
raxos rep Kavddpco Kiehl, Richter, Blaydes, 
Herwerden, Van Leeuwen, Zacher, and 
Graves. Nothing but necessity would 
justify an alteration which destroys the 
rhythm of the Hne, and there is no 
necessity here. The Greek dramatists 
were not so strict about the use of the 
article as modern critics are. And here 
too there is the special circumstance 
that the word Kavddpco is introduced 
napd TTpoadoKiav, without any preliminary 
intimation having been given to the 
audience of the existence of a beetle. 

2, 3. Dobree gives these two lines to 
the second servant, and this is followed 
by Weise, Meineke, and several other edi- 
tors. Yet while the traditional reading, 
given in my text, is perfectly plain and 
simple, Dobree's rearrangement bristles 
with difficulties, and requires numerous 
alterations of the text. It rests on 
a misunderstanding of the word rpefai 
in the scholium, which has no reference 
to the manual act of feeding an animal, 
but means keeps, is in charge of; Clouds 

109, 1407, Wasps 835, 928, Plutus 173, 
&c. For avra in verse 2 Bentley sug- 
gested avrrjv, Lenting avro, Richter avrbs, 
and Herwerden avdis. But avrcS is 
obviously right, and it was hardly neces- 
sary for Dobree to refer to infra 1121 
and Frogs 1121. And for cpdyot in v. 3 
Brunck reads cpdyois. "Qua emenda- 
tiones non opus," says Richter, " quum 
infra quoque legamus <are<payev et (prjaiv." 
But of course what Brunck meant was, 
not that the term cpdyoi was in itself 
inapplicable, but that the imprecation 
lost all its force if referred to the beetle 
whose favourite food the p.a(la in question 
was. However his alteration is quite 

5. vvv hr\ "fapes. Bergler (in notes), 
Brunck, recentiores. vvv 6' fjcfiepes MSS. 
(except P 1 .), editions before Brunck. vvv 
y rjcpepes P 1 . Dobree, and those who 
adopt his arrangement, give the whole 
of this verse and the first two words of 
the next to the second servant : thence 
to the end of v. 8 to the first. Meineke 
(Vind. Aristoph.) truly says, "Servus 



(secundus) non potuit quaerere ttov yap 
j)v vvv drj efapes ; siquidem to cfrepeip 
pinsentis servi est"; but instead of 
discarding the faulty and perverse ar- 
rangement which alone creates the 
difficulty, he would alter efapes into 
efapov. And this is actually done by 

7. 7T€piKvXlo-as Bentley, Brunck, recen- 
tiores, except Richter. And this, which 
seems to have been the reading of the 
Scholiast, is confirmed by the passages of 
Aristotle and Aelian referred to in the 
Commentary. TrepucvKklaas MSS. (except 
P 1 .), editions before Brunck, except as 
after mentioned. irepiKVKkio-o-as P 1 . 
7T6piKVK\r)(ras Portus, Kuster, Bergler, 
and Richter. 

16. rpi/3* tff ire pas Dindorf, Holden, 
Bergk, recentiores, except Mazon. TptjS' 
ire pas R. V. The en dropped out before 
irepas here, as before ervos in Lys. 1060. 
rpT/3' irepas ye P 1 . editions before Dindorf ; 
and Bothe, Weise,and Mazon afterwards. 
rplft irepas re I. P 2 . 

18. avXkaftcbv R.V. Invernizzi, recen- 
tiores, except Bothe and Weise, and 
except that one or two editors write it 
gvWaficop. 7rpocr\aP(ov I. P l . P 2 . editions 
before Invernizzi ; and Bothe and Weise 
afterwards. This line, according to 
Dobree's arrangement, is given to the 
first, and the next to the second, servant. 
Yet Meineke (V.A.) justly says "Servo 
pinsenti qui se imparem esse tarn foedo 
negotio dixerat, responderi non potuit 
a primo servo quod nunc respondetur." 
But here again, instead of returning 
to the traditional arrangement which 
does not present a single difficulty or 
require a single emendation, he would 
further tamper with the text by sub- 

stituting ofoe for otW. For rty avrKlav 
Van Leeuwen reads rr\v Kapdonop, the 
Scholiast here saying avr\ rod rrjp o-<d(pr)p, 
and Pollux (x. 102) observing Mevavdpos 
4v Arjfiiovpya Xtjvop e'lprjKe ttjv Kaphonov' 
ravrop de rovro Ka\ dveia kq\ dprXia' rrjv 
yap cncdqbrjp ovroos copopaaep ' Apio~TO<pavr}S 
iv Elprjvrj. But Pollux means that Aris- 
tophanes used dvrXia, not Kaphonos, in 
the sense of o-Kacjir) in the Peace. And 
so the other grammarians ; durXca, o-Kdcfrr] 
Hesychius, durXia, f) oKacprj Suidas, quoting 
this very line. 

20. old' ifjLoi Brunck, recentiores, except 
Bothe and Richter, who, with the MSS. 
and editions before Brunck, read olde fxoi. 
32. recos ecos . . . \adys MSS. vulgo. 
And so the line is quoted by Priscian, 
p. 1206, and by the Scholiast on Plato's 
Hipparchus. Dawes, observing that recos 
ecos are not elsewhere conjoined by any 
Attic writer, and that ecos with the sub- 
junctive requires ap, proposed ecos aeaviop 
ap \adrjs, which is adopted by Brunck 
and Bothe. Reisig suggested Xddois for 
Xddys, a suggestion followed by Dindorf, 
Holden, Meineke, and most recent edi- 
tors, but which seems to me inadmissible 
where the sense is so distinctively future 
as it is here. And in truth ems with the 
subjunctive is frequently found without 
av in the Tragedians, and in a matter 
of this kind, quite unconnected with 
the superior elevation of Tragic diction, 
it seems absurd to say that a usage 
allowable in Tragedy was impossible in 
Comedy. The Tragedians were not shut 
up in one watertight compartment with 
a certain set of words and the Comedians 
in another with a different set. They 
were all Athenians, speaking and writ- 
ing the free language of Athens, though 



of course, in their compositions, the 
former would, as a rule, select the more 
dignified words as more suitable to 
Tragedy, and the latter the lighter and 
less formal, as more suitable to Comedy. 
42. Alos ^KaraifBdrov] The Ravenna 
Scholiast, Yan Leeuwen, Zacher, and 
Graves, and this is approved by Meineke 
in his Vind. Aristoph. Aios Karaiftdjov 
MSS. vulgo, but in R. a letter before k 
is erased. In all probability that letter 
was or, which the eraser took to be the 
final letter of Alos reduplicated. Pauw 
conjectured KarcinraTov, Blaydes okcltcll- 
4>dyov (a word which is found in the 
Plutus), and Rutherford 2Karai/3orou, 
which is adopted by Herwerden and 
Sharpley, and is very attractive, but 
departs a little too far from KaraLftdrov. 
In all the MSS. (except Y.) and in all 
the editions the word preceding Aios is 
ov. In Y. it is rod, and Bentley had 
already proposed ovk eon to repas tov. 

47. alviTTCTai MSS. vulgo. This being 
the Attic form, Dobree proposed alviooe- 
tcil, which is approved by Dindorf in 
his notes and read by Holden, Meineke, 
and most subsequent editors. But in 
using an alien dialect Aristophanes was 
never careful to make it strictly accurate. 

48. dvaLbecos R. Y. Bekker, Dindorf, 
Bothe, Holden, recentiores, except Her- 
werden and Merry. dvaLb&s the other 
MSS. and all other editions before 
Bothe's second. Bentley proposed dvi- 
brjv, and Elmsley (at Ach. 178) r)oeas, 
omitting tj]v. In omitting rrjv he is 
followed by Dindorf, Bothe, and Green. 
But dvaideas is practically a trisyllable, 
the epsilon here, as frequently elsewhere, 
coalescing with the following vowel ; 
see Appendix to Lys. 63, and compare 

Lys. 734 d\\ ew } iro\eo6ai Tcipui, and such 
words as rroXecDs. The notion that Kelvos 
is Cleon has given rise to some singular 
conjectures. Yan Leeuwen in a maga- 
zine article (a.d. 1887) proposed to read 
iv 'ALoeco, and this is done by Herwerden 
and Merry. Then it was necessary to 
explain the meaning of rqv owaTikrjv. 
Yan Leeuwen thought it referred to the 
filthy hides of the tannery ; Herwerden 
(with whom Dr. Merry agrees) to the 
oica>p deivcov in which Cleon was presum- 
ably plunged in Hades. The notion 
that the Ionian is pronouncing dogmati- 
cally as to wha/t Cleon was doing in 
the world below seems to me not comic 
but ridiculous ; and the idea that he is 
engaged in eating the dung by which 
he is supposed to be surrounded is not 
merely ridiculous but repulsive. Neither 
idea could have entered into the mind 
of Aristophanes. And in fact Yan 
Leeuwen in his edition of the Play 
(a.d. 1906), having come to the con- 
clusion that Kelvos is the beetle, reverts 
to the ordinary reading and the ordi- 
nary interpretation ; and Herwerden, 
though he still thinks that the words 
<bs Kelvos refer to Cleon, agrees that the 
rest of the line is spoken of the beetle ; 
"Like Cleon, the beetle eats muck in 
a shameless manner." This seems pro- 
bable enough. Another difficulty in 
referring the entire line to Cleon arises 
from the present tense ia-QUi which, the 
Scholiast says, is used for rjoOiev. Brunck 
proposed to read fjodiev, and Paulmier 
and Dobree eoOiev, which Blaydes intro- 
duces into the text. 

52. vTreprdroLOLv dvbpdoLv P 1 . Brunck, 
recentiores, except that Herwerden, 
without any justification, reads virepTe- 



poio-iv. The other MSS. and all editions 
before Brunck have vnep tovtomjiv av- 
dpacriv or dv§pd<ri. 

59. pi) f KKopeL R. V. Suidas (s.v. Koprjpa), 
Florent Chretien, Brunck, recentiores, 
except Bekker and Weise. prj Kopei the 
other MSS. and editions. Florent 
Chretien obtained the correct reading 
from Suidas, where Kuster made the 
same suggestion, and Brunck from 
Eustathius on Iliad xiii. 635 iKKopelv 
*E\\a8a r) Kcopcobia Xeyei to €KK€vovv ko\ 

60. ea ea. In the MSS. and in all 
editions before Brunck these words 
formed part of the servant's speech. 
Brunck restored them to Trygaeus, to 
whom they clearly belong, and he is 
followed by almost all subsequent edi- 
tors. They are merely interjectional, 
and not; as Richter supposed, "idem 

quod pr) \Kopei" 

63. aeavrop V. P 1 . (and, according to 
Brunck, P 2 . with o-eavrov in the margin) 
Bentley, Brunck, recentiores. creavrov 
the other MSS., Suidas, s. vv. cKKOKKiaas 
and Xrjaeis, and all editions before 

64. tovtX R. V. Invernizzi, Bekker, 
Dindorf, Holden, Bergk, recentiores. 
brjra I P 1 . P 2 . and the other editions 
before Bergk. 

67. ivBabi MSS. vulgo. Lenting and 
Hirschig propose, and Meineke, Holden, 
Paley, Blaydes, Sharpley, Van Leeuwen, 
and Zacher read, av ra67, a probable 
reading in itself, but the words eXeyov 
av rabi are found 213 infra, and the im- 
probability that Aristophanes would 
have used the same formula twice seems 
sufficient to support the MS. reading. 

70. dvrjppixar Dindorf (in notes), Paley 

(in notes), Blaydes, recentiores, except 
Graves. aveppi\aT MSS. vulgo. The 
correction is founded on the statement 
of the Etymol. Magn. (s. v. dvappixao-Bai), 
ov k\lv€tcii de 6 (the imperfect 
tense) rjvappLX&prjV) dXXa dvrjppix&prjv. 

76. a> H-qyacriov /not, (j>r)<r\ P 1 . vulgo. o> 
Tlrjydcnov (prjal pol I. P 2 . S Tlrjydcriov (prjari 

R. V., omitting the poi, " quo non abu- 
tar," says Dindorf, "ad duas quae in 
promptu sunt conjecturas." Later edi- 
tors have not been so considerate, w 
Ur)ydo-eiov, cj)r)<r\ Bergk, Blaydes, Herwer- 
den, Hall and Geldart, Mazon, Sharpley, 
Van Leeuwen, and Zacher. Yet Etyya- 
o~loi>, the proper form of the diminutive 
and the form most suited to the Comic 
rhythm, is found in every MS. ; pot is 
found, in different positions, in three 
MSS. ; and, what is perhaps more im- 
portant, it occurs in the line of Euri- 
pides which Aristophanes is here bur- 
lesquing. Meineke conjectured n^ya- 

85. idla-rjs Porson, Elmsley (at Medea 
215, 216), Bothe, Blaydes, Herwerclen, 
Mazon. Idirjs MSS. vulgo. It seems 
impossible that the present and the 
aorist Idtys /au diaXvo-ys should be brack- 
eted together with reference to the self- 
same process, and the Scholiast's com- 
ment dvTt tov irp\v WpaHTTjs seems to show 
that he read ISlo-ys. 

95. t'i p&ttjv ovx vyiaiveis MSS. vulgo. 
And this is so obviously right that I do 
not know why anybody should object to 
it. But Zeunius (at Viger, p. 453) 
placed a note of interrogation after 
paTr\v. Blaydes suggested ri 7reT€i av pd- 
rr\v ; which Herwerden reads, though 
himself proposing iradav for parry. One 
would have thought, having regard to 



the MS. \xarr)v and Lysistrata 599 tL 
fiadcov ovk d7ro0vr)crK€is, that it would be 
more natural to have proposed paQav 
here. Van Leeuwen not only proposes, 
but reads ri irerei rXrjfjLcov ; 

98. av6pC0TT0L(TL (f)pd(TOV V. P 1 . VUlgO. 

av6p(07Tois <fipd(rov R. I. P 2 . Dobree sug- 
gested <fipd(€LP Or (^pafcO, With dvSpGdTTOLS, 

and 4>pdfa is so read by Meineke, 
Blaydes, and Merry. 

100. dvoiKodo/jLelv MSS. vulgo. But 
Florent Chretien suggested d7roiKo8of*eh, 
and this is approved by Dindorf in his 
notes, and adopted by Holden, Meineke, 
Green, and subsequent editors except 
Hall and Gelclart and Merry. It seems 
to me, however, that dvotKodopielv, to build 
up, block up, is the very word required. 

107. Karayopcvo-r) R. V. P 1 . vulgO. kclty]- 

yopevo-y I. P 2 . Cobet altered it into Kara- 
yopevrj (but the present tense is impos- 
sible here) announcing " dyopevo-oo, r\y6- 
pevcra, rjyoptvKa et cognata omnia neque 
in simplici forma neque in composita in 
antiquo sermone usitata fuisse." This 
is one of Cobet's reckless generalizations 
which have done so much harm to the 
text of Aristophanes. Yeitch, who in his 
"Greek Verbs" showed it to be erro- 
neous, trusted according to Dr. Ruther- 
ford (New Phrynichus, § 234) too impli- 
citly to the authority of the MSS; in 
other words, he preferred to rely on the 
facts rather than on the theory which 
the facts disproved. Facts were abhor- 
rent to Cobet, " Errant omnes," he says, 
"Sophistae, Rhetores, Magistri." An 
investigator who works in this spirit is 
little likely to arrive at the truth. The 
truth could be more briefly stated in two 
words " Errat Cobetus." But I too have 
a little bone to pick with the old Gram- 

marians. Instead of saying that such a 
form as KaTayopevcrrj is the aorist sub- 
junctive, and that there is no future 
subjunctive, I wish that they had de- 
scribed it as both the aorist and the future 
subjunctive. Cobet's error is followed 
by Meineke, Blaydes, Herwerclen, Hall 
and Geldart, Van Leeuwen, and Graves. 

114. ap' ervpos ye MSS. Florent Chre- 
tien, Grynaeus, Kuster, recentiores, ex- 
cept Dindorf (in his text) and Richter. 
Strangely enough, in Aldus, the ap' was 
shifted from its proper place to the end 
of the line, ervfios ye dp\ not dpa, though 
the next word commenced with a con- 
sonant. This was evidently a mere 
clerical error, but it was repeated in 
every edition, save as aforesaid, before 
Kuster. For ap Dindorf in his text had 
?p' (which the Scholiast seems to have 
read), but he returned in his notes to ap'. 
Richter changed ye into dfj. 

129. i£evp£6u R. Bekker, Dindorf, 
Bergk, Richter, Green, Paley, Merry, 
and Sharpley. igrjvprjdt] the other MSS. 
and editions. 

133. aUrov R. V. P 1 . all editions before 
Brunck, and Herwerden, Hall and Gel- 
dart, and Zacher afterwards, alerbv I. P 2 . 
All the MSS. give al- for the first syl- 
lable, but Brunck altered it to derov as 
the " Attic ; ' form (see the Introduction to 
the Knights, p. xxxvi) ; and his error has 
been followed by all subsequent editors 
except as mentioned above. 

135. ovkovv R. V. Paley, Van Leeuwen. 
ovkovv the other MSS. and editions. 

137. a> fieX* av Dindorf (in some earlier 
edition), Bothe, Bekker, recentiores. w 

peX! edv R. V. g> fieXe* av I. P 1 . P 2 - <» peXe, 

av Brunck, Invernizzi. & pteXea (the dual) 
all editions before Brunck. 



148. to 8i ttXolov earai R. V. P 1 . Bent- 
ley, Brunck, recentiores. to tAoIop §' {be 
I. P 2 .) eo-Tai (with a spondee for the se- 
cond foot) editions before Brunck. 

145. Ueipael all the MSS. (except P 1 .), 
and vulgo. Ueipaia. P l . Richter, Holden 
(second edition), Blaydes, Hall and Gel- 
dart,Sharpley, recentiores. See infra 1 65. 


tovoS iyco ttovovs ttovS) Heimsoeth, 

155. xP V(T0 X^ lV0V MSS. Suidas, s. v. 
yjfaXlois, vulgo. " Malim XP V0 ~ X ^ V(0V " 
Florent Chretien. " Mallem cum Flo- 
rente xpvo-oxaXivcop" Bergler. " Sed vul- 
gatum magis poeticum est" Dindorf. 
Not only is it the more poetical, it is 
also the more accurate : for what is the 
meaning of " golden-bitted curbs " ? 
"Golden-bitted clatter'' is a poetical 
version of " the clatter of golden bits." 
However Florent Chretien's suggestion 
is adopted, against all the authorities, 
by Bothe, Bergk, Blaydes, Herwerden, 
and Sharpley. 

161. 6p<9<SsMSS. (except V), all edi- 
tions before Bergk; and Paley and 
Blaydes afterwards. op6bs Y. Dobree, 
Bergk, recentiores, except as aforesaid. 
opOcbs means in the right way, not swerv- 
ing in this direction or in that ; 6p66$ 
can only mean standing upright, a diffi- 
cult task for a beetle. 

163. euro ff MSS. (except Y) vulgo. airb 
V Y. Dindorf, Holden, Bergk, Meineke, 
Blaydes, recentiores, except Zacher. 
But t€ is rightly used after p.h, where 
the two sentences which they introduce 
are not contrasted, but practically iden- 
tical. See Lys. 262, 263 and Thesm. 352, 
353 and the Appendix to each of those 
passages.— i7/xeptj/«i/ MSS. vulgo. your 

daily (that is ordinary) food. Dobree 
said "Qu. d/xepiW, i. e. ai/#pa)7reiW." He 
meant rjfiepicov, butused the form familiar 
in the Choral Odes of Tragedy. How- 
ever f)fi€pia>v could not possibly be equi- 
valent to dpOpco7T€L(op. The word means, 
like i(j)7jiJL€pos, lasting for a day ; and 
f)fjL€pioi, like ifyrifiepoi, is used to signify 
mortal men ; but fjpepta, or ify-qfiepa, aiTta 
would mean not human food but food 
lasting only for a day. Nevertheless the 
MS. reading is ignored, and rjpepicop sub- 
stituted for it, by Herwerden, Hall and 
Geldart, Merry, Sharpley, and Zacher. — 
o-ltcov Brunck, Porson, recentiores. o-mW 
MSS., editions before Brunck, but the 
first syllable is long. Bentley suggested 


165. neipaei MSS. (except P 1 .), all 
editions before Brunck; and Dindorf, 
Bergk, Paley, and Mazon afterwards. 
ILeipaiel Brunck, recentiores, except as 
aforesaid, so that many who gave Ueipael 
in 145 supra give TLeipau-l here. This 
must, I think, be due partly to the cir- 
cumstance that, according to Bekker, V. 
has TLeipael there and ReipaiiX here. 
But Bekker was quite wrong ; Y. has 
JJeipael in both places. And partly to 
the fact that the penultimate is short 
there and long here ; but the length of 
the syllable cannot depend upon the 
presence or absence of the iota. 

174. cos ifjLe MSS. vulgo. "We should 
have expected ifiol after Trpocrexe t6v povp, 
but that phrase involves an idea of mo- 
tion, whence we have in Clouds 575 
AEYPO top povp 7rp6o-x€T€, Blaydes, 
however, punctuated after povp, connect- 
ing a>9 ifie with the following line, and 
so Herwerden, Mazon, recentiores. 

175. o-Tpofel MSS. vulgo. Dindorf 



suggested arpefai, and Cobet (Novae 
Lect. p. 106), with his usual assurance, 
takes upon himself to announce that 
o-Tpofal is a barbarism. arpocf)e(o is no 
more a barbarism than <fiopea>. The re- 
lation of the former word to o-Tpicjxo is 
identical with that of the latter word to 
cf)€poo. However the prosaic o-rpifyei is 
introduced into the text by Meineke, 
who is followed by Holden, Blaydes, 
Sharpley, and subsequent editors. 

176. <fiv\d%ei Reiske, Bergk, recen- 
tiores, except Green, Paley, Mazon, and 
Zacher. cjyvXdgeLs MSS. (except that P 1 . 
has 4>v\d£r]s), all editions before Bergk, 
and the four excepted above. It seems to 
me that the middle is required, the 
sense being if yon are not careful. Mr. 
Green says " scil. pe, i if you don't keep 
me safe.' " Paley " scil. rrjv pr}xavr}v or 
epe, i unless you keep a guard, or good 
care of me.' " Zacher, to support the 
MS. reading, refers to Wasps 155, Frogs 
1002, Knights 434, 499, but these pas- 
sages do not seem to be in point. 

180. fie vpoaePaV ; I. P 1 . P 2 . vulgo. pe 
irpoo-efiakev R. V. pot TTpoaifiaX Blaydes ; 
but the enclitics pe and o-i are some- 
times used where in strictness a dative 
should be employed, cf. Lys. 297. irpocr- 
epakev (without pe) Van Leeuwen. After 
TtpocrefiaX or irpoae^aXey the sign of an 
unfinished sentence is placed by Weise, 
Paley, Mazon, and Van Leeuwen ; but I 
cannot believe that in a short sentence 
of five words Aristophanes would have 
omitted one, and that the most impor- 
tant, word. 

182. 5> piape MSS. vulgo. And so 
Suidas, S. VV. piapol and ToXprjaau But 
in Kuster's edition of Suidas, s. v. piapoi, 
the line was made to commence & Bde- 

\vpe, apparently from a slip of memory, 
and a reminiscence of Frogs 465. Por- 
son noticed that Suidas had a> /3§eXupe, 
but of course did not recommend its 
adoption here. Yet Dindorf actually 
introduced it into his text, and what is 
still more strange, this ridiculous error 
is followed by almost every subsequent 
editor, even after Gaisford, in Ms edition 
of Suidas, had struck out fibeXvpe and 
restored piape from the MSS. Bothe 
absurdly reads « piKpe, and this is not a 
mere clerical error for he explains it 
in a note. 

196. 6V (for 8tc) MSS. vulgo. on 
Brunck, Bothe, Weise, Hall and Gel dart. 
— ovde peWeis MSS. vulgo. Dobree said 
" usitatius ovb' epeXkes, " and ovd* 
eptWes is accordingly read by Meineke, 
Holden, Green, Herwerden. Not only 
is this unnecessary, it is absolutely 
wrong, there being no reference to any 
past action. Reiske proposed to read 
o7rov de with an interrogation after 
dew, a proposal which must have sprung 
from his erroneous idea that the 6V of 
the MSS. represented on. — ehai MSS. 
vulgo. Uvai Brunck, Invernizzi, Bothe, 

202. dpcpopeidta Dawes (at Plutus 986), 
Brunck, recentiores, except Richter. 
The line is cited by Suidas (s. v. dp(f>o- 
pecufiopovs), and there the Parisian MS. 
2625, which Gaisford calls " exemplar 
omnium quotquot nobis innotuerunt 
praestantissimura," has dp<f)opeidia. The 
form dpfyopeibia is also found in all the 
MSS. in Eccl. 1119, and seems to be 
the proper form for the diminutive of 
dp(fiopevs. dp<fiopidia MSS., editions 
before Brunck ; and Richter afterwards. 

210. clvetf (and eiveKa infra 760) MSS. 



vulgo. Brunck waged a war of exter- 
mination against etWa, changing it into 
ovveKa wherever it occurs, and he is 
followed by many subsequent editors. 
With equal onesidedness Blaydes 
attempts to extirpate ovvcko, changing 
it into elveKa wherever it occurs, and he 
too has his followers. It seems safer in 
every case to follow the reading of the 
MSS. Both forms were in common use. 
21 1. otit) Bentley, Dindorf , recentiores, 
except Bothe and Mazon. 6Vt MSS., all 
editions before Dindorf; and Bothe and 
Mazon afterwards. In Plutus 948, where 
Bentley makes a similar correction, the 
vestiges of the genuine text are visible 
in Y.'s reading on r). 

214. 'Attikloov 8a>cret dUrjv MSS. vulgo. 
Dindorf added the aspirate, and is 
followed by several editors. Cobet, on 
the assumption that Aristophanes always 
made his Dorians speak the strictest 
possible Doric (an assumption supported 
neither by intrinsic probability nor by 
any known fact), proposed cdttlkicqv dcoo-el 
Sikclv, and this is adopted in its entirety 
by Blaydes, Herwerden, Hall and 
Geldart, Van Leeuwen, and Graves, 
and in part by Bergk and most recent 

215. TrpagaLT. This is Bekker's sug- 
gestion, approved by Dindorf in his 
notes, and brought into the text by 
Holden, Bergk, and all subsequent 
editors except Mazon. Trpd^aivr MSS., 
all editions before Holden's first; and 
Mazon afterwards. I am overborne by 
the authority of so many recent editors, 
otherwise I should have thought 
TTpdrTecrOai ayaOov n perfectly good 
Greek. Cobet's remark (N. L. p. 325) " Est 
enim irpaTTecrOai dyadov tl et Trpdrreo-Bat 

€i> pro ev irp&TTciv non minus portentosum 
quam xaipopai " ignores the distinction 
between the intransitive Trparreiv with 
an adverb, and the transitive irpajr^iv 
governing an accusative. However 

irpaTTCiv dyadov tl is no doubt good 

Greek, Frogs 302, Plutus 341 ; Plutarch, 
Marius xvii. (6) ; and I have therefore 
gone with the crowd. — 'AttikgovikoI. The 
aspirate was suggested by Bekker and 
is added by all recent editors, except 
that Richter has g>ttik<qviko\, and that 
Van Leeuwen for 'AttikmlkoI coolly 
writes vp€ls 'Attlkoi. 

218. vr) tt)v 'Adrjvav, vr) At' MSS. 
(except that I. P 1 . and P 2 . insert tov 
before At") vulgo. Meineke takes all 
the dramatic life out of the line by 
reading vr) Tr)v ''AQrivaiav' pa At', yet he 
is followed by Holden, Blaydes, and 
Herwerden. Cobet, who in 217 proposed 
evSvs' civdpes for vpels, evdvs, here pro- 
poses oovdpes for vr) At". — ireiVTeov I. P 1 . 
P 2 . vulgo. Tiia-reov R. V. ancKTreov 
Hirschig, which Blaydes also adopts. 

219. rr)v llv\ov I. P 1 . P 2 . VulgO. rr)v 

Tiohiv R. V., an obvious error, but 
followed by Fracini, Gormont, Bergk, 
and Mazon. fjv exapcv rr)v Hvkov is pre- 
cisely what the Athenians would, and 
did, say ; but for some reason or other 
a number of really nonsensical con- 
jectures have been put forward in its 
place. Hirschig proposed fjv eXcopev rr)v 
UvXov, a reading historically impossible 
(since Pylus had been taken long ago), 
but so like one of Cobet's that it is not 
surprising to find Cobet applauding it 
as " verissimum," N. L. p. 204, and 
Blaydes brings it into the text. Kock 
suggests dvT€\wp€V av ndXiv. Van 
Leeuwen, for the vigorous sentence 



with which Aristophanes concludes the 
speech, substitutes his own somewhat 

feeble composition fjv pedafiep rrjfjiepov. 

Such alterations as these seem to go 
beyond what is permissible to the editor 
of an ancient author. 

220. 6 yovv x a P aKr VP' This line was 
continued to Hermes in every edition 
before Brunck's ; and several editors 
therefore changed fjfiedairos into 
viiebairos. Bentley was the first to restore 
it to Trygaeus, to whom it is now found 
to be given by R., while V. has the line 
signifying a new speaker. And it is 
given to Trygaeus by Brunck and all 
subsequent editors. 

233. tvbov V. I. P 1 . P 2 . vulgo. ZvboBev 
R. Fraeini, Dindorf, Holden, Bergk, 
Meineke, Richter, Green, Paley, and 

239. rod (3\€fjLfjLaTos R. V. Bothe, 
Bekker, recentiores. ko.1 rod fiXi/i^aro? 
I. P 2 . editions before Brunck. Ka\ 
^Xefx/Jtaros P 1 . Brunck. to ftXifjLfxa Trees 
Invernizzi. But the variations in this 
and the preceding line are in the 
punctuation rather than in the words, 
the question being whether each line 
is to be taken as an independent sen- 
tence, or whether oaov kclkov is to govern 
rod ttX&tovs as well as rod ^Xifip.aros } or 
to be considered parenthetical. On 
this point there is gre c at diversity both 
in the MSS. and in the editions, some 
punctuating after nXdrovs, some after 
kclkov, and some after both words. The 
ordinary Aristophanic usage seems 
greatly in favour of taking line 238 as 
an independent sentence ; Svaf "AnoXXov, 
rod vifyovs, Birds 295 ; "AttoXXov 
a7rorpo7raie, rod x aa l JL W aTOS ) Id. 61 ; 
"AtcoXXov O7rorp07rate, rod pLavrev/jLaros, 

Wasps 161 ; and I have so taken it with 
Kuster, Brunck, Dindorf, Bergk, 
Blaydes, and most of the Commentators. 

242. rpio-aBXiai MSS. vulgo. Dobree 
says " Perspicue legendum rp\s ZOXiai." 
And this is followed by Bothe and some 
others but not generally. And see 
Plutus 851 and the Appendix there. 

246. g> Miyapa, Miyap cos €7rirerpt\^eo-<9' 
avrUa, the Ravenna scholiast, Elmsley 
(in Edinburgh Review xxxvii. 68), 
Dindorf, recentiores, except Bothe, 
Sharpley, Zacher, and Graves. leb 
Miyapa Meyap cos imrpLyj/ecrd' avriKct 
I. P 1 . P 2 . all editions (except Invernizzi) 
before Dindorf; and Bothe, Sharpley, 
Zacher, and Graves afterwards. But 
Bentley, objecting probably both to the 
use of rptyofiai in a purely passive 
sense, and to the rhythm of the line, 
proposed w Miyapa with i7nrpi$r)o-eo-6' ; 
while for the latter word Elmsley 
proposed imreTptyto-S'. And S Miyapa 
was subsequently found to be the 
reading of R. V. (though they also have 
imTpLyjseo-Q', making the line a syllable 
short, and so Invernizzi) ; whilst the 
Scholiast on R. has emTeTpiylfeo-O' . Ac- 
cordingly there has been a general 
acquiescence in Bentley's a> Miyapa and 
Elmsley's iTriTtrpiylseo-O'. It is difficult 
to say whether the fact that War's 
other denunciations commence with la> 
is in favour of, or against, the same 
commencement here. 

251. oV $ Bp. Blomfield (Gloss, on 
Agamemnon 64) Richter. And so I 
read in my previous edition, observing 
that " oT f) might easily be mistaken 
for oLq and so become converted into 
oia." Harpocration indeed, s. v. K€?ot, 
does read oTa. oia MSS. vulgo. Meineke 



reads olov, with which however tt6\is 
would require the article. The MSS. 
and early editions continue the line to 
War, but Dobree's proposal to transfer 
it to Trygaeus is obviously right, and is 
now universally accepted. 

253. XPVaQaTePV' Tiie MSS * reacl 

XpTja-dai Sdrepco, making the line a 
syllable too long. All editions before 
Brunck rectified the metre by omitting 
o-o\, which all the MSS. read. And so 
(after Brunck) Bothe, Weise, and Rich- 
ter. "At locum hie habere non potest 
Sdrepcp, altero, tanquam de duobus 
definitis sermo esset ; oportet irepa 
absolute, alio. Scribendem igitur ovtos, 
Tvapaivoa aoi /xeXtrt xpV a ^ aL Te P ( ? " Brunck. 
And so, or as Bekker wrote it, XPW^" 
repo) all subsequent editors except as 

254. rerpcofiokov MSS. vulgo. Dindorf 
suggested rerpa)/36Xou, which is read by 
Holden, Meineke, Richter, Green, and 

257. las bpi^ivs. In the editions before 
Bekker these two words were continued 
to War. But Bentley proposed to trans- 
fer them to Riot, and this is now found 
to be the arrangement in R. V., and is 
followed by Bekker and others. 
Hermann however proposed to transfer 
them and the whole of the following 
line (changing ivefiakes into tvifiakev) to 
Trygaeus, and this is followed by 
Dindorf and others. It seems to me 
that the MS. arrangement, which I 
have retained, is in every respect better 
than Hermann's. 

259. otWs MSS. vulgo. Dobree on 
Clouds 633 said " Qu. ola olcr\" an un- 
fortunate suggestion, which he did 
not repeat when he came to the Peace. 

It is however adopted by Meineke, 
Holden, and Blaydes. 

261. ' Adrjvaicov peraBpe^ei raxv. R. V. 
I. P 2 . Fracini, Gelenius, Invernizzi, 
Green, Paley, Merry, and Graves. 
*Adr]i>aLovs p,eradp€^ei raxv. P l . all other 
editions before Brunck. Since Inver- 
nizzi all editions have adopted y AdrjvaLa>v. 
But according to the rule invented by 
Dawes (at Plutus 166) the second 
syllable of peraQpe^i should be short ; 
and editors from Brunck downwards, 
except as aforesaid, have sought to re- 
model the line so as to bring it into 
conformity with this rule. Brunck 
inserted o-v before /jLeradpe^L, and this is 
followed by Bekker, Bergk, Van 
Leeuwen, and others ; Elmsley (at Ach. 
759) proposed to read'A^a/oio-t subaud. 
ovra ; Dobree proposed to change raxv 
into raxv 7rauv, and this is done by 
Meineke, Herwerden, Hall andGeldart, 
and others ; Dindorf inserted ye before 
peraQpegci, and so Bothe, Richter, and 
others, and Blaydes reads nva raxv. 
But rules, so purely empirical as this, 
however useful as showing the general 
leaning of the Comic Writers, and the 
airiness and vivacity which they strove 
to infuse into their metres, become 
positively mischievous when they are 
elevated into Draconian laws which 
must be strictly .enforced against any 
amount of opposing evidence. The 
enormous number of passages (some, 
but not all of which are collected by 
Kidd in his notes on Dawes, and by 
Mitchell in his Note H to the Wasps), in 
which a perfectly simple and unsuspi- 
cious text has been vexed and worried 
into a reluctant conformity with this 
supposed rule, is at least sufficient to 



show that the rule, if it existed at all, 
admitted of abundant exceptions. It is 
not suggested that the rule applies to 
any but the comic poets, and it seems 
to savour strongly . of the watertight 
compartment theory ; see on 32 supra. 

262. el 8e fir] ye, KXavcrofiai MSS. vulgo. 
Meineke substitutes 'yob for ye and is 
followed by Holden. Richter reads el 

8e fir) — I10A. KCKkavaerai. KeKXavo-ofini 

had previously been proposed by Raper ; 
see Kidd's Dawes 154 note. 

269. 1 ASrjvaiounv aXeTpi(3avo$ Porson, 
Bothe, Bekker, recentiores. *A6r)vaiois 
aXeTpiftavos R. V. I. P 2 . To these words 
P 1 . added Spas, an unsuccessful attempt 
to mend the metre, and such is the 
reading in all editions before Bothe and 
Bekker. The iota in dXerpiftavos was 
supposed to be short; it really is long. 

271. TroTvia becrnoiv P 1 . Bentley, 
Tyrwhitt, Brunck, recentiores. Seviroiva 
ttotvl the other MSS. and all editions 
before Brunck. 

273. rj TTpiv ye sane priusqiiarn. So I 
read in my former edition, rj irpiv ye 
MSS. vulgo. The Scholiast's explanation 
of the line is ev ye ttoicov drrcoXeTO eKelvos, 
elirep vrpb tov airoXecrai tcl irpdyjiara tj/jlcdv 
drraXeTo, whence he is supposed by 
Dobree and Seidler (wrongly, I think) 
to have read el irpiv ye here, and that 
reading is adopted by Bothe and Zacher. 
irp\v rj ye Buttman. Bergk suggested rrph 
rovde, which is read by Merry and Graves. 
The line is omitted by Dindorf, Meineke, 
and some others, and bracketed by some. 

274. 8rjr MSS. (except R.) vulgo. ye n 
R. Invernizzi represent e d R. as reading, 
and himself read, y er\ ye tlv Dindorf, 
Bergk, Green, Blaydes. y air Reisig, 

282. AciKeSaifJiovioiariv aXerpifiavas Por- 

son, Bothe, Bekker, recentiores. AaiceSai- 
pLovloKTiv dX- V. I. P 2 . Here again P l . as 
supra 269 seeks to amend the metre by 
reading AciKebaifiovioio-i kclkos dX-, and so 
all editions before Bothe and Bekker. 

291. kol xaipofiai Kevcfipaivofiai R.V. I. P 2 . 
Suiclas (s.v. Acins), Invernizzi, recen- 
tiores, except Weise and Van Leeuwen. 

Ka\ repTTOfxai Koi ^aipofuiL P 1 . editions 
before Invernizzi; and Weise afterwards. 
Keicfypaivofiat Kal ^atpo/xat Suidas (s. vv. 
vvv tovt eKelv), Van Leeuwen. 

313. evXa(3elade k.t.X. R. V. Invernizzi, 
recentiores. I. P 2 . have the same line, 
save that they omit Karcodev. But P 1 . 
making, as usual, an attempt at emenda- 
tion, produces a most extraordinary 
line. He omits not only Karcodev but also 
the vvv after evXafielvOe, and annexes, 
from the Scholiast, the words kcu defilr- 
revde, so that the line ran evXafielo-Q' 
eiceivov rov Kep(3epov kcu debirrecrde. And 
that was the reading of all editions 
before Brunck. Whilst the text was in 
this condition Florent Chretien proposed 
evXafielcrd eKelvo kol rov Kepftepov deftirreLs; 
Bentley cvXafielcrQ' eKeivovl tov Kepfiepov 
kol Seidere ; Pierson evXajSelcrO' eKelvo vvv 
rov Kep(3epov Te deidere ; while Brunck, 
with the aid of P 2 ., read evXa(3eio-6e vvv 
eKelvov dediores tov Kepftepov. 


'Kelvcov, i.e. tcov Karcodev, was proposed 

by "Hotibius," but Bothe did not re- 
peat the suggestion in either of his 
editions. Dobree proposed ovn vvv y eY, 
and Richter ovB* eKeWev. ovn x a ' L P odV 
Meineke, Holden. But the meaning is 
not "none shall take her away with 
impunity,' 1 '' but "none shall take her 
away at all," as in the passages of 



Euripides cited in the Commentary. 
ovt €K€ivg)p Sharpley. 

329. fjLTjbev opxwzo-B'' en MSS., editions 
before Bekker; and Bergk afterwards. 
Richter too keeps this reading, but 
changes the preceding kcu into kov, which 
Meineke approves in his V. A. ; Mazon 
also retains it but takes opxrjveo-d' to be 
the infinitive future. firjdh 6pxr)crr}(jff en 
Bekker, recentiores, except as aforesaid. 
But the future indicative is sometimes, 
though rarely, found with pr) or p-qfth, 
as in Plutus 488 pdkaKov £' ivbcoaere prj- 
8ep, and it does not seem right to reject 
it here, with the evidence of every MS. 
in its favour. 

344. o-vjSapifrivMSS.vulgo. The first 
syllable of the verb is long, and the first 
syllable of 2u/3api? (the city) is short, 
Wasps 1259, 1427, 1435 ; but it is doubt- 
ful if the two words are really connected, 
though assumed to be so in after times ; 
and indeed it is not uncommon for 
poets to adapt the quantity of proper 
names to suit their own metrical exi- 
gencies. The existence of various forms 
of the verb, avfiapiafciv, o-vpfiapifciv, 
avppia&iv, is of itself sufficient to cast 
some doubt upon the derivation from 
2v(3apis* Thus (rvpfiapiTiKctis' Uepo-iKcus, 
vTrepr^dvni?, TToXineXeai, HesychillS. av- 

ftpid&iv' airb rod (JV^apt(eti/, iv vTrepBecrei 
(transposition), M. Magn. o-v$api£eiv m 
KakYio-TparoS) rpv(pav m curb rrjs 2vfiapL- 
riKrjs Tpv<firjs. 'Apre/ii'Sopo?, cnr\a)9 Sopv- 
fieiv. kcu &pvvixos " ttoXvs 8e (rvfiapiaapbs 
avXrjTcop ph ty" Scholiast. " Olim conjeci 
<rvp$api( > eiv" says Bergk, " sed neque 
hoc, neque vvfiapid&iv vel crvftpid&iv 
satis probabile." Meineke, in his Fragm. 
Graec. Com. vol. v. 41 (published in 
1857), having regard to the word crvfta- 
pLacrpbs in the line of Phrynichus, pro- 
posed o-vftaptdCeiv, but in his edition of 
the Play (published in 1860) he ignored 
that suggestion and actually read 
7rvbapL{€iv, to which he adhered in the 
Vind. Aristoph. (published in 1865). 
TTvbapi£eiv is, as Mr. Sharpley says, a 
worthless suggestion, and is adopted 
only by Van Leeuwen. o-ujSpiafai/, Green, 
Mazon. The despised avfiapidCeiv was 
however rescued from its obscurity and 
brought into the text by Blaydes, who is 
followed by Herwerden, Sharpley, 
Zacher, and Graves. 

346-60. This little system is re- 
peated, with exact metrical concordance, 
infra 385-99 and again infra 582-600. 
I will here set out the scheme, which 
in the earlier edition was given in the 
Introduction : — 


— www 

— www 

— www 


— www 

-*| — |-*|-v|-*|-w|*| 

— www I — w — J 

— www J — w — I 


— WWW 

— W W W 

— WWW 


— w w w 

— www 

— www 

— www 

— www 

— www 

— www 


In drawing out the scheme in the 
former edition I did not make sufficient 
allowance for the extreme frequency 
with which the final syllable of a 
cretic ending a line is found to be short, 
so that the cretic really becomes a dac- 
tyl. For example in the eight cretico- 
paeonic Knes relating to the sons of 
Automenes (Wasps 1275-82) this ter- 
mination occurs in four consecutive 
lines, and perhaps more frequently 
still, though not so continuously in any 
one passage, in the Acharnians. It will 
be seen that the system of seventeen lines 
is composed of twelve cretico-paeonic 
lines, all dimeters except the last which 
is a trimeter, three trochaic tetrameters 
catalectic, one iambic dimeter, and one 
consisting of a trochaic dimeter followed 
by a cretic dimeter. The last-mentioned 
line is the first of the system, and is 
the only line about the metre of which 
there is any conceivable doubt ; some 
making it a trochaic tetrameter, and 
others treating it as half trochaic and 
half cretic, as it was given in the intro- 
duction to my former edition and now 
appears in my text. Not a single MS. 
gives the line in either of the three 
systems as a trochaic tetrameter : one 


gives it in one case exactly as in the 
text, and the reading of the others 
point to the same conclusion. 

346. d yap enyevoiT Ibelv Tavrrjv pe tyjv 
fjpepav. This is the reading of R. except 
that R. adds nore, a word that has 
probably crept in from some marginal 
gloss. It will perhaps make the matter 
clearer if we divide the line into two 
sections : (1) el yap eKyevoir Idelv R. 
Invernizzi, recentiores. For inyevoiT V. 
has yevoLTO, I. P 2 . yevoir ', while P 1 . fills 
up the gap left in these latter readings 
by giving poi yevoir, and so all editions be- 
fore Brunck who reads eWe poi Tavrrjv Idelv. 
(2) TavTT)V pe rrjv rjpepav irori R. V. I. P 2 . 
Invernizzi, Bekker. P 1 . having inserted 
fxoi in the first section, omits pe here, 
reading ravr-qv rqv f}fx€pav 7rore. And so 
all editions before Brunck (who reads 
yevoiro 7tot€ rrjv r)pepav\ and Weise after- 
wards. Since Bekker three different 
readings have prevailed. Porson pro- 
posed rqv rjfiepav tavrrjv ttot€ 9 and this is 
followed by Meineke, Blaydes, and 
Mazon. Dindorf proposed Tavrrjv pi 
7tot€ rqv rjpepav, which is followed by 
Bothe, Green, and Paley. Bergk simply 
struck away the ttotc from R.'s reading, 
and this I followed in the introduction 



to my former edition ; and, save as 
aforesaid, it is adopted by all editors 
subsequent to Bergk. 

357. o~vv So pei arvv acmidi Dindorf, 
Bergk, Richter, and most of the subse- 
quent editors, crvv bop\ crvv acnribi R. V. 
I. P 2 . Invernizzi, Bekker. o~vv dopl avv 
aariribi re P 1 . editors before Invernizzi. 
Porson suggested |iV 8op\ £vv dcrnibi, and 
this is read by Bothe and others. Cf. 
Wasps 1081. 

382. S>pfil8ioy MSS. vulgo. Dindorf 
is said to have suggested aypfirjbiov (I do 
not know where he did so), and this 
appears to be the correct reading in 
Lucian's Contemplantes 1. Schwabe 
proposed 'Eppybiov. But the first to 
alter the text was Blaydes who read 
'Eppelbiov. His particular alteration has 
not been followed, but his example in 
altering the text has been followed by 
all subsequent editors except Merry and 
Mazon ; Herwerden adopting Schwabe's 
proposal, and the others following in his 
train. See the Commentary. 

385. firjdaiJLG)? fj.r]8afjLCD? V. Bergk, and 
all the editors who in line 346 read 
TavTTjv fie rr)v fjfiepav. pr) firjbapa>s firjdapcos 
R. I. Invernizzi. I imagine that in this 
reading the first pr) is merely a duplicate 
of the last syllable of 'Epptj which 
immediately precedes, pr) pr)bapa>s pr) 
firjbapas F. P 2 . prjdapcos fir) firjdapcos P 1 . 

387. nap* ipov ye vulgo. Trap ipov 
(omitting ye) MSS. nap' ifioi ye Cobet, 
Meineke, Holden. I do not know why 
they object to nap' ipov, from me, as my 
gift, which is obviously right. 

389. vopi£ iv rude tco vvv 7rpa.yfjia.Ti 

Bentley, Hall and Geldart. voplfav iv 
T<Z8e t© 7rpdynaTi MSS., editions before 

Brunck; and Invernizzi, Bothe, and 
Bekker afterwards. Brunck wrote Kelvo 
fir) cf>av\ov vo(il£cqv tovtgh tS it pay pari. 
Dindorf, combining the suggestions of 
Bentley and Brunck, gave vopiC iv 
tovtcoI tg> irpayfian, observing that the 
words tovtgh tc3 irpayfiari occur in Lys. 
615. And this has been almost univer- 
sally followed, though it departs far 
more widely than Bentley's proposal 
from the MS. reading. But Bergk and 
one or two others end the line (as the 
first line of the system) with two cretics 
v6fii£ iv ro3de rc5 irpdypaTi, and Meineke 
writes vopifav iv toiovtco npaypaTi, 

390. prfb 1 fye . . . ifialo-i. See the Com- 
mentary, fir) ykvr] naXiyKOTOs dvnftoXovcriv 
fj pip MSS. vulgo, though all editions 
before Invernizzi add ns after naXiyKOTos 
and ye after r)p7v. Brunck twists the 
MS. reading into a trochaic tetrameter 
r)piv dvTi^oKovo-iv, G>va%,pr) yevrf irakiy kotos, 
and Richter into two trochaic dimeters 

fir) yeVJ] 7Ta\lyKOTOS 7TpO0~KVVOVVTl flOl a, 

ava£, but otherwise the MS. reading is 
left untouched, as incurably corrupted. 
Of course in my reading naXiyKOTos 
might be read for naXiyKOTcos, but the 
adverb is more usual. 

402. KkenTai Te yap vvv elai jxaXKov. So 
I read in the former edition, following 
V., except that, with I. and P 2 ., I wrote 
elaL fiaWov for fidWov elai, so as to bring 
the termination of the present line into 
more exact conformity with that of its 
predecessor ; and so now Zacher reads. 
R. omits the line, no doubt owing to the 
similarity of termination, but some 
corrector has written in the margin V.'s 
reading rendered unmetrical by the 
Omission of re. KkenTai re yap vvv paXkov 
elcrXv V. Dindorf, Holden. Kkenrai yap 



vvv elcn fiaXkov I. P 2 . KAeVrai yap elcn vvv 
ye fxaWovT* 1 ., a more fortunate conjecture 
than most of his, since it has been 
accepted by every editor except the few 
here excepted. Meineke quite unne- 
cessarily deserted all the MSS. and wrote 
k%£tttcli ra vvv yap €L(tl paXXov, which is 
adopted by Van Leeuwen and Graves ; 
then, in his Y. A., he altered ra vvv yap 
into ra yap vvv which Green follows. 

407. €7niBov\evovr€ R. Bentley, Bothe, 
Bekker, recentiores. iTrifiovXevovrai Y. 
F. I. P 2 . €Trc(3ovXevovcrL (with a colon or 
full stop at the end of the line) P 1 . 
And here again his conjecture was 
adopted by every editor before Invernizzi, 
who represented R.'s reading to be, and 
himself read, €7Ti(3ov\evovTes. 

409. Iva 8q ri Bentley, Bergk, and 
almost all subsequent editors. So 
Clouds 1192, Eccl. 791. ha ri &) (which 
is contra metrum) R. V. F. I. P 2 . Fracini, 
Gelenius to Bergler inclusive. Iva ri 8 P 1 . 
Aldus, Cratander, Brunck, and others. 
Iva Se ri the two Juntas, Gormont, and 

412. rjpas R. V. Bentley, Bergk, 
Meineke, Green, Herwer den, recentiores, 
except Sharpley. vpas the other MSS. 
and vulgo. 

415. appaToAtas MSS. vulgo: and 
Suidas cites this line for the purpose 
of illustrating the word apparcdKla. 
Bentley however suggested apaprcoXias, 
which is read by Bergk, Meineke, 
Holden, Herwerden, and subsequent 
editors except Mazon and Zacher ; but 
which seems to me simply to destroy 
a characteristic jest. 

417. rrivbe ko\ MSS. vulgo. On 
account of the anomalous position of 
the copulative Dobree suggested Tqvbe 

de ^vvavekKvaov or crvvt^ikKvaov, and 
some have adopted ^wavekKvo-ov with 
r-qvbe /cat. Meineke changed ryvde into 
Tcovfte, a very improbable reading, but 
adopted by Herwerden, Sharpley, and 

420. Alit6Kl€l\ With Zacher I have 
adopted Mr. Sharpley's spelling of this 
word, which is so spelled in inscriptions 
and in the Lexicon Sangerman,Bekker's 
Anecd. p. 91, and which corresponds 
with the At7roXto)S?7 of Clouds 984. 
AuttuW MSS., all editions before Bothe 
and Bekker, and one or two afterwards. 
Porson objected to AiLiroXeL and proposed 
AiTroXet', which is read by Bothe and 
Bekker and almost all subsequent 

421. dXkai. The aspirate, proposed by 
Bergk, is added by Meineke, Blaydes, 
Herwerden, Yan Leeuwen, Zacher, and 
Graves. But even without the aspirate 
there was never any doubt as to the 
meaning of the line. " Turn civitates 
ceterae, functae malis," Florent Chre- 

427. elo-Lovres MSS. vulgo. We have 
not enough information about the in- 
tricacies of the Athenian theatre to 
understand precisely what the Chorus 
are directed to do ; but there is no need 
of such idle conjectures as Bachmann's 
u 16vt€s (which Herwerden introduces 
into the text), or Kock's ela navrcs. And 
we must remember that, as a rule, the 
action of the Chorus is restricted to 
songs, dances, and gesticulations in the 

430. rciXKa a ? MSS. vulgo. Meineke 

(Yind. Aristoph.), "not understanding to 

what rciXKa can refer," proposes Kal yap, 

or iravra b\ But the meaning is plain. 




* You take the manager's part ; every- 
thing else we can supply." 

432. ^taXovpev. fyiaXovpev MSS. vulgO. 
The apostrophe was added by Bentley 
from Eustathius on Odyssey i. 150 
(p. 1403), and so Brunek, Bergk, Blay- 
des, and several other editors. Sharpley 
reads 'maXovpev. But Eustathius ob- 
serves els to 8ok€?v dao-vvecrBcu to IdXXeiv 
dpK€CT€L 6 , E(pLa.\Tr]s. 

435. evx^oSa V. F. I. P 1 . P 2 . vulgo. 
evx&fjLeOa R. evxdpeoSa Hamaker, Bergk, 
Meineke, Holden, Herwerden, recen- 
tiores, except Mazon. But this seems 
to me a complete mistake. Trygaeus 
is not stating a fact, but exhorting to 
prayer, evxoapeo-da, Let us pray, was the 
regular form. It is used again infra 978. 

439. ye bidyeiv. This I proposed in 
my former edition. The MSS. (except 
P 1 .) have simply bidyeiv (without ye). P 1 . 
has didyeiv /xe, and so all editions before 
Dindorf. Dindorf proposed did^eiv, which 
is followed by Weise, Green, and Blaydes. 
Lenting proposed diayayelv, which is fol- 
lowed by Bergk, and, save as aforesaid, 
all subsequent editors. Boissonade pro- 
posed bidytiv ye. It seems to me that 
bidyeiv is right: compare Wasps 1006, 
where Bdelycleon promises to take his 
father to dinners, wine- parties, and public 
spectacles &o-6' rjbeoos bidyeiv o~e t6u Xotnov 
Xpdvov. But the ye should here come 
after elprjvy, not after didyeiv. 

441. The Scholiast says 8vo Trpoomra 
Tavrd (prjcriv, hv 6 pev fir^erat, 6 de eTepos 
aKoXovda Tfj evxf} Karapcopevos Xeyei. I 
take him to mean that the preceding 
six lines have been a prayer for blessing, 
but that now we come to a series of im- 
precations which he supposes to have 
been invoked by a different speaker. 

Dobree however, quite misunderstand- 
ing, as it seems to me, the Scholiast's 
observation, divides the triplets which 
follow into two sections, giving to 
Trygaeus merely the description of 
an objectionable person, and then making 
the Chorus take the words out of his 
mouth, and declare that person's fate. 
Thus he arranges the first triplet in this 
way : TP. octtls 8e noXepov /xaWoi' elvai 
(SovXeTai, XO. prj8e7TOTe 7ravaacrB' avrbv, a> 
Aiovva aval; \ £k twv bXeKpdvoav aia'cW 
e^aipovpevov. And so on with the others : 
so that Trygaeus is never allowed to 
finish his sentence. This seems to me 
supremely ridiculous^ and it cannot be 
what the Scholiast meant, for under this 
arrangement Trygaeus never et^erm, the 
Chorus does that for him. Yet no less 
than five editors— Richter, Herwerden, 
Mazon, Sharpley, and Graves — have 
followed Dobree's mistake. 

445. ttotvC , cv TOKjiv pdxais. This 
seems to have been suggested by Dindorf 
in some earlier edition, and it is adopted 
by Bekker and all subsequent editors 
except Weise. ttotvC iv tclIs pdxais MSS. 
except P 1 . TTorvid y iv tcus pdxais P l . 
editions before Bekker ; and Weise 

446. -rrdo-xoi ye TotavO' MSS. (except V.) 
vulgo. 7rdo-x OLTO ToiavTa.6.' V. Dindorf 
suggested Trdcrxoi toiclvt ar6\ which is 
adopted by Meineke, Blaydes, Herwer- 
den, and Van Leeuwen. 

450. Kel . . . £vXXdPy MSS. Suidas (s. v. 
Tpoxos) vulgo. Here, as in Knights 805, 
the weight of authority in favour of the 
combination of el with the subjunctive 
is so great that it cannot reasonably be 
rejected. And it seems certain that 
Aristophanes occasionally used qv with 



the optative and el with the subjunctive. 
See the Appendix on Knights 698-700, 
805, Birds 1240, Plutus 217, and infra 
783. In the present case it would be 
easy to change Kel into ky)v or ^vXXdfiy 
into gvXXdSoi. And indeed the former 
change was made by Brunck and Bothe, 
while the latter was suggested (though 
not adopted) by Meineke, and made by 
Richter, Holden, Paley, Herwerden, 
Hall and Geldart, Merry, Sharpley, Van 
Leeuwen, and Graves. 

452. y eXKOLro MSS. Suidas (s.v. 
Tpoxurfleiaa and again s. v. rpoxos) vulgo. 
(TTpefiXotTo Blaydes, Herwerden, and 
Van Leeuwen, without a shadow of 

457. "Kpu be pr); TP. pi). Bentley, 
Dindorf, recentiores, except Bothe, 
Richter, Sharpley, and Zacher. *Kpei he ; 
(to the first speaker) and pr) pr). (to the 
second) MSS. and the other editions. 
But Bentley's emendation is confirmed 
by the second section of the line, where 
again we find one pn in the question, and 
but one in the answer. 

462. eta en pd\a P 1 . editions before 
Invernizzi ; and Bothe, Bekker, Blaydes, 
and Zacher afterwards, en pdXa (without 
em) the other MSS. and editions. But 
in the corresponding line infra 489 all 
the MSS. read eta vr) Ala, which seems to 
require ela en txdXa here. 

469. aXX* ayerov ^vvaveXKere Kal or<fioo. 
So I read in my former edition and so 
Zacher now reads. The MSS., except 
V., read ayerov f-vveXKerov kol a(poo, and SO 
all editions before Dindorf. And at the 
date of my former edition it was sup- 
posed that V.'s reading was the same ; 
but it is now clear that V. begins the 
word with £wa- with ve written above 

the a. They all omit the initial dXX\ 
Hermann proposed aXX* ayerov ye crvveX- 
Kere km (rcjxn. Ahlwardt aXX' ayer dXXd 
avveXKere Ka\ <r(f)G>. Dobree aXX' ayere 
^vvaveXKere Kal o-<j)cb, which is followed by 
Herwerden, Hall and Geldart, and 
Graves. And so Holden in his first 
edition, though himself suggesting aXX' 
ayeO* eX/cer' av eXKere Kal crcjjcb which in his 
second edition he introduced into the 

text. Dindorf proposed aXX' ayeff ekKerov 

Z>ya6e kol (r<pco, but in his text prudently 
substitutes a lacuna for &>ya#e, in which 
he is followed by Green. Bothe, who 
omits the «? in line 496 infra, reads 

ayere £vv b' eXKere Kal o~<fia). Bergk gives 
aXX* ayerov £vve(f)eXKere Kal a(pco, and SO 
Paley, Blaydes, and Merry. Meineke, 
not observing that the line is dactylic, 
gives aXX' ayerov vvv eXKere Kal <r0&>, and 
so Mazon. Richter eXKopev, dXX* aye 6* 
eXKere Kal er(£ft>. But the strangest 
alteration of all is made by Van Leeuwen 

who reads ayerov, £vve\Kerov fjdrj o-(po) f 

regardless of sense and metre. I have 
adopted Dobree's ^waveXKere, though for 
the reason given in the Commentary 
retaining with Hermann, Bergk, and 
Meineke the dual ayerov. 

479. exovrai rod gvXov MSS. vulgo. 
Mr. Richards suggests ivexovrat r(5 £uXg>, 
whence Van Leeuwen reads exovrai iv 
red £uXa>. This expresses the meaning 
clearly, possibly too clearly, for Hermes 
seems to be purposely enigmatic. 

481. Megapels-. The word occurs again 
infra 500. In both places V. and P 2 . have 
Meyapels ; R. and I. have Meyapels in one 
place and Meyapr)* in the other ; and the 
only MS. which has Meyaprjs in both 
places is P 1 ., the most untrustworthy of 
all the MSS. The great preponderance 



of authority therefore in these passages 
is in favour of Meyapels, but Marco 
Musuro employed P 1 . or a very similar 
MS., and accordingly Meyap/j? found its 
way into the Editio Princeps, and has 
ever since retained its place in the text. 
See Acharnians 753 and the Appendix 

489-92. vr) &ia . . . avrumav. The 

arrangement in the text is that of 
R. V. I. F. P 2 . Half a line, probably 
consisting of two spondees, is missing. 
P 1 . attempted to fill up the gap by 
inserting between 489 and 490 the 
words a> eta, a* da as in the corresponding 
system (463), and writing the next line 
XO. fiLKpop ye KLVodfiev. TP. ov deivov ; and 
Musuro, as so often in this Play, adopted 
the alteration of P 1 ., and so all editors 
before Bekker, Bentley however sug- 
gesting that fxiKpov Kivovpev y should be 
read for pticpov ye Kivovpev, and Brunck 
and Bothe so reading. The intruding 
g> da, a> da was first ejected by Bekker, 
on the authority of R. V., and save in 
Weise and Bothe's second edition has 
never appeared again. Bekker, wrongly 
I think, left a blank after bavbv, and 
all subsequent editors have assumed that 
the missing half-line should come there ; 
and some have proposed, and some in- 
serted, a form of words to fill the gap. 
Thus Dindorf proposed brjra rob' e<rriv; 
which Graves reads ; Bergk, brjra rob' 
vfA&v, which Herwerden reads : Holden 
proposed kcu beivorarov. Richter reads 
rovr ear 9 &vbpes ; Blaydes, brjr ear 
&vbpes ; Merry, mroirov, vp,£>v ; Sharpley, 
Karonov ianv ; and Van Leeuwen, rovr 
ear rjdrj. It seems to me, however, that 
the blank really comes after avncnrav, 
and should be filled by words equivalent 

in meaning to, but less prosaic than, 
tovs S 5 ovdev bpap. There are three 
parties among the Hellenic peoples: 
those who are pulling their best ; those 
who are thwarting them; and those 
who are doing nothing, dp&cr ovbev, supra 
481 ; and all three should be mentioned 

496. KaKovoi nves R. Suidas s. v., 
Bentley, Tyrwhitt, Brunck, recentiores. 
KaKov ol rives I. P 2 . kcikol rives V. kukov et 
nves P 1 , again accepted in the Aldine 
edition and holding its place till ejected 
by Brunck.— vplv MSS., Aldus, and all 
editions before Gelenius, except Fracini 
and the second Junta, rjfiiv Suidas s.v. 
KaKovoi, Fracini, the second Junta, 
Gelenius, recentiores. I had no hesita- 
tion in the former edition in restoringthe 
MS. reading, which seems to me abso- 
lutely necessary, for the defaulters are 
not in the Chorus, but are some of the 
imaginary peoples, Boeotians, Argives, 
and the like, who ought to be assisting 
in, but are in reality retarding, the 
restoration of Peace. 

497. ph y ovv (or fiev yovv) Bentley, 
Bothe, Dindorf, recentiores, except as 
hereinafter appears. p.ev ovv MSS., 
editions, except Bothe, before Dindorf. 
fiev vw Cobet, Meineke, Holden, Her- 
werden, Merry, and Graves. 

498. dvdpeicos Bentley, Brunck, re- 
centiores. dvbpiKcos MSS., editions before 

503-7. ml iols ' AdrjvaioicTL . . . vttox&- 
prjo-are. These lines are given in the 
text exactly as they stand in every MS. 
and in every edition except Van 
Leeuwen's. His alterations are worth 
recording for the purpose of showing the 
amazing extent to which a Dutch editor 



considers himself at liberty to rewrite 
a Play of Aristophanes, rols ' Adrjvaioio-i 
he changes into rolai QrjftaLoicri ; &Ka- 
(ere into Sto-rafere ; rfjvb 3 e|eX/cucrat into 
tj)v 6e6v 7tot€ ; and 7rpos rr]v ddXarrav 
into tSeiz> irapovo-av. All these changes 
are made without a shadow of authority, 
and, as it seems to me, without a shadow 
of justification. 

511. i^ekKovai MSS. vulgo. eKTeXovat 
Herwerden, Van Leeuwen, an ingenious 
conjecture, but for the reason given in 
the Commentary I am unable to desert 
the reading of the MSS. 

513. 6pov 'a™ fjdrj MSS. (except P 1 .) 
Brunck and all subsequent editors. The 
Scholiast says o/jlov 'cttiv rjdr) dvri rov 
iyyvs, and P 1 . annexes the iyyvs to the 
line, reading 6(jlov y o-tlv fjd* iyyvs. And 
so, save that they have for 0, all 
editions before Brunck, though both 
Hemsterhuys and Toup pointed out that 
iyyvs was a mere gloss on 6p.ov. 

524. 7Tp6(T(07rov o> Qecopia MSS. (save 
that P 1 . omits the line, doubtless because 
it has the same termination as the pre- 
ceding line) vulgo. Meineke (Vind. 
Aristoph.) proposed to substitute for this 

Second a> Qecopla the words Etprjvr) (plXrj 

and this is done by Van Leeuwen. 
Blaydes observes " Possis etiam a> <fiiXrj 
Sea" whence Mazon reads « <f>iXr) 6z6s. 
No doubt what follows seems more 
appropriate to Peace herself than to 
one of her attendant maidens ; but it is 
difficult to believe that Trygaeus ad- 
dressed the words olov he nvels, &c. to an 
artificial statue. 

525. oas fjdv Kara rrjs Kapdias MSS. 
vulgo. It was a Dutch editor who supra 
503-7 substituted his own composition 
for that of Aristophanes ; it is an Eng- 

lish editor, Dr. Blaydes, who does so 
here. For the words in the text he 
reads o(ei de koi rrjs KLarlbos, leaving 
only the article r?js unchanged. 

527. oiioiov MSS. vulgo. Richter 
reads SfiiXov. But after opoiov we must 
understand rfj ocr/ir? as if Trygaeus had 
used the word do-pr} in the preceding 

529. KpofjLfJLVogvpey/JLias MSS. vulgo. Do- 
bree suggested Kpofifxvo^epvyfxias, which 
is read by Richter, Holden, Green, and 
Graves, but is certainly wrong. As I 
pointed out in the introduction to my 
former edition, 6£vpeyfiLa is used by 
Aristophanes in his 'Eicrjvas KaraXafjL- 
(3dvovo-ai, and by Lucian, De Mercede 
Conductis, 19, in precisely the same 

531. rpaycodav MSS. vulgo. Brunck, 
and afterwards Bergk, suggested rpvya>~ 
bG>v, which is read by Meineke, Richter, 
Holden, Herwerden, and Zacher. 

536. koXttov MSS. vulgo. I think that 
Blaydes is the only editor who has 
actually altered the text, reading o^Aou, 
but many have suggested an alteration. 
Reiske proposed ktwtov, Hamaker Kwfxov, 
Bergk KciXnt], Kock Ko-rrpov, and Hall 
and Geldart fioXirov. But nobody has 
adopted anybody else's conjecture. — 
aypbv MSS. Invernizzi, recentiores, ex- 
cept Weise. Inrvbv editions before Inver- 
nizzi; and Weise afterwards. No MS. 
has Invov, but one Scholiast mentions it 
as a variant ; ypd^erai us lirv'ov' invos Se, 
o fjiiels KdfALViov Kakovfiev. 

542. Kvddois 7rpo(TK.uuL€yai P 1 . Suidas 
(s. v. vttodtt tacrfievai), all editions (except 
Bekker) before Bergk ; and Richter and 
Green afterwards. KvdOovs irpoo-Keijxevai 
R. V. and the other MSS., except F. 



Bekker, Bergk, recentiores,save as afore- 
said. In this state of the authorities I 
feel that I too ought to read Kvddovs, 
but I cannot bring myself to believe 
that Kvddovs 7rpo(TKeiyLevni is Greek, or 
that it can, as Cobet (N. L. 145) assures 
us, be equivalent to KvdOovs irpoo-Ketpevovs 
exovaai. Nor do I perceive the analogy, 
upon which he insists, between kvciQov 
TTpoa-TidefJiaL and KvaOov TrpovKttpai, the 
latter being an intransitive verb. Nor 
am I impressed by his argument that 

" Trpoo-Keipicti KvdBco eo fere sensu dicere- 
tur quo Cicero usus est 'quum Lentulum 
generum suum, exiguae staturae homi- 
nem, longo gladio accinctum vidisset ; 
quis, inquit, generum meum ad glaclhim 
alligavitl'' apud Macrob. Saturn, ii. 3," 
for that, I take it, is the very meaning 
which the words are intended to convey. 
With Cicero's jest may be compared the 
language, which in Beaumont and 
Fletcher's Bonduca i. 1, the British 
General uses to his nephew : 

And, little sir, when your young bones grow stiffer 
I'll tie you to a sword ; 

and Sir Walter Scott's description, in 
the second chapter of Old Mortality, of 
wee Guse Gibbie who " was girded 
rather to than with the sword of a full 
grown man." 

557. acrpevds a Idav P 1 . Tyrwhitt, 
Brunck, receiitiores. aorpevos Iboav the 
other MSS., "pronomen exhausit prae- 
cedens litera " as Brunck says, aa-pievos y 
Ihav (apparently an attempt on the part 
of Musuro to restore the metre) editions 
before Brunck. 

568. avrSiiv a.7ra\\d^€L€v MSS. vulgo ; 
but in R. avTcov was originally omitted, 
and then added in the margin. Seve- 
ral scholars taking avr&v to refer to the 
agricultural instruments, and not (as it 
really does) to the farmers themselves, 
have felt constrained to alter the line. 
Herwerden changes avr&v into alrals, 
Sharpley into £k rwvb*. These are the 
only editors who have altered the text, 
but several other conjectures have been 
made. avr&v av d7roXavaeiev av p,er6pxia, 
Kock; avcov diraWd^eLav av peropx^ov, 
" they will rid their vineyard spaces 
of dry leaves," 0. Schneider. But 

avrcov is to be joined with peropxiov, their 
vineyard spaces. 

582. o)s rjXOes x]pxv dcr pivots (fiiXrdrr]. 
The reading of the MSS. and of all 
editions before Dindorf, and of Zacher 
afterwards, is a> (jpikrad* oas do-p.£voio~iv 
rjplv (or i)p\v) rjXOes, and so Bothe, except 
that for (jyiXraQ* he reads ^iXTdrrj. Din- 
dorf reads as 7JX0€s fjplv do-p,£vois a> (f)iX- 
rdrr], and so Weise, Green, Paley, and 
Blaydes. The reading which I recom- 
mended in my former edition, and have 
now brought into the text, is really 
Dindorf's line with the a> omitted ; and 
so too Richter reads. Bergk reads as 
dapevoio-iv rjXOes S> (ftiXTdrr), and so Her- 
werden, Hall and Geldart, Merry, and 
Sharpley. Meineke reads o>? do-pevoicriv 
rjXOes f)plv <f)LXrdrrj, and so Holden and 
Graves ; and so Mazon, except that he 
changes ^iXtott; into a> foXr). 

583. crS yap ibdp-qv , . . (3ovX6pevos 

Dindorf, recentiores, except Van Leeu- 
wen. crcS yap iddprjpcv . . . (BovXopevoi 
MSS., editions before Dindorf. o-w idd- 
prjptv . . . (3ovX6pevoi Van Leeuwen. But 
the Scholiasts recognize that the Chorus 



are here speaking of them selves in the 
singular number. — daipovia R. Bothe, 
Bekker, recentiores. haipova the other 
MSS. and the editions before Dindorf. 

589. yeaypywp. See the Commentary. 
yeapyiKov MSS., editions (except Bothe) 
before Bergk ; and Green and Blaydes 
afterwards, yecopybv Bothe, Bergk, and 
(save as aforesaid) recentiores. 

599. onoa Bentley, Bekker, Dindorf, 
Holden, Bergk, recentiores. 6V R.and 
all the MSS. except V. and all editions 
before Brunck. 6W V. Bothe. oaa y 
Brunck, Invernizzi, Weise. 

600. irpocryeXdcreTai \afiovT MSS. (ex- 
cept P 1 .) Porson, Bothe, Bekker, recen- 
tiores. Trpocrye\a(TovTaL ore Xa/SoVr'P^jWho 
no doubt took the line to be, as Brunck 
afterwards contended that it was, " di- 
metrum anapaesticum, nisi malis chori- 
ambicum trimetrum catalecticum eum 
appellare " ; and the reading of P 1 . is, 
as usual, adopted in the Aldine edition, 
and is followed by all the editions (ex- 
cept Fracini and Junta II) before Ge- 
lenius ; and by Brunck and Invernizzi 
afterwards. Fracini introduced 7rpoo- 
yeXda-erai, but retained the ere, and so 
Junta II and Gelenius to Bergler inclu- 

603. <ro<j)(x>raToi MSS. vulgo. InArchi- 
lochus and Cratinus (see the Commen- 
tary) the epithet is Xinepvrjris, and Dio- 
dorus Siculus, citing this passage, inad- 
vertently transfers that epithet to the 
present line. I cannot understand why 
Bentley proposed to read \nrepvrjres here, 
but his suggestion is followed by Bothe, 
Meineke, Holden, Paley, and Sharpley. 

605. rjp&v avrrjs Bentley. See the 
Commentary, avrrjs rjpge (contra me- 
trum) MSS. vulgo. rfp&v arrjs Seidler, 

Dindorf, Weise, Holden, Meineke, 
Richter, Green, Paley, Merry, and 
Graves. Blaydes, though he does not 
accept this reading, supports it with 
a vast number of quotations, but in 
every one of them, with the exception 
of Medea 1372, the article accompanies 
the genitive. A more apposite passage 
than any which he has cited may be 
found in Pausanias i. 25. 3 to yap 

drv)(rjpa to iv ILatpoaveia airacrL rols'^Wrjortv 
rjpge KaKov. But there the meaning is 
"was the beginning of troubles," not 
"commenced the trouble"; and we 
should certainly expect rrjs arrjs here. 
Bothe in his first edition suggested 
avros ?p£e, but he did not repeat the 
suggestion in his second. Bergk pro- 
posed avrix et/)£e, Madvig rjpg avrrjs, 
which is adopted by Mazon. Sharpley 

for yap avrrjs rjp^e reads KaKcov yap rjp^e, 

Van Leeuwen rjytjev avrrjv, which one 
would imagine would have put an effec- 
tual stop to her going away or return- 
ing. Many other equally hopeless con- 
jectures have been made. 

606. ptrdo-xoi R. V. Bekker, recentiores, 
except Weise and Richter, who with the 
other MSS. and the editions before 
Bekker read per da xu- 

610. i^vorjerev (or -ere) MSS. vulgo. 

Bentley suggested Katjecpvcrrjoev, which is 
read by Dindorf, Weise, Holden, and 

612. to npcorov fJKova' P 1 ., all editions 
before Bekker ; and Bothe and Richter 
afterwards, ukovct R. V.the other MSS., 
Bekker, and save as herein appears 
subsequent editors. Blaydes reads d<£- 
6 eta and is followed by Herwerden. 
And though tjkovv has been discarded 
for cikovv the latter word has been found 



so unsatisfactory that every effort has 
been made to get rid of it. Widmann 
suggests r)ft£>cr, Ruppersberg aWovo-% 
Richter cos di 7rvp\ to irpcorop akyova, 
Hall and Geldart to nvp dtcovovo-% Zacher 
(pkoy/jiS 'yavaKTova , and so on . Probably 
fjKova is the conjecture of P 1 ., but if so 
it is much the best conjecture of the lot, 
and I have in the Commentary given 
my reasons for retaining it. Richter 
and Zacher say that Aristophanes would 
not have combined the expressions airat- 
to TrpvTov, and that may be true with 
the reading aKova ; but it is exactly what 
he would have done with the reading 
iJKovv for the purpose of expressing 
the instantaneous sequence of events. 

616. r)Kr)KO€ii> MSS., editions before 
Brunck ; and Bergk and Mazon after- 
wards. And this is the form which 
Aristophanes invariably employed, ex- 
cept where metrical or rhythmical rea- 
sons compelled him to desert it. See the 
Fourth Additional Note to the Birds, p. 
244 of that Play. Brunck changed the 
reading of all the MSS. into rjKrjKorj, 
merely saying "rjtcqKorj Attice. Yulgo 
r)Kr)K.6eiv," and save as aforesaid he is 
followed by all subsequent editors. Mr. 
W. M. Starkie, Classical Review ix. 119, 
finding that in Wasps 800 Dr. Merry 
retains the form rjKrjKoeiu, exclaims " Has 
the teaching of Cobet and Rutherford 
been writ in water ? " To the question, 
so worded, the answer must be in the 
negative ; for water has some sustaining 
power; but if that very competent 
scholar, instead of trusting to the 
"teaching" of others, had looked into 
the matter for himself, he would have 
found that this "teaching" has no- 
thing whatever to support it. Van 

Leeuwen indeed may be thought to 
have discovered some support for it in 
the present passage, for he says that 
rjKrjKorj is read by " Phrynichus in schol." 
But this again is a mistake. The words 
of the Scholiast are to 8e rjKrjicoeiv ovtco 
8ia rov t) Qpvvixos dvayiva>crK€i. The 
Scholiast is calling Phrynichus as a wit- 
ness in favour not of rjKr/Kor) but of rjKq- 

Koeiv, and the q to which he refers is the 
first, not the last, syllable of the word. 
He means that the pluperfect is com- 
monly written a/o/Koe<*> with an a, but 
that Phrynichus recognizes the spelling 

■qnqicoeiv with an q. 

627. amW av avbpcov R. V. Invernizzi, 
recentiores. ainW dvbpcov I. F. P 2 ., the 
av having been absorbed into the first 
syllable of dvdpS>i>. This reading P 1 ., 
always ready with his emendation, tried 
to make metrical, by reading ahitai/ 
avhp&v ye, and as usual his reading was 
adopted in the Aldine edition and by 
all subsequent editors before Brunck 
who read clItlcov nep dvdpcov. 

628. TrjV Kopoovecov (Kopoovaiov R. V.) ye 

jjlov MSS. vulgo. Porson, who in his 
note on Hecuba 1161 discusses lines 
628-31, observes "nocet articulus ti]v, 
ut additus noceret ante e^edifivov 
KvyfreX-qv. Lege igitur kcu Kopayveapyenov." 
But this is quite wrong. There is 
nothing special about the individual 
Kv\lre\t]u which was destroyed ; but here 
Trygaeus is bewailing not merely a fig- 
tree, but the particular tree which he 
had planted and tended with such 
solicitude. Nevertheless the significant 
Tqv is changed into the insignificant 
kcli by Dindorf, Holden, Meineke, Rich- 
ter, Green, Blaydes, and Herwerden. 
Equally unfortunate is Van Leeuwen's 



change of p-ov into pot, for it is not the 
general damage done that Trygaeus 
regrets but the loss of "my favourite 

629. eyw '(pvrevaa Ka^edpexj/dprjv 

Bentley, Dawes (who adds " Exstat locus 
plane gemellus apud Eurip. Med. 1349 
7ral8as ovs €<f)vaa Ka^etfpe^djuqy"), Brunck, 
recentiores, except that in his second 
edition Bothe reads (pvrevaas i^edpe\j/dpr]v 
eyco. iyco (pvrevcras i^edpexfsdprjp MSS., 
editions before Brunck. 

630. G) /ze'X' Junta, VulgO. a> pe\e' 

MSS. Aldus, Fracini, Junta II, Gelenius. 
eVSiKcos- ye drjr Bentley, Porson, Bothe, 
Dindorf, recentiores, except as herein- 
after mentioned. cvblKm &)t R. V. I. F. P 2 . 
Invernizzi, Bekker. P 1 ., being minded 
to set this right, inserted ye, but inserted 
it at the wrong place ipdUcos drjrd y, and 
so all editions before Brunck. Brunck 
in his text wrote ivbUas c^r' ei ye icdpov 
rbv ^16 ov, but in his note preferred 

e'lye br) Kafxov \i6ov. Porson for cvdiKoas 

suggested iv bUrj, which is read by 
Herwerden, Merry, Van Leeuwen, and 
Zacher. — Kapov \L6ov is the reading of 
all the MSS. except P 1 ., and of Fracini, 
Junta II, Gelenius to Faber inclusive, 
Invernizzi, and al] subsequent editors. 
top \iBov P 1 . Aldus and the other editors 
before Invernizzi. 

632. Kara & cos MSS. VulgO. KavBdo" cos 
Dobree, Blaydes, Herwerden, Merry, 
and Van Leeuwen. 

637. K€Kpdyfxao-iv MSS. vulgo. Scaliger 
suggested kcu Kpdypaai which Blaydes 

640. <t>povol MSS. (except F.) Brunck, 
Bekker, Dindorf, Weise, Bothe, Bergk, 
Green, Paley, Merry, and Mazon. 
cboovel P 1 . vulgO. — t*\ Bpaaibov MSS. 

vulgo. Porson called attention to the 
fact that Suiclas (s. v.), quoting the 
present line, writes ru Bpaaida. Of 
course he did not suggest that this slip 
of Suidas should be brought into the 
text of Aristophanes, but that is done 
by Dindorf, Bothe, Meineke, Holden, 
Herwerden, and Van Leeuwen. Dindorf 
however recants in his notes ; and the 
others do not seem to have observed 
that with Thucydides the genitive is 
always Bpaaldov (Thuc. iv. 83, 108, 
123, 127, v. 13), the dative Bpaaida, and 
the accusative Bpaaibav. 

663. €L€v dKovco MSS. (except P l .) 
Fracini, Junta II, Gelenius, Bekker, 
recentiores, except Weise. P 1 ., to save 
the metre, wrote div -y*,and so the other 
editions before Bekker; and Weise 
afterwards. But the present reading is 
sufficiently confirmed by, possibly is 
borrowed from, Aesch. Cho. 644. 

676. ovTrep Bentley, Brunck, recen- 
tiores. one p P. V. I. F. P 2 ., but in R. there 
is a considerable gap between the o and 
the 7»ep. P 1 . corrected onep into &airep 
which is read by all editions before 

684. avrS MSS. (avrco R. V. F.) vulgo. 
Cobet (N. L. p. 165) conjectured ovVo, 
a probable conjecture in itself, though 
the arguments by which he supports it 
are naught. It is adopted by Meineke, 
Blaydes, Herwerden, Van Leeuwen, and 

693. ™ tl MSS. (ran R. V.) vulgo. 
Reiske suggested either to tl or rtW : 
the former is adopted by Holden, 
Sharpley, and Graves, the latter by 
Herwerden, Merry, and Van Leeuwen. 
By so doing these editors have destroyed 
an idiomatic expression, perfectly in- 



telligible, if not easy to explain, tl is 
often used with a plural pronoun : tl 
yap Tab* iaTiv ; Clouds 200, tl 8e croi ravr ; 
(so all the best MSS.) Lys. 514. 

700. tl dm I. F. P 2 . Bentley, Brunck, 
recentiores. tl de R. V. P 1 . editions 
before Brunck. 

716. po4>r}o-€Ls MSS. (V. has the double 
s superscript), all editions before Din- 
dorf; and Bergk, Richter, Merry, 
Mazon, and Zacher afterwards. See 
Ach. 278, Knights 360. Elmsley's 
theory (at Ach. 278), that because 
tjocfrrjo-ofjiai is found in Wasps 814 
Aristophanes could never have used the 
active future pcxfirjora), is negatived in 
every passage by every MS. Yet pocprjo-ei 
is here introduced by Dindorf who is 
followed by subsequent editors, save as 
aforesaid. See Appendix on Knights 
360 and 969. 

729, 730. napabovres . . . dcopcv MSS. 
vulgo. The combination of these two 
words in one sentence is no doubt a little 
awkward, but I do not think that it is 
inadmissible. Bothe however proposed 

to change irapabovrez into rrapeXovres. 
Hamaker's suggestion rqvde cncevrjv cltto- 
dvvT€? is adopted and applauded by Cobet 
(N. L. p. 51), but has found favour with 
nobody else. Meineke changes bapev 
into (pcopev and is followed by Herwerclen. 
Blaydes reads Karadevres for 7rapa86vr€s, 
and so Van Leeuwen. Mr. Richards for 
7rapa$6vT€S proposes napa^avres. Mr. 
Richards objects to Hamaker's sugges- 
tion that "an article would surely be 
wanted." Schmidt to Meineke's that 
<i>r)p\ is never, though Aeya> is often, used 
in the sense of KeXeCo. Herwerden and 
Mr. Richards to Blaydes's that it ought 
to be KciTadtpeuoi. And Van Leeuwen to 

Mr. Richards's that it ought to be Kara- 
firjaopwoL. Two lines below Hamaker 
wished to change o-Krjvas into otkcvcis, 
and this also is approved by Cobet (u. s.) 
but by nobody else. 

732. (^uXarrere V. Bekker, recentiores, 
except Weise. (frvXarre (by a natural 
error) R. F. P 2 . This left the line 
a syllable short, which P 1 . attempted to 
make good by reading 4>v\citt€ crv, and 
so all editions before Bekker ; and 
Weise afterwards. 

733. r)v exopev obov \6yoav eiiroapev ova 
T€ vols %x ei R- anc ^ ( exce pt tt 13 ^ f° r h v ^ 
has rju) I. fjv excopev (and then as R.) 
F. P 2 . r)v ex^opev odbv \6ycov e'lrropev (and 
then as R.) V. In order to make the 
line an anapaestic tetrameter P 1 . 
changed Xoycov into \6yov, ocra re into 
X&o~a Te ("quae scribere non poterat 
Atticus," Porson, Suppl. Praef. in Hec), 
and inserted avros before, and ye after 
e^ei, so making the line run f]v exopev 
obov \6yov elircopeu, ;\;gW re vovs avros e^ei 
ye. In the Aldine edition some but not 
all of PVs alterations are adopted, and 
the line is given as f)v exopev 6b6v \6ya>v 
emcopev ^coo-a re vovs avros e^ei, a nonde- 
script verse, being neither a trochaic 
tetrameter with R. nor an anapaestic 
with P 1 . And this is followed by every 
edition before Brunck (except that 
Florent Chretien and Grynaeus for avros 
e^ei have ex€L avros), and by Bothe in 
his first edition. Brunck inserted the 
line as P 1 . gave it, and so Invernizzi. 
And, except that I changed x&o~a re into 
X&noo-a, I did the same in my former 
edition, under a complete misunder- 
standing of the reading of R., which had 
been reported by Invernizzi, Bekker, 
and Dindorf to be r)v exopev 6b6v, \6yov 



€17T(oijl€v, the commencement of an ana- 
paestic, not trochaic, line. But, strange 
to say, Bekker, while misreporting R.'s 
reading, gave in his text what R. really 
reads, a trochaic tetrameter fjv e'lx /^ 
6\d6v \6y\<ov e'llircopev | ova re | vovs e\x €L - 
And though one of the Scholiasts says that 
the KOfXfxdTLov consists of five anapaestic 
tetrameters, another says it consists of 
four anapaestic tetrameters, and the cor- 
rupt and confused words which follow 
can only mean " and one trochaic 
tetrameter." Bekker's, which is really 
R.'s, reading has been followed by all 
subsequent editors, except that Weise 
embarks on an unintelligible line of his 
own, and that he, Blaydes, Herwerden, 
and Merry change vovs into vovv. 

742. favyovras MSS. vulgo. "Lege 
Qpvvcovhas : vide Hesych. Harpocrat. 
Suid." Bentley. This line does not 
seem very applicable to Heracles, and 
Bergk placed it after the following line, 
so as to make it a description of tovs 
SovXovs, a transposition followed by 
several editors. But this necessitates 
a farther alteration, since imr-qhts and 
ovveaa rovbl would be merely tauto- 
logous. One or the other therefore of 
the two lines must be omitted, and 
this is accordingly done. On the whole 
I think it better to adhere to the ar- 
rangement of the MSS., and to suppose 
that the poet is referring to scenes in 
Comedies now lost, but familiar to his 

743. irapeXvo-ev R. V. Bekker, recen- 
tiores, except Weise. KareXvaev the other 
MSS. and editions. In the next line 
Paley would change i^yov into tlo-rjyov, 
but the poet is referring to the abrupt 
exit of a flogged slave from his master's 

house, like that of Demosthenes and 
Nicias in the Knights. 

745. dr avipoiro Bentley, Brunck, 
recentiores. inavepoiro MSS., editions 
before Brunck. 

747. to v&Tov Suidas (s. v. va-rpixis), 
Bekker, recentiores, except Weise and 
Bothe. rbv v5>tgv MSS., except P 1 ., who 
altered it into to. vcdtcl. His alteration, 
as usual, is adopted in the Aldine edition, 
and is followed by all editors before 
Bekker ; and by Weise and Bothe 

752. rolo-L /ueyiWot? MSS. vulgo. 
drjpo-l fjLeyio-rois Merry, Sharpley. This 
is a very ingenious alteration, but it 
cannot I think be right. Apart from 
the overwhelming unanimity of the 
MSS., both here and in the Parabasis of 
the Wasps, it seems to me lhat rotai 
lieyio-TOLs is exactly what we should have 
expected to find. Just as Aristophanes 
says in the Ecclesiazusae that Agyrrhius 
now 7rpdrT€L ret (xeyiara, undertakes the 
most important business, and in the 
Birds that r« /ueyicrra, the most important 
benefits that men possess, are derived 
from the birds, so here he would natu- 
rally say that the poetic Heracles essays 
the most important tasks, iirix^peT toIo-l 
fjLeyiorois. On the other hand, though 
Orjpal is in some respects very appro- 
priate, it gives rise to some slight 
difficulty. Here there is but one an- 
tagonist ; and in the Wasps the Agues 
and Fevers, the extirpation of which 
constitutes the Second Labour of 
Heracles, though rightly called ™ 
peyiora, could hardly, perhaps, be called 
0qp €S — eVexeipei R. V. and all the other 
MSS. (except P 1 .), Bentley, Bekker, re- 
centiores, except Weise and Bothe. 



tmxeipel P l . and (as usual) Aldus and all 
editions before Bekker ; and Weise and 
Bothe afterwards. But Bentley had 
long before suggested iirexelpei ; the 
present tense is not employed until the 
poet is represented as speaking in his 
own person. 

753. fiopfiopoQvpovs MSS. vulgo. 
Bentley suggested (SapftapoOvpovs and 
Meineke writes fiapfiapopvOovs. 

754. Kai npcorov pev pdxopat ndvTcov 
MSS. vulgo. Here the poet commences, 
as it were, to speak in his own person, 
and this is continued to the end of the 
Parabasis Proper. He is borrowing 
from the Parabasis of the Wasps, and 
naturally introduces a few changes to 
prevent an absolute sameness. Will it 
be believed that, in defiance of all the 
MSS., Meineke thinks himself justified 
in striking out the new words, intro- 
duced into this line by Aristophanes, 
and replacing the discarded words 
0pCKTea)$ ^vcrras evdvs air apXV s ? And 
this singular impropriety is repeated by 
Holden, Herwerden, Van Leeuwen, and 
Graves. Van Leeuwen indeed disap- 
proves of the poet's speaking in his own 
person, and alters the succeeding verses 
in various ways, which it is not necessary 
to record, for the purpose of preventing 
his doing so. For ph pdxopat Richter 
wrote §r) , pax6p r ) v * 

756. K€^a\a\ MSS. vulgo. Meineke 
changed this into yXcorrai, and is followed 
by Holden, Herwerden, Van Leeuwen, 
and Graves. The alteration is sometimes 
ascribed to Bentley, but apparently 
without any justification. The passage 
of Hesiod to which Aristophanes is 
referring is ck be oi copcov \ rjv eKarov 
K€<pa\a\ o(f)ios, btivoio BpaKovros | yXoocrarjcn 

dvofapfjo-t XeXtLxpoTts (Theog. 823-5), 
where, observe, it is the K€(j)aXai, and not 
the yXoorrat, that are described as 

758. Kapivov R. V., the other MSS. 
(except P 1 .) and Suidas, s.v. trpcoKTos. 
No word can be better authenticated, 
yet it does not appear in a single printed 
edition excepting my former one ; in 
which I also suggested that perhaps 
Kapivov would be better. For P 1 . with 
his usual readiness to alter the text 
introduced KaprjXov from Wasps 1035. 
Aldus, as usual, adopted the reading of 
P 1 . ; and all other editions, with the 
exception aforesaid, follow Aldus. 

76 1 . d7ro8ovvaipoL rrjv x^P lv MSS.(except 
P 1 .) Kuster, recentiores, except Blaydes 
and Van Leeuwen. P 1 . omitted the pot 
and so did all editions before Kuster. It 
did not appear on what authority, if any, 
Kuster inserted the poi, and Bentley 
suggested avrairobovvaL rrjv x^? w i a very 
good suggestion, but one which Bentley 
would never have made, had he been 
aware of the reading of the MSS. 
However a century and a half or so 
after Bentley 's death, and with full know- 
ledge of the MS. reading, dvraivohovvai is 
introduced into the text first by Blaydes 
and then by Van Leeuwen, the former 
omitting the rrjv, the latter the poi. 

762. 7repivoo-7wMSS. vulgo. This word 
too was omitted in all editions before 
Kuster, was restored by Kuster, and is 
read by all subsequent editors except 
Van Leeuwen, Here too Bentley, sup- 
posing Trepivoo-Tctyv to be Kuster's con- 
jecture, suggested Trepirjeiv, with 7T€ipa>v 
for ineipwv in the following line, and 
here too Bentley's suggestion is intro- 
duced into the text by Van Leeuwen. 



770. kcu gvfjLTroaiois MSS. vulgo. 
Meineke suggested kclv ^vinroo-Lois, a quite 
unnecessary alteration, but adopted by 
Blaydes, Herwerden, and Van Leeuwen. 
Richter absurdly understands rpaire^r) of 
the tables of the money-changers. 

774. avbpbs MSS. vulgo. Dindorf, 
misunderstanding the passage, proposed 
\afi7Tpbv, which is read by Meineke, 
Holden, Richter, and Paley. Bergk 
proposed adpov, but the reading of the 
MSS. is clearly right. 

783. avTiftoXtj P 1 . P 2 . (according to 
Brunck) Brunck, Bothe, Bekker, recen- 
tiores. avrifiokei R.V. and the other MSS. 
(but V. has rj written above the el) 
editions before Brunck ; and Invernizzi 
afterwards. I suspect that dvripoXei is 
right, see on 450 supra; but there seems 
sufficient authority to permit the reten- 
tion of avrifioXf}. 

785. vnaKovz Bentley, Bothe, Dindorf, 
recentiores. viraKovvrjs MSS., editions 
(except Bothe) before Dindorf. — eXOys 
MSS. vulgo. Bentley also proposed to 
change this into eXde followed by 
^wipidos, but to this Dobree rightly ob- 
jected, referring to Lys. 733 /x?) hiaireTavvv, 
fxr]^ cmeXOrjs /jajda/jurj, as a similar com- 
bination of an imperative and sub- 
junctive. Cf. Aesch. Eum. 767 firj fiapvv 
kotov | aKrjyf/r]crS€, firj 6vp.ovcr6e, /z^S' aKap- 
ir'iav | rev£r)T€. 

800. r)piva MSS. Bentley, Brunck, 
recentiores. rjpiva (agreeing with (pcovfj, 
its voice of spring) editions before 
Brunck: a very good reading, if the 
metre permitted it. ripiva may either be 
governed by KeXabjj, and agree with 
KeXadrjfjLara understood, verna (sc. carmina) 
cantat ; or else be used adverbially, as 
Brunck thinks, verno tempore cantat: 

802. eCofiw] MSS. vulgo. And this is 
a characteristic of the swallow's song, 
for practically it is only heard when the 
bird is perching : see the Commentary. 
Its flight is so rapid that even if it is 
singing on the wing an observer can 
only catch an occasional note. Bergk 
however changed efanevr) into ^So/xeV//, 
and is followed by Van Leeuwen and 
Zacher. The change, though unen- 
durable, is not without excuse, since we 
should expect an epithet with ^co^, and 
we have fjdofievq <j)(nvq in Birds 236. But 
what are we to say to Meineke's absurd 
fjdofxevi] agreeing with ^eXiScoj' ? It is 
difficult to speak of it in parliamentary 
language. Possibly the use of (ficovfj 
without an epithet is due to the fact 
that KeXadew may be employed of any 
loud noise, and is not confined to vocal 

831. ivdLaepia.vepivr)X€Tovsl&. V. Bergk, 
Meineke, Richter, Holden, Paley, Her- 
werden, Hall and Geldart, Zacher, 
Graves. For -avepi- the other MSS. 
have -avept -and so all editions (except 
Bothe's second) before Bergk, and Paley 
afterwards, -avpo- Bothe in his second 
edition. -aepiaepi- Richter. -aiOept- 
Reisig, Green, Merry. ivhiairepiaepi- 
Blaydes, Mazon. -aepiavpi- Sharpley. 
These I think are the only alterations 
introduced into the text, but the 
conjectures offered for our acceptance 
are innumerable. Dr. Blaydes, for ex- 
ample, offers eleven in his critical note ; 
and, not content with that, adds six more 
in his Addenda. As regards the first 
syllables of the word Bentley suggested 
evhi-, and this is adopted by Green. 
Bothe too reads eidi-, but takes ev as 
equivalent to ev. Van Leeuwen omits the 



line. The reading -auepi- (perhaps a 
burlesque on -aepi-) is very old. The 
Scholiast says Aidvpios ireirkdv^rai \eya>v 
16 av€pivr)X^ TOVS ^ ov yap Myov&iv avepa 

832. a \iyovan MSS. vulgO. 6 Xeyovat 
Hamaker, Blaydes, Herwerden, Van 

835. TP. "lav 6 XZoy, oo"irep k.t. X. So 

all the MSS. and all editions before 
Bergk, and save as hereinafter appears 
all subsequent editions. But with Bergk 
the assaults of the conjecturers com- 
menced. Bergk continued the words 
"lav 6 Xloff to the Servant, and commenced 
the speech of Trygaeus with Sans ; 
€7roir](T€v 7raXai, which was plainly impos- 
sible, and has been followed by nobody. 
Next Meineke tried his hand and con- 
tinued the Servant's speech to 'Aolov tto&\ 
This was adopted by Richter and Holden, 
but was really as preposterous as Bergk's. 
Herwerden gives to Trygaeus the Ser- 
vant's share of line 834, so that Trygaeus 
speaks continuously from pdXiara to 
iKakow ao-repa. Wilamowitz, reverting 
to Bergk's division of the line, com- 
mences the speech of Trygaeus with 6Wep 
€7roLT}(T€v 7TttXat, an ingenious suggestion, 
which Zacher adopts, but this makes 
an involved sentence, unsuited to the 
sprightly directness of an Aristophanic 
dialogue. The MS. reading, alone, stands 
free from all possible objection. 

847. ravras o~v ', TP. irodev; ck rovpavov 
R. V. Bekker, Richter, Paley, Mazon, 
Van Leeuwen. ravra a-v ; TP. nodev ; ck 
t$>v ovpavcbv the other MSS. and all 
editions before Brunck, who for ravra 
a-v wrote ravra. Invernizzi gave as R.'s 
reading, and himself read (contra nie- 
trum) ravra av ; TP. noOev ; £k rovpavov. 

Tyrwhitt altered ravra into ravra, and 
so Bothe, who in other respects followed 
Invernizzi, and this was supposed to 
be R.'s actual reading and, except 
as herein mentioned, is adopted by 
subsequent editors. Hirschig suggested 
ravras ; TP. 6n66ev ) e< rovpavov, which 
is read by Meineke, Holden, Blaydes, 
Herwerden, Hall and Geldart, Merry, 
and Graves. 

851. aye vw Icopev. These words given 
to the Servant by all the MSS. and vulgo 
are, on the suggestion of Boissonade 
(approved by Meineke) transferred to 
Trygaeus by Holden, Herwerden, Hall 
and Geldart, Merry, Van Leeuwen, 
Zacher, and Graves. This is plainly 
wrong. Trygaeus was not going any- 
where. He has told the Servant to 
take Harvesthome in for her bridal bath, 
and then to bring her back again. 
Accordingly the Servant now calls upon 
the girl to go in with him. It is to her 
that these words are addressed. There 
is the less excuse for this tampering with 
the text, because the passage is carefully 
explained by the Scholiast ; 6 Bepdntov 
Xe-yet " aye. vw 'Icouev " rfj ? 07TO)pa, elra 
epcora rbv 8eo~norr)v irepl rrjs 'Ozroopas. 

852. ravrrj n ; P 1 . P 2 . Brunck, recen- 
tiores. ravrr} ri ; the other MSS. and 
all editions before Brunck. And Cobet 
again suggested ri, apparently as his 
own conjecture. But the Servant, being- 
ordered merely to take Harvesthome to 
the bath and then bring her back again, 
without any mention of refreshments, 
would be much more likely to say Shall 
I give her anything to eat ? than What 
shall I give her to eat ? 

855. tcavddde R. V. Invernizzi, recen- 
tiores. kgu Fracini and subse- 



quent editors before Portus. kcu kcivcl P 1 . 
Aldus, Junta, Portus, and all subsequent 
editors before Brunck. kol Xeicdvrjv 
Brunek. Kavade I. P 2 . 

860. yeptovF 1 . Bergk,Meineke,Riehter, 
Holden, Paley, Herwerden, Merry, Van 
Leeuwen. And so I read in my former 
edition, since a glyconic line cannot end 
with a pyrrhic, except at the close of a 
sentence ; see Appendix to Eccl. 307. 
yipov the other MSS. and editions. 

864. Qavel R. V. Bentley, Tyrwhitt, 
Brunck, recentiores, except Bekker. 
(paveh P 2 ., all editions before Brunck, and 
Bekker afterwards. Both R. and V. 
have a line (the mark of a new speaker) 
before this verse, but the other MSS. 
continue the verse to Trygaeus, whence 
no doubt the reading Ravels arose. 
Bentley corrected Ravels into (pavel and 
restored the line to the Chorus. Then, 
in all editions before Dindorf (except 
Invernizzi), the following speech of 
Trygaeus is arranged as three tetrameter 
iambics, the first line ending with 
Kavdapov /3as, the second with iv tols 
aypoicriv clvtovs, and the third with 
Kadevdeiv (the readings of P 1 .), so that 
Trygaeus had, in the whole, a speech 
consisting of five consecutive tetra- 
meters. Invernizzi following R. (with 
which V. concurs) divided the first line 
of Trygaeus's speech into two, the 
second ending with *7n(3as, but this was 
not followed. Dindorf was the first to 
arrange the speech as in the text and 
Holden the first to adopt his arrange- 
ment, since which time it has been 
universally accepted. 

872. rfj @ov\fj ti. 01. rcivTrjvi; V. 
(except that'it gives all four words to 
Trygaeus) Meineke, Richter, Holden (in 

his second edition), and Mazon. R. for 
ravrrfvi has Tavrrjl, but otherwise agrees 
with V. rfj (BovXrj. 01. tls icrO' avrr) ; P 1 . 
vulgo. It is very unusual to find dvvvds 
tl separated by any intervening word ; 
and the readings in the editions are 
very diversified, some adhering to the 
actual reading of R. and others to that of 
V ; some making the servant say ravrrji ; 

TL (fiflS I Or TL ', TaVTTJVL J TL (fiflS ', OT TLS 

avTrjl ; tl <firjs } and others arranging the 
words otherwise. 

874. iiraioiiev MSS. vulgo. Kock first, 
and Blaydes afterwards, proposed 
€7r6fjL7ro/jL€v f which is read by Sharpley and 
Graves. — v7ro7r€7rcoKOTcs P 1 . Bergler, recen- 
tiores. vTro7re7TTco kot€s R. V. P 2 ., alleditions 
before Bergler, but the true reading 
had been suggested by Nannius, 
Leopardus, and Scaliger. And the true 
meaning had been recognized through- 
out. For though Andrea Divo translated 
the word " subcadentes " Florent 
Chretien gave u potabundi, " and his 
was the accepted version before Bergler. 

882. is fJiiarovs avTos cr\ So I wrote the 
line in my former edition, and so Graves. 
The pronoun cr had not previously been 
inserted, is (or els) pea-ovs avrovs R., all 
the other MSS. (except V.), and all 
editions before Dindorf. Unfortunately 
Bekker gave avTovs is fxiaovs (which is 
V.'s reading) as the reading of R., and 
this being unmetrical Seidler proposed 
avTos is jjiio-ovs, which is read by Dindorf 
and all subsequent editors except as 
hereinafter mentioned. Green proposed 
avTos is (JLtorov <r\ and so Blaydes, Merry, 
and Sharpley. Herwerden proposed 
avTos is fxeo-ovs <r\ which is read by 
Mazon . These alterations depart rather 
more widely from the general reading 



of the MSS. than mine, and I am not 
sure that is fxeo-ov gives the right sense. 
Trygaeus speaks of introducing May fair 
into the senatorial benches ; is /xeVov 
might mean that he was about to 
exhibit her in the centre of the stage. 

886. ra (tk€V7] R.V. vulgo. rrjv crKevrjv 
Meineke, Herwerden, Merry. For, says 
Meineke, "sequentia ostendunt aperte 
jubere Trygaeum Theoriam ut nudam 
sese speetandam praebeat." The 
learned professor does not seem to be 
aware that, just as actors who repre- 
sented men wore the penem scorteum 
outside their clothes, so actors who 
represented women exhibited the signs 
of womanhood outside (or on) their 
clothes, though even the dozen preceding 
lines might have taught him that. And 
he must have forgotten that if Mayfair 
" nudam sese speetandam praebuisset " 
she would have shown that she was not 
a woman but a man. 

890. fjL€T€copa MSS. vulgo. Blaydes 
suggested fierecopco, which is read by 
Herwerden, Sharpley, Van Leeuwen, and 
Zacher. — narayayelv MSS. vulgo. Blay- 
des conjectured Kqr dyayelv, which 
Herwerden and Van Leeuwen read. 
But I doubt if Kara can be used, like 
elra, to combine a participle with a 

891. Spare Toimrdviov f]fiii> Ka\6v. This 
is the reading of P 1 . Brunck, Invernizzi, 
and Weise, except that for rjpuu they 
read vplv. Spare rohirrdviov is the reading 
of all the MSS., but in R, it is 
followed by tjpXv cos Ka\6v, in V. by cos 
ko\6v fjfxiv, and in the other MSS. (except 
P 1 .) by vplv cos Ka\6v, all three readings 
being unmetrical. Save as aforesaid all 
editors retain the cos, most of them 

reading with Bentley Spar dnrdviov, and 
others with Bekker opa rovirrdviov, some 
in each case adding T)\xlv and others 
vplv. I am unwilling to give up the 
cos, but more unwilling to give up the 
article r6 onrdviov which every MS. 
reads. And therefore I follow on this 
point the reading of P 1 . 

892. K€Ka7rvLKi rap\ So I read in the 
former edition, the various readings of 

the MSS. KeKairviK apa, or ap\ or op 1 

being all unmetrical. One or other of 
them was followed by all the earlier 
editions. Brunck read KeKawviKev ap\ 
which is followed by Invernizzi, Bergk, 
Mazon, and Zacher. Dindorf read 
KeKa7TVLK€v ap\ changing the ivravOa yap 
which follows in the MSS. into ivrevQev 
yap ?jv, and omitting the rju at the end 
of the next verse, and others have done 
much the same. Blaydes inserts rot 
before ko! KeKairviKL, and so Herwerden. 
Several editors give this and the next 
line to the Servant. 

897. rrXayiav KaraftdWeiv K.r.X. This 

line was introduced by Invernizzi from 
R. and is adopted by all subsequent 
editors except Bothe. It does not ap- 
pear in any other MS., and it is difficult 
to see how it applies to the festival. I 
expect that Aristophanes, observing 
this, superseded it by the line im yrjs 

7ra\aUiv K.rX. 

906. Biaa R. V. and all MSS. (except 
P 1 .) Invernizzi, recentiores, except Weise 
and Merry, and except that Dindorf 
introduced the spelling Baa which has 
been adopted by several editors, quite 
unnecessarily ; see on 48 supra. W P 1 . 
editions before Brunck. t<5' Brunck and 
Weise. Qda-tf Merry, referring to Ach. 



909. ttoXltcus Hermann, Dindorf (in 
notes), Weise, Holclen, Bergk, Meineke, 
Green, Paley, Herwerclen, Van Leeuwen, 
Zacher, and Graves. ttoXlti^s MSS. vulgo. 
Hermann's emendation seems to me 
indubitably right. Such a sentence as 
XprjcrTOS avrjp TToKiTrjs icrriv airaviv would 
be singularly top-heavy ; and though 
airaaiv does not necessarily require a 
substantive, it would in all probability 
have one here as it has four lines below. 

910. Sans eVrl F. Herwerden, Van 
Leeuwen. ocms io-riv R. V. and all the 
other MSS. except P 1 . who (I presume 
from an erroneous notion that the metre 
required it) inserted y between oar is 
and e'er!, and so vulgo. 

916. 4>r)<T€is y Dindorf, recentiores, 
excepting Hall and Geldart and Van 
Leeuwen. (firjaeis MSS., editions before 
Dindorf; and Hall and Geldart after- 
wards. The ye seems to be required 
where the assent takes this shape ; infra 
1350, Knights 1388.— incibav k.tX R. V. 
and all the MSS. (except P 1 .) Fracini, 
Gelenius, Portus, Scaliger, Faber, 
Brunck, recentiores, except Van Leeu- 
wen. P 1 . after (firjcras inserted ri drjr (no 
doubt from its double appearance in the 
strophe 859 and 863) and omitted veov, 
and so all editions, except Fracini, be- 
fore Gelenius. Rapheleng omitted both 
ri drjr and veov, so making the line a foot 
too short, and Kuster and Bergler in- 
serted them both, so making it a foot too 
long. Tyrwhitt proposed to substitute 
ri drjr for (firjaeis, and this is done by 
Van Leeuwen. 

918. ci^ios MSS. vulgo. Dawes (at Ach. 
633) changed this to ainos, which is 
quite inadmissible. But he atoned for 
this error by adding the article to 'A0- 

novevs, in which he is followed by Brunck 
and all subsequent editors. The first 
syllable o^ABfiovevs is short in 190 supra. 
The name Tpvyahs is omitted in P 1 . and 
in all editions before Brunck, but was 
restored by Bentley, was found by 
Brunck in P 2 ., has since been discovered 
in R. V. and the other MSS., and is read 
by Brunck and all subsequent editors. 

921. rov drj [xoT-qv. After this word the 
MSS. and all editions before Dindorf 
insert o/iikov, which is shown by the 
corresponding verse in the strophe to be 
an interpolation. It is therefore omitted 
by Dindorf and all subsequent editors, 
except Bothe, Hall and Geldart, and 

924. 'Eppldiov MSS. vulgo, but the 
same alterations have been made here 
as were made supra 382. 

926. Bej] Dindorf (in notes), Weise, 
Holden, Bergk, Meineke, Green, recen- 
tiores. deoi MSS. vulgo. But in V. the 
word is written on an erasure, and I 
cannot, in the photogravure, decipher 
it with certainty. 

928. Geayevovs MSS., all editions be- 
fore Dindorf ; and Weise, Bothe, Bergk, 
Mazon, and Zacher afterwards. Qeoyi- 
vovs Dindorf and (save as aforesaid) recen- 
tiores. There is no ground for confusing 
the two names, which are quite distinct. 
The Oea- is pronounced as a mono- 
syllable as in 6ea(T supra 906. See Ap- 
pendix on Lys. 63. 

929. tcS drj R. Fracini, Gelenius, Raphe- 
leng, Portus, Scaliger, Faber, Inver- 
nizzi, and (so far as the rw is concerned) 
all subsequent editors ; but in order to 
avoid the combination of dq and drjra, 
Meineke introduced ra> dai, and is fol- 
lowed by Blaydes, Herwerden, Sharpley, 




Van Leeuwen, and Zacher. rl hrj the 
other MSS. and editions. 

931. to prjfxd y k.t.X. Except that I 
have substituted el V for eV, this line 
stands in my text exactly as it does in 
P l . and in all editions before Brunck. 
And the other MSS. agree with P 1 ., save 
only that they omit the y and give ro 
prjixa. iTrirrjbes y\ a reading which pos- 
tulates the insertion of y. Bergler 
proposed 1v el iv " si el corripiendum est 
ante iv, vel si correptio fieri non potest, 
Xeyav pro \eyei ut sit Xeycov pro Xeyovros." 
The latter suggestion was again ad- 
vanced by Elmsley who proposed (at 
Ach. 335) to read to prjp*' €Trlrr)8es ovv 
with \eycov in the following line as a 
nominative absolute. This seems very 
improbable, but is adopted by Dindorf 
and Paley. Bentley proposed to sub- 
stitute el for iv, and so Brunck. Por- 
son, also reading r6 prjp, proposed to 
insert iav between Iv and iv, and this is 
followed by Bothe, Weise, and Richter. 
Meineke inserted orav in the same place, 
and so Holden, Green, Blaydes, recen- 
tiores, with Xeyy in the following line. 
The reading of R. and all the MSS. 
(except Y.) there is Xe-yet, but V. has \eyrj. 

939. Be6s 6e\ v MSS. vulgo ; but Bebs 
is omitted in all editions before Gelenius. 
0€o\ deXcacri Mazon. 

943. iireiyere MSS. vulgo. air dyers 
Aldus, Junta, and Junta II. The line 
is omitted in Fracini, but the Scholiast 
has iirelyere. Som e editors have thought 
that, as the three following lines are 
anapaestic, this should be the same. It 
is said (in Bekker's edition) that Dindorf 
adopted ay iireiyere at Hermann's sug- 
gestion. This must have been in some 
early edition. Dindorf ignores it alto- 

gether in his Oxford edition, and in his 
treatise De Metris. It is however read 
by Richter, Holden, Sharpley, and 
Graves. " Hotibias " suggested Kareird- 
yere which is read by Mazon. It is 
however to be observed that the first 
line in each speech of the Chorus in 
this and in the corresponding system is 
metrically different from its successor : 
and the simple irrelyere seems more for- 
cible and more elegant without the ay 
or the Kar-. 

945. irokepov MSS. vulgo. irokepov 

948-1011. rb Kavovv . . . rbv 5' ororv^eiv. 
These 64 lines are omitted in I. F. P 1 . 
P 2 . and in Aldus, Junta, Gormont, and 
Junta II. They were first introduced 
by Fracini (it is supposed from R.) and 
are found in Cratander, Zanetti, Far- 
reus, and all subsequent editors. Al- 
dus between lines 947 and 1012 has the 
word ''AEinEl," the three others have 
"AEIITEI. ro de \e1irov adrjXov" But all 
the 64 lines are contained in R. and V. 

951. fjv Xdlpis vpas R. V. vulgo. The 
line, as it stands, must be taken as an 
iambic dipody, followed by a cretic. 
In order to make it an iambic Benfcley 
proposed 6 Xatpis fjv vpas, and Brunck, 
borrowing the final word of the preced- 
ing line, reads cos Xa7pis fjv vpas ; while 
in order to make it a gly conic Bergk 
reads fjv Xa7pis 6\as. In the antistrophe 
we have -ev avbpa roLovrov, and though 
the first syllable of roiovros is often 
long, as in Knights 49, Wasps 384, Birds 
136, &c, it is more commonly short. 
The line is probably glyconic, but 6\as 
seems grotesque. Something like fjv 
Xaipis I8a>v rvxv would be preferable. 

952. (ikKtjtos avkwv Bergk, Richter, 



Blaydes, Herwerden, Sharpley, the cor- 
responding line in the antistrophe being 
glyconic -tls' TroW dparXds ecrco. avXrjO~(ov 
aK\r)Tos R. Y. vulgo. Dindorf, taking 
(I suppose) the mid-syllable of dvarXds 
to be long, proposed avXeopaKXrjros, which 
is followed by Weise, Holden, Green, 
Paley, Merry, and Graves, though Din- 
dorf himself speedily discovered his 
error, and adopted Bergk's reading. 

953. rod' old' Weise. rov6\Z old' R. V. 
(the ol superscript in V). rovr cv old' 
vulgo. a-d<j> 9 old' Dindorf, Bergk, 
Richter, Green, Blaydes, Herwerden, 
Sharpley. Here again the correspond- 
ing line in the antistrophe is glyconic 
-os rrjv Upav 7t6\lv. Bothe in his second 
edition for /caret rod' reads kclvtI rovb'. 

959. daXiop, ovrco did rod \ 6 rr)P 
KaifjLiKrjv ypdyjras Xi^iv dvayivdxrKei, and 
again oh ypawriop, cos ripes, dqdiop, 
Scholiast, daXiop* ovrcos ol kcojiikoI did rov 
X. " 4>epe dr) ro daXiop rod' ip^dyj/co 9 " 
Suidas. Brunek therefore in his notes 
proposed to read daXiop here, as indeed 
Bentley had previously suggested. And 
this is done by Bothe, Dindorf, and all 
subsequent editors, dadiop R. V. and 
all other editors before Dindorf. 

960. aeiov av R. V. vulgo. Both the 
reading and the meaning are so clear 
and satisfactory that we might have 
expected this passage to escape the 
attacks of the conjecturers. But 
Blaydes offers five alternatives, one of 
which, oeio-o) re, is adopted by Herwerden 
and Sharpley. 

961. wapadovs ravrrju R. V. vulgo. 
irapados r avrrjv Herwerden, Sharpley. 

962. to ten. dearals V. vulgo. rolo-iv 
fizarals R. rots Dindorf, Bothe, 
Bergk, recentiores. 

973. dXX' cos rdxio-r' k. t. X. Neither 
R. nor V. has the sign of a new speaker 
before this line, so that, with them, it is 
a continuation of the preceding speech. 
Accordingly in Fracini and in all 
editions prior to that called Scaliger's, 
and in Kuster and Bergler afterwards, 
it is continued to the Servant. In 
" Scaliger's " and " Faber's " it is given 
to Trygaeus, to whom it was restored 
by Brunek and by all subsequent editors 
before Bergk ; and by Green and Paley 
afterwards. But Bentley and Tyrwhitt 
suggested that the last two words belong 
to a second speaker, and V. is found to 
preface them (though R. does not) with 
the sign of a new speaker. And the drj 
is certainly apt for a speaker not making, 
but assenting to, a proposal. And so, 
though the first four words have been 
left to Trygaeus, the last two have been 
assigned to the Chorus by Bergk, 
Meineke, Holden, Hall and Geldart, 
Sharpley, Van Leeuwen, and Graves ; 
and to the Servant by Richter, Blaydes, 
Herwerden, Merry, Mazon, and Zacher. 
My reasons for leaving the entire line to 
Trygaeus will be found in the Com- 

990. rpia Ka\ ^eV err) R. V. vulgo. 

This is quite accurate : see the Com- 
mentary and the Introduction to this 
Play. Many critics however unaccount- 
ably assumed that the period of 13 years 
here mentioned is intended to commence 
with the commencement of the Archi- 
damian War. Paulmier, Brunek, and 
others, therefore, thought it clear that 
the Comedy was not exhibited until the 
year 418 B. c. This notion, sufliciently 
refuted (one would think) by the 
Comedy itself, was finally disposed of by 



the discovery of the didascalia, first 
printed in Bekker's edition, which 
showed that it was exhibited in 421. 
Since then, on the same erroneous 
assumption, attempts have been made 
to alter the text. Blaydes proposed 
deKarov rod' eros, Herwerden <rov 6i'x a 
kol deK %ty) Tpvxoptff i§v ; and I have 
somewhere seen, though I cannot 
recall where, the suggestion rpiKaKm 
Setc* err]. But these are merely academic 
conjectures ; nobody has really altered 
the text. 

1000. €fjL7rXrj(T6r}vaL fieydXcov R. V. VulgO. 
I observed in my former edition that in 
all probability Aristophanes is in this 
first group of articles (999-1002) refer- 
ring exclusively to the products of Megara 
and the Peloponnese. Hamaker proposed 
to change ptydXcov into 'k Meydpcov, and 
this is done by Meineke, Blaydes, 
Herwerden, Mazon, Van Leeuwen, 
Zacher, and Graves ; while Mr. Sharpley, 
leaving the present line as it stands, 
substitutes £k p.h Meydpav in the pre- 
ceding line for r]plv dyaBcov. These 
changes give far too much importance 
to the resources of Megara. To repre- 
sent the Athenians as exulting in the 
idea that their market would be full of 
good things imported from Megara is 
contrary to all the facts of history. The 
exclusion of Megara from the Athenian 
markets was the voluntary act of the 
Athenians themselves, and while it 
ruined Megara did not affect the 
Athenians at all. That unfortunate 
country, now a mere desert owing to 
the incursions of the Athenian armies, 
was in its most flourishing days of little 
importance to the Athenian market. 
The soil was poor (TrapdXvTrpos, Strabo ix. 

1, § 8, p. 393), and there was never any- 
thing to import except such trifles as 
garlic, cucumbers, and the like. In the 
Acharnians, the Boeotian brings a load 
of good things such as those enumerated 
below 1003-5. The Megarian has 
nothing whatever to bring. It seems to 
me therefore preposterous to confine 
this first group of articles to Megara. 
The apples and pomegranates would 
come from other districts of the 

1012. €LTa fjLovcpdElv. Here the lacuna 
which commenced in 948 terminates. 

1013. a7roxr]pco0e\s V. Florent Chre- 
tien, Bentley,Bothe,Bekker,recentiores. 
dnoxeipaQels R. and the other MSS., and 
all editions before Bothe and Bekker. 
The word which follows is accented as 
the accusative plural, rds, in the MSS. 
and in all editions before Bekker, and 
by Bothe afterwards. Florent Chretien 
changed it to rds and so Bekker, and, 
save as aforesaid, all subsequent editors. 
The change seems a necessary conse- 
quence of the reading diroxr]p<o6ds. 

1023. pivovr €v6abl /xe$' tj/jlcdv. See 
the Commentary, fievovra roiwv MSS. 
vulgo. pevovra vvv Biunck, Invernizzi, 
Bothe. But the corresponding line in 
the strophe (939) is iambo-trochaic, and 
the efforts of all later editors have 
been directed to making this an iambo- 
trochaic line also. Dindorf in his text 
marked a lacuna before pevovra, and 
this is followed by Holden, Bergk, 
Meineke, Green, Hall and Geldart, and 
Merry. That lacuna was filled by 
Richter with fieveiv ml, by Enger and 
Van Leeuwen with ivOabl after dvpacriv, 
while Blaydes suggested & yepov in 
the same place with irvp kol for toivw. 



But Dindorf in his notes said that he 
now thought it more probable that the 
lacuna came after pevovTa (or fievovT*) 
and that toLwv should be struck out ; 
and so Weise, Blaydes, Herwerden. 
Blaydes suggested in his notes (besides 
the a> yipov mentioned above) two modes 
of filling up this lacuna, i^evovT ivOab' 
w Tpvyciie, Or fievovT da Tpvyale nai irvp. 
I had written the line as in my text 
before I observed that he had, in his 
Addenda, offered a fourth suggestion, 
very similar to mine, ivddde £yv fjn'iv, 
though of course %vv fjfuv and peO' fjpcov 
had very different meanings. 

1028-9. iariv tqv ye o-ocjirj. There have 
been so many small variations in these 
lines that it is not worth while to record 
them. All the MSS. except P 1 . have 
icrn tqv o~o4>f}, and so Bekker, Bergk, 
Meineke, and Graves. P 1 . and all 
editions before Brunck have earl xp e ^ v 
tqv ye o-otyrj. Dindorf omits ian and 
marks a lacuna between <ro<f>fj and 
doidfjLov, and many have done the same. 
But Hermann changed ecrn into ia-riv, 
and this with PVs tov ye gives the re- 
quired metre. And the line as written 
in my text is read by Hall and Geldart, 
Mazon, Sharpley, Van Leeuwen, and 

1032. evrjppevr] MSS. (iwr)- R.) VulgO. 
Dr. Verrall proposes and Mr. Sharpley 
reads vevrjpevrj, piled up. 

1037, ov m Trava-eL MSS. (except P 1 .), 
Fracini, Gelenius, Portus, recentiores, 
except as hereafter mentioned, ov ire- 
Travo-ei P 1 . and the other editions before 
Portus. Dawes on Clouds 366 laid down 
the rule "Exigit sermonis ratio ut 
voculae ov p.r) vel cum futuro indicativo 
vel cum aoristo altero formae subjunc- 

tivae construantur." Relying on this 
rule Brunck and Meineke changed ov 
fir} Travcrrjo-de in Lys. 704 into ov prj nav- 
o~eo~0e, though indeed the same change 
had been suggested by Bentley before 
Dawes had enunciated his rule. On the 
other hand Elmsley, in an excellent note 
on Oed. Col. 177, lays down " ov prj cum 
futuro vetantis est, cum subjunctivo vero 
negantis," and would alter here navo-ei 
into ivavarri, and infra 1226 noi^a-ei into 
7TOLrjo-rj. And this alteration is made in 
both passages by Blaydes, Sharpley, and 
Van Leeuwen, and in this passage by 
Hall and Geldart, and Graves. I cannot 
follow them in this, or in striking out 
the ov in the ov p,r) o-' eyo) irepio^ropai of 
Frogs 508. I do not believe that the 
rule was so strict as Dawes on the one 
hand, or Elmsley on the other, contends : 
or that ov p.?) might not be used as an em- 
phatic negative either with the future in- 
dicative or with either aorist subjunctive. 
I leave iravo-^o-Qe in Lys. 704 because all 
the MSS. read it, and for the same reason 
I leave navo-ei here.— nor kv R. Gelenius, 
recentiores. ttot av the other MSS. 
(V. seems to have had &>v altered into 
av) editions before Gelenius. 

1043. OTTTCL K.a\S)S VW QVTa R. V. 

Bekker, recentiores, except Weise and 
Bothe. For avrd the other MSS. and 
editions have ravra. 

1047. ovtos ye R. Invernizzi, recen- 
tiores, except Bothe and Herwerden. 
avros ye the other MSS. and editions. V. 
seems to have had ovtos, altered into avTos. 

1062. Uph R. V. vulgo. kpal.F.F.P 2 . 
Brunck, Invernizzi, Bekker. 

1074. rode irporepov. rore TTpcoTov 
I. F. P 1 . P 2 . all editions before Bekker, 
and Weise and Bothe afterwards, to y e 



rrporepov R. Bekker, Sharpley, Graves, 
rdre (with de superscript over the re) 
Trp6repov V. But in 1107 infra, where 
Trygaeus is retorting this line upon the 
soothsayer, all the MSS. read rode 
Trporepov, and Dobree on that line ob- 
served that we should either read rode 
7rpoT€pov here or repeat the reading of 
this line there. This seems to me cer- 
tain, for all the retorts of Trygaeus 
preserve in substance the very words of 
Hieracles. Accordingly robe Trporepov is 
read here by Dindorf, Bergk, and save 
as aforesaid all subsequent editors. 
Sharpley reads r6 ye in both passages. 
Bekker and Graves have r6 ye here and 
robe in 1107.— rols dXcri I. F. P 1 . P 2 . vulgo. 
ro7ab' ako-i R. V. Meineke, Richter, 
Holden, Herwerden, Hall and Geldart, 
Mazon, and Yan Leeuwen. 

1076. kcu ttcos on Kardpare k. r. X. 
This line was first introduced by 
Invernizzi from R. It is also found in 
V. and is preserved by all subsequent 
editors. It is not found in the other 
MSS. or in any previous edition. 

1078. xh Ktobnv MSS. vulgo. Lennep 
ingeniously conjectures fj t' a>S«>\ 

1084. en rov Xoittov 'v Y. I. F. P 2 . 
Bentley, Bekker, Dindorf, Holden. 
Bergk, recentiores. R. hasXoiTr'eV, which 
is merely a different way of writing the 
same words, and they are so written by 
Invernizzi. en rov Xoittov y* iv editions 
before Portus. rod Xoittov y iv (omitting 
en) P 1 . Portus to Invernizzi, and Weise 
afterwards, en rov Xolttov (omitting iv) 

1086. rpa X vv ixwov I. F. P 1 . P 2 . 
rprjxvv ixwov R. V. But in 1114 infra, 
where Trygaeus is repeating this line, 
R. V. as well as the other MSS. have 

rpaxvv ixivov. There is therefore a 
great preponderance of authority in 
favour of the Attic rather than the Epic 
form ; and in both lines that is the 
general reading. But Bekker and 
Blaydes have rp^vv here and rpaxvv 
there, which can hardly be right ; while 
Bergk introduced rp^vv into both 
places, and has been followed by most 
of the subsequent editors. 

1109. aneveyKov R. Bekker, Dindorf, 
Holden, Bergk, Meineke, Green, Paley, 
Merry, Mazon, and Graves. aTreveyKe the 
other MSS. and vulgo. Recent editors 
have fallen away to aTreveyKe because it 
is alleged by Richter and Blaydes that 
Aristophanes invariably uses eveyKe the 
second aorist form, and never eveyKov the 
first aorist form, of the imperative. 
Yet we have iveyKarco infra 1149 and in 
Ach. 805, Wasps 529, Frogs 1304, and 
elsewhere ; igeveyicare in Ach. 887, 1222, 
and Frogs 847, and igeveyicdrcD in Wasps 
860. And besides, this is the only place 
in which the second person singular is 
found at the end of the line, and that too 
an heroic hexameter which seldom closes 
with a short vowel. In all the fifty- 
four hexameters of the present scene 
there are but five which do so. 

1111. 7rpoordQ)(reL Y. and in the next line 
TTpoo-didovat V. as corrected, Bekker, 
recentiores, except Weise. Y. and all the 
other MSS. follow the verb by /jlol r&v, 
all these editors omitting the rcov except 
Hall and Geldart, Sharpley, and Yan 
Leeuwen, who omit the poi-. I think, on 
the whole, ws can more easily spare the 
r&v. As to Trpovbidovai cf. supra 955, 
Knights 1222. Trpoboaaei and wpobibovai 
R. I. F. P 2 . and (originally) Y. To re- 
store the metre P 1 . read dwcrei and npiv 



bibSvai, and so all editions before Inver- 
nizzi ; and Weise afterwards. Tnvernizzi 
read davei and irpobidopat, and Bothe in his 
first edition Soxrei and npoo-dLbovai, 

1116. tl 8r) 'yd> ; (or iyoa ;) R. V. 
Herwerden, Hall and Geldart, Mazon, 
and Van Leeuwen. tl 5' eya> ; I. F. P 2 . 
tl £' eycoye ; P 1 . vulgo. tl iycb di ; Dindorf, 
Bothe, Bergk, Green, Paley. rl & iyco ; 
TP. arv Meineke, Holden, Merry, Graves. 
ri §' iyco dr) ; Richter, who also suggested 
t/ £e &) 'yo) ; which is adopted by Blaydes 
and Sharpley. Blaydes again, amidst 
many other conjectures, suggested ri 8a\ 
'-yea ; which Zacher adopts. The MS. 
readings tl 8rj 'yco ; and tl S' eyccye ; seem 
better than any of these conjectures. 

1119. a> 7rai€ irah R. V. Invernizzi, re- 
centiores, except Weise and Bothe. 
The other MSS. and all editions before 
Brunck omit «, so making the line 
a syllable short. Bentley therefore 
suggested beginning the line with either 
a> (which is found to be the true reading) 
or 7tou. Dawes also suggested iral, and 
this is read by Brunck and Weise, and 
by Bothe in his second edition, though 
in his first he had read a>. Dawes in- 
tended ttcll for the vocative of irals, but 
Brunck must have taken it as an ab- 
breviated form of trait, since in his 
translation he altered Bergler's double 
percute, percute into a triple percute, 
percute, percute. And this is approved 
by Elmsley (in a note at the end of his 
Review of Hermann's " Hercules Fu- 
rens," Classical Journal viii. 218) who 
compares irav nave in Knights 821. 

1127-90. The whole of this supple- 
mental Parabasis is omitted in F. 

1127. fjdopai y\ The y was added, 
from R., by Invernizzi, who is followed 

by all subsequent editors. Apparently 
it is found in all the MSS. except P 1 ., but 
it is absent from every edition before 

1132. kraipw MSS. Bentley, Brunck, 
recentiores. eTepcov editions before 

1133. eKKeas R. V. Invernizzi, re- 
centiores, except Weise. And this was 
Bergler's happy conjecture, but Bur- 
mann, with his usual want of judgement, 
kept it out of Bergler's text. Brunck 
read avyKeas, but before any other edition 
was published Bergler's conjecture was 
confirmed by R. and V. Brunck is how- 
ever followed by Weise. ovk ids I. P 2 . 
all editions before Brunck "sine ullo 
sensu " as Brunck observes, ovk idaco P 1 . 
Florent Chretien for ovk ids tcov inge- 
niously suggested evKeao-Tcov, comingso 
near the mark that it is wonderful he 
did not hit it. 

1135. iK7r€7rp6fjLuio~fJiivcoi>. This is 
Bothe's conjecture, which in my former 
edition I thought the most probable of 
all the conjectures, and as it has since 
been approved by Blaydes, and adopted 
by Herwerden (who however, I suppose 
by a clerical error, spells it iKTren-prjpLvio- 
fjiev(op), Merry and Graves, I have now 
brought it into the text. €KneTTpLo-p,iva 
R. V. Bekker, Dindorf, Meineke, Holden, 
Green, Hall and Geldart, but of course 
this is contra metrum. P l . has 
iKTremeo-fiepa, and so all editions before 
Bekker; and Weise and Bothe after- 
wards. The line is omitted in I. P 2 . 
iK7r€7rp€pLVLo-p.€va Bergk, Paley, Blaydes, 
Mazon, Sharpley, Van Leeuwen, and 
Zacher, and this is no doubt nearer the 
MS. reading, but I think that the 
genitive is necessary, not indeed for the 



metre but for the sense. The order is 
eKKzas cltt av y davorara twv t-vXcov 
iK7T€7rpeiJLVL(TfjLeucov. Richter reads eKirepi- 
7T€7rpL(TfjL€va, but besides other objections 
the system admits no paeon except in 
the preceding line. There have been 
many other conjectures which it is 
unnecessary to record. 

1142. tl TYjviKavra (what next) Bentley, 
Brunck, recentiores, except Van Leeu- 
wen. ti R. V. I. P 2 . editions before 
Brunck. P 1 . to correct the metre reads 
tl 6' av Tr]viKabe, Blaydes offers three 
conjectures, one of which, tl Tri^pov 8rj, 
is rather attractive and is indeed brought 
into the text by Van Leeuwen. 

1143. dp&VTOS Kokcos MSS. vulgo. 
No words could more happily express 
the speaker's feelings about the benefi- 
cent rain now falling, and I cannot 
imagine what could have induced Nauck 
to propose 86vtos koXgos, substituting 
a transitive for an intransitive verb, and 
an aorist for an action emphatically 
present. And this frivolous conjecture 
is foisted into the text by Herwerden 
without the slightest objection having 
been taken to the genuine, and far 
superior, reading. Cf. ev noiovvTog 
infra 1157. 

1146. 'k tov ^coptoi;. The V was sug- 
gested by Bentley, and being found in 
both R. and V. is read by Invernizzi and 
all subsequent editors except Weise. It is 
omitted in the other MSS. and editions. 

1154. Ala-xtvddov MSS. vulgo. This is 
the third instance of a name being 
introduced into these Comedies which 
does not seem to be in accordance with 
the metre, the others being Lacratides 
(Ach. 220) and Hippodamus (Knights 
327), where see the notes. They are all 

proper names, and it may be that to 
appellations so constantly in use custom 
gave an accent which did not properly 
belong to them, and consequently that 
though the second syllable of Ala-x^s is 
short, that of Alax^ddov may be long. 
Here several attempts have been made 
to amend the metre. Elmsley (at Ach. 
220) proposed to insert oh after aiTrjaoi . 
Meineke in the Fragm. Com. Graec. iv. 
542 (on the Philargyrus of Dioxippus) 
suggested Alaxvmdov which is read by 
Green and Blaydes, but in his own 
edition he gave 'Apxivahov. Herwerden 
proposed Alcrxpcovidov. But the most 
ingenious of all these conjectures is 
that of Van Leeuwen who reads e£ nap' 
AlcrxivoVf six myrtles from Aeschines* 
With this lengthening of a short vowel 
in apropernamescholars compare Aesch. 
Septem 483, 542 'InnonebovTos and 
TLapOevoTralos, where the second syllable 
in each name is treated as if it were long. 
1159. fain' av d' (as infra 1179) 
Hermann, Bothe, Bekker, recentiores. 
f)vW av P 1 . editions before Invernizzi. 
fjvUa d' av R. V. I. P 2 . Invernizzi, but 
a paeon is inadmissible in this place. 

1164. <p>vcrei R. V. Suidas (s. v. cj>Itv) 9 
Bothe, Bekker, Bergk, recentiores, 
except Green, (pvei the other MSS. and 

1165. olhavovT Bentley, Bothe, Bekker, 
recentiores. olbalvovr MSS., editions 
before Bothe and Bekker. 

1176. KvClKTJVlKOvY.P 1 . VUlgO. Kv£lK.T]v6v 

R. I. P 2 . Markland(at Eur. Suppl. 1181) 
conjectured Xe&KrjvLKov, which is adopted 
by Brunck, Invernizzi, and Bekker. 
Brunck also changed avTos to avrr), viz. 
rj (poiviKLs, which perhaps was necessary 
with Xe^iKrjviKov, but which really de- 



stroys the contrast intended between the 
man's face and his cloke, as in Lys. 1140, 
where Pericleidas is described as vxpbs 
iv QoiviKibi. Lines 1175, 1176 are omitted 
in the text of V., but are added in the 

1178. \ivoTTT<!oiievos MSS. vulgo. This 
is the reading of every MS. and every 
edition, but it has been assailed of late 
years on the ground that the first 
syllable of \ivov is short. That is of 
course true, and is probably the very 
reason why the word is employed here. 
I said in my former edition that the 
sentence appeared to be a parody of 
some passage unknown ; and the parody 
may be due to the fact that the parodied 
poet had made the first syllable long. 
The substitutions proposed have been 
singularly infelicitous, such as \t)votttco- 
fxevos, Meineke ; ye XivonT&fievos, Blay des ; 
dq TTveoav fxivos, Herwerden ; \iveo7TTcopievos, 
Bachmann; iyco $e drj \ivo7TTa£<D fxevcov, 
Van Leeuwen ; dva7TTepccp€vos } Naber. 

1179. iJiuV av 8' R.V. Bothe, Bekker, 
recentiores; see on 1159 supra, fjviica 6' 
av I. F. P. P 2 . editions before Bothe. 

1183. 7rpo(TTas MSS. vulgo. Lenting 
proposed to write Trpoo-aras, and this is 
done by Richter, Holden, and several 
recent editors. It is of course the par- 
ticiple of 7Tpoo-t<rrr]fii, but the Attics do 
not seem to have doubled the cr in these 
compounds of npos. Neither TrpoaaTas 
nor 7rp6a-(rxeTE is found in any Aristo- 
phanic MS. 

1184. del tw kcikcS R. V. Invernizzi, re- 
centiores, except Weise, and except that 
Bothe in his second edition writes Kanopco 
'Bet. The words r<» kcikg) are to be joined 
with Ka7rop<Dv, driven to his wits' end by the 
blow. 6 el to kcikov I. P 2 . eBei to k<xk6v 

editions before Brunck. %Bei kcikov 
(agreeing with cmbv) Brunck, Weise. 

1187. eV eiOvvas MSS. (except R.) 
vulgo. evTevOev evdvvas R., ivTevOev being 
obviously a mistake for eV evdvv- which 
the transcriber forgot to alter. 

1190. iv ixdxn MSS. vulgo. Zacher 
strangely represents Dobree as propos- 
ing to change this into iv 'Ecpeo-co. But 
Dobree is correcting not Aristophanes, 
but the Scholiast. The Scholium runs 
Ylapoijita irapa tovs iv ttj 'Ao-ta AaKcovas 
aTVxqcravTas, " oikoi Xeovres, iv 'E<jf>ecr&> 6e 
AaKcoves." And when Dobree says 
" Schol. Lege iv 'E<£eVa) 8' dXooTreKes, ut 
Kuhn. ad Aelian. V. H. xiii. 9 " he means, 
as Kuhn had said before him, that the 
proverb should run o'Uoi \eovTes, iv 'E<£e- 
o-o) $' aXaneKes, an iambic senarius. 
He is proposing to change AaKcoves to 
a\a>7reKes in the Scholium not iv paxy to 
iv 'E^eo-co in the Comedy. 

1195. im<fi6p€L Dobree, Dindorf (in 
notes), Holden, Meineke, Richter, 
Blaydes, recentiores, except Sharpley and 
Graves. eVicr(£opa R. i7reio-(j)6pei V. I. F. 
P 2 . irreio-cpepeF 1 . vulgo. imfyepe Sharpley , 
Graves. But all the MSS. except the 
worthless P 1 . have -qiopel, and Dobree's 
is the only reading which, retaining 
this, conforms to the metre. — tovs ap.v- 
Xous R. V. P 2 . Bekker, recentiores, except 
Weise and Bothe. r<k dp,v\ovs the other 
MSS. and editions. 

1198. 6V R. V. and all MSS. except 
P 1 . Bentley, Brunck, recentiores. 6? P 1 . 
editions before Brunck. 

1201. irevTr]K.ovTa hpaxp&v MSS. vulgo. 
The first syllable of SpaxM is long here, 
as in Wasps 691, Plutus 1020, several 
fragments of other Comic Poets, and 
probably in other lines of Aristophanes, 



such as Ach. 161 and the line following 
the present, in each of which an ana- 
paest is more rhythmical than a tribrach. 
It is however more commonly short ; 
and Dawes (at Plutus 166) proposes to 
insert iyco after Spaxn&v in the present 
line. But Dawes was arguing that a 
short vowel could not be made long 
before xm > ne was n °t considering the 
case of a vowel which in its own nature 
might be either long or short, quite 
apart from the consonants which might 
happen to follow it. Plautus (Trinum- 
mus ii. 4. 23) divides the consonants x 
and /x, writing drachumarum, but still 
makes the first syllable long. Brunck 
inserted avT "id est rd bpeirava" after 
bpaxpav, and is followed by Invernizzi. 
Elmsley, at Ach. 178, found a further 
fault with the line, viz. "plane absurdum 
esse falces quinquagenis drachmis ae- 
stimari, cum proximo versu cadi trinis 
veneant." And this objection is echoed 
by several subsequent editors. Very 
likely they are right. But I am not 
myself aware of the relative values of a 
hpinavov and a Kados ; and am certainly 
not prepared to say that a bpeiravov, 
which was a much more elaborate im- 
plement than our sickle, might not have 
been worth as much as 16 or 17 little 
casks for country use or nearly as much 
as a trumpet, infra 1241. However, 
Elmsley proposed to read vw\ S' e-yob 
fji€i> TrevreSpaxp-a ravr ipiroXco, and this is 
followed by Herwerden and Graves, and 
(save that he changes ravr into navr, 
surely a change for the worse) by Van 
Leeuwen. irevrrjKovTd y' ifX7ro\£) bpaxp&v 
Dobree. TrevTr}KQvTa bapxn&v Diudorf, 
Richter. vvui be izkvre y avra bpaxpcop 
ifirroKco Meineke, and so with iycb ''fjnroXco 

Blaydes. vvv\ be irevO' ckclo-tov ipnoXco 
bpaxp-vv Bachmann, Sharpley. 

1204. kcli tvvV o n povXei MSS. vulgo. 
Florent Chretien's proposal, to read 
Kodav 6' for Kol tg)v$\ though inadmis- 
sible, is worth recording for its real 

1210. A0$0II0I02. I have named the 
speakers in the ensuing dialogue, as they 
are named substantially in the MSS. and 
in all the editions down to and including 
Bergk's. Bergk however thought that 
the dialogue with Trygaeus from 1210 to 
1264 was carried on by one speaker, an 
'OnXoTTOLos or an 'OnXoTraXrjs, for which 
others have substituted from line 1209 
"07r\(ov Kdnrfkos. He did not indeed 
introduce this arrangement into his 
own edition ; but it was carried out by 
Meineke and most subsequent editors, 
the only exceptions, I think, being 
Paley, Blaydes, Hall and Geldart, and 
Merry. Yet the MSS. are quite unani- 
mous, andare confirmed by the Scholiast, 
who on 1210 says 6 Xo<j>o7tol6s epx^ai^ 
KaTafiocdv Tpvyaiov k.t.X. ; and on 1225 
aXXos be Icttiv ovtos oXocfivpopevos ; and on 
1250 ovros Kpdvr] KOfjLifei bvo ; and indeed 
line 1250 & bvcrKaOapre balpov, cos p? 
diraXtaas seems to postulate the inter- 
vention of a new speaker. And that 
a continuous succession of speakers was 
quite in the manner of Aristophanes at 
this period of his career we see from the 
examples in the next extant Comedy, the 
Birds. And, supra 545-9, the Xo<fio7roi.6s, 
£i4>ovpy6s, and dopv£6s are distinguished 
from each other, and not compressed into 
a single 'OttXottoios. Moreover this 
huddling them all up under a single 
name destroys the distinction so clearly 
drawn between the manufacturer, the 



retail dealer, and the non-trader. The 
Xo<j)o7roi6s himself manufactured the 
\6<poi, and therefore nothing is said about 
what they had cost him ; Trygaeus 
alludes merely to the elaborate work- 
manship. The QcopaK07ra>kY)s and the 
Kpavo7T(o\r)s are not manufacturers, they 
are merely retail dealers ; and their 
complaint therefore is of the expense 
they incurred in purchasing the articles 
which the action of Trygaeus has 
rendered unsaleable. The o-a\7riyKTrjs 
appears to be not a trader at all, but 
merely a bandsman who has bought 
a military trumpet, now useless. (I do 
not know how we should class the 
dopvgos.) So far therefore from thinking 
that Bergk's view has such superior 
merit as to justify our deserting the 
unanimous authority of the MSS., I think 
that the MS. arrangement, taken on its 
own merits, is in every respect far 

1216. k'xei TTOVOV 77o\vv MSS. vulgo. 
Cf. Frogs 829 TrKcvfiovcov ttoXvv ttovov. 
ttoXvv e^a ttovov Brunck, who asks " Quis 
dubitet numerosam illam compositionem 
e poeta esse ? " Apparently every one 
doubts it except Weise, for Weise alone 
has adopted it. But Blaydes, not to be 
outdone, conjectured, though he did not 
read, irovov e'^et ttoXvv, and as Brunck 
found his one follower in Weise, so 
Blaydes has found his in Herwerden. 

1217. avrolv P'. Brunck, recentiores, 
except Invernizzi, Mazon, and Van 
Leeuwen, who with R. V. and all 
editions before Brunck read alreov. 
avrov I. F. P 2 . 

1221. cmb tyjs oiKias R. V. Inver- 
nizzi, recentiores, except Bothe and 
Weise. etc rrjs oiKias the other MSS. 

and editions. But the crests were not 
within the house and therefore could 
not be taken out of it. 

1224. Qcop-qKos Kvrei R. V. (but in 
V. somebody has superscribed a over the 
r) in 6<aprjKos) Hall and G-eldart and 
Zacher. Aristophanes would not have 
put into this shopkeeper's mouth such 
a periphrasis as OJopaKos kvtos unless he 
were quoting some well-known passage ; 
and I suspect that the words evrj^fievco 
KaWuTTa 6copr)Kos Kvrei are a quotation 
from, or a parody of, the iambics of 
some Ionian poet. BapaKos kvt€l I. F. P 1 . 
P 2 . Kuster, recentiores, except as 
aforesaid. Owpaicos o-kvtzi all editions 
before Kuster. 

1229. navo-ai p? vftpifav MSS. vulgo. 
iravo-ai 'wfipi£cdv Elmsley (at Ach. 351), 
Richter, Herwerden, Sharpley, and Van 
Leeuwen. navo-ai '(frvfipifav Meineke. 

1233. Kai rrjd\ GO. ap? ajxcpoiv Brunck, 
recentiores. Kai rfjd 1 apt. 012. <z/x$ou/ 
MSS. editions before Brunck. 

1237. xiXiftji/ R. V. Dindorf, recen- 
tiores, except Bothe and Van Leeuwen. 
to 8e x L ^ L &> v TrepuriTGHri. Schol. Ven. 
Knights 660. ^lAicai/ dpaxpcoV ivepLcnroo- 
criv ol 'ArrtKot. Suidas, s. vv. ^iXiW the 
other MSS. and editions. 

1240. tl b' apa R. V. Kuster, recen- 
tiores, save as hereinafter appears, tl 
S' apa I. P 2 . editions before Kuster. 
tl & eycoy' apa P 1 . Brunck, Bothe. tl 
apa Elmsley (at Ach. 127), Blaydes, 
Van Leeuwen. 

1248. kclM o-ol R. V. P 1 . Bentley, 
Bergler, recentiores, except Blaydes and 
Sharpley. KavTos o-ol I. P 2 . editions 
before Portus except Farreus who has 
KavTovy probably by a clerical error. 
Kavrco o-ol Portus to Kuster inclusive. 



Florent Chretien conjectured Kara aoi 
which Sharpley reads, kcu o-ra<fy<k 

1250. &s fj dTT&Xea-as R.V. Brunck, 
recentiores. os p? aTrcSktcras the other 
MSS. and all editions before Brunck. 

1258-9. fiddjjs . . . avrci y a7roSa>crei. 
So I read in my former edition, and the 
reading was approved and adopted 
by Paley. pdSrjs • • • ovt aTrohcdcreTai 
R. V. p.d6r) . . . a7roScocrerat the other 
MSS. and editions. But this is incom- 
patible with the speech of the Helmet- 
seller, which Trygaeus is answering. 
Many suggestions have been made to 
reconcile the two speeches, the one 
which has found most support being 
the transfer of the Helmet-seller's 
speech, to some other person. The best 
MSS. as we have seen read pidOys and 
dirohao-eTai. One of these must be 
wrong ; but the change of fidOrjs into 
fxddr) necessitates further alterations ; 
whilst the change of dirohdicre\ra\i into 
a7robco(T€L makes the whole passage clear 
and consistent. And even in the next 
two lines we have two examples of the 
omission of y, since R. and V. are the 
only MSS. which insert it after /^Sa^co?, 
and R. the only one which omits it after 


1262. 8iairpur0cicv MSS. vulgo. 
Some recent editors have taken objec- 
tion to the use of the plural verb in 

conjunction with 86para, and SiaTrpto-- 
Seir) was suggested by Meineke in his 
V. A. and is read by Holden, Blaydes, 
Herwerden, and Yan Leeuwen. This 
alteration is sometimes attributed to 
Dindorf, but I do not know on what 
grounds. In his edition Meineke read 

1266. ovprjcrofieva MSS. Here again 
an objection has of late been taken that 
two quite different reasons are given for 
the appearance of the boys, and Bergk 
suggested pLavvpi£6pLtva (which Green 
adopts probably for decency's sake) or 
6p&pi£6iJL€va, Meineke opx^^d^ieva which 
Holden, and Blaydes fiivvpopeva which 
Graves, adopts, probably for the same 

1267. fioi Bokci MSS. vulgo. Bothe 
suggested bondv which is read by 
Meineke, Holden, and Van Leeuwen. 
He also suggested 7rpoava(3d\r)T ip.o\, 
which is read by Blaydes, Van Leeuwen, 
and Graves. 

1270. oTrXorepcov and in the next line 
oiikoripovs MSS. vulgo. Dawes, with 
more than his usual confidence, and 
without his habitual sanity of judge- 
ment, proposed to substitute 67r\ocj)6p(ov 
and SirXocfiopovs. He could not have 
observed that the words are a quotation. 
He says " Locum interpretatur Florens 

Rursus ab armigeris nunc incipiamus. Try. Abi, aufer 
Cantare armigeros, infelicissime^ pads 
Tempore praesertim, inclocie execrande puelle. 

Felix quidem ideo, quod ipsa orationis 
indole cogente oiiKoTepoav ab armigeris 
reddiderit; infelix, quod non viderit 
eos operam ludere qui voci oirXorepos 

cum oiAa quidquam praeter sonum 
commune esse statuant." But on this 
Tyrwhitt truly remarks "Quanquam 
vox onXorepos nihil praeter sonum cum 



retail dealer, and the non-trader. The 
XocfyoTroids himself manufactured the 
\6<J)ol, and therefore nothing is said about 
what they had cost him; Trygaeus 
alludes merely to the elaborate work- 
manship. The 6copaK07ra)krjs and the 
KpnvoTTcokris are not manufacturers, they 
are merely retail dealers ; and their 
complaint therefore is of the expense 
they incurred in purchasing the articles 
which the action of Trygaeus has 
rendered unsaleable. The cra\7riyKrr)s 
appears to be not a trader at all, but 
merely a bandsman who has bought 
a military trumpet, now useless. (I do 
not know how we should class the 
§opv£6s.) So far therefore from thinking 
that Bergk's view has such superior 
merit as to justify our deserting the 
unanimous authority of the MSS., I think 
that the MS. arrangement, taken on its 
own merits, is in every respect far 

1216. e^ei TTOVOV TTOkvV MSS. VlllgO. 

Cf. Frogs 829 TrXevfiovcdV ttoXvv ttovov. 
7toXvv €x eL nwov Brunck, who asks " Quis 
dubitet numerosam illamcompositionem 
e poeta esse ? " Apparently every one 
doubts it except Weise, for Weise alone 
has adopted it. But Blaydes, not to be 
outdone, conjectured, though he did not 
read, ttovov e^ct ttoXvv, and as Brunck 
found his one follower in Weise, so 
Blaydes has found his in Herwerden. 

1217. avroiv P'. Brunck, recentiores, 
except Invernizzi, Mazon, and Van 
Leeuwen, who with R. V. and all 
editions before Brunck read atrcov. 
alrbv I. F. P 2 . 

1221. anb rrjs olx las R. V. Inver- 
nizzi, recentiores, except Bothe and 
Weise. ck rrjs ohias the other MSS. 

and editions. But the crests were not 
within the house and therefore could 
not be taken out of it. 

1224. QooprjKos kvt€l R. V. (but in 
V. somebody has superscribed a over the 
rj in 6<apr)K.o$) Hall and G-eldart and 
Zacher. Aristophanes would not have 
put into this shopkeeper's mouth such 
a periphrasis as QJopaKos kvtos unless he 
were quoting some well-known passage ; 
and I suspect that the words evrjfifjievco 
KaWio-ra 6<x>pr)Ko$ kvtel are a quotation 
from, or a parody of, the iambics of 
some Ionian poet. 6a>paKos Kvrei I. F. P 1 . 
P 2 . Kuster, recentiores, except as 
aforesaid. QmpaKos o-kvtu all editions 
before Kuster. 

1229. Travo-ai /u' vftpifav MSS. vulgo. 
Travo-at 'wftpifav Elmsley (at Ach. 351), 
Richter, Herwerden, Sharpley, and Van 
Leeuwen. Travo-ai 'cfivftpifav Meineke. 

1233. Kal rrjb\ Q£l. afx J afjL(f>olv Brunck, 
recentiores. Ka\ rfjd' a/z\ GQ. dfi<f>o7v 
MSS. editions before Brunck. 

1237. x l ^ lS>v R" V. Dindorf, recen- 
tiores, except Bothe and Van Leeuwen. 
rb Se xiXicov ire pio~Tra>aL. Schol. Ven. 
Knights 660. ^tXtwz/ dpaxpcoV TrepicrTrcd- 
aiv ol 'Attikoi. Suidas, S. W. ^tXicoy the 
other MSS. and editions. 

1240. ri 8' apa R. V. Kuster, recen- 
tiores, save as hereinafter appears, ri 
& apa I. P 2 . editions before Kuster. 
ri §' eyeoy' apa P 1 . Brunck, Bothe. ri 
apa Elmsley (at Ach. 127), Blaydes, 
Van Leeuwen. 

1248. Kair6 <toi R. V. P 1 . Bentley, 
Bergler, recentiores, except Blaydes and 
Sharpley. Kavros o~oi I. P 2 . editions 
before Portus except Farreus who has 
Kavrov, probably by a clerical error. 
Kavrco o-oi Portus to Kuster inclusive. 



Florent Chretien conjectured Kara aoi 
which Sharpley reads. ku\ araOpos 

1250. &s p aTTooXeo-as R.V. Brunck, 
recentiores. os /x' dir^Xeaas the other 
MSS. and all editions before Brunck. 

1258-9. pddys . . . avrci y a7roSa>o-ei. 
So I read in my former edition, and the 
reading was approved ,and adopted 
by Paley. pdSys . . . avr ajrobdiderai 
R. V. pdSt] . . . cLTTohcocreTai the other 
MSS. and editions. But this is incom- 
patible with the speech of the Helmet- 
seller, which Trygaeus is answering. 
Many suggestions have been made to 
reconcile the two speeches, the one 
which has found most support being 
the transfer of the Helmet-seller's 
speech to some other person. The best 
MSS. as we have seen read pdOys and 
dTrohcoo-eTai. One of these must be 
wrong ; but the change of pdBrjs into 
pady necessitates further alterations ; 
whilst the change of a7roScoo-e[ra]t into 
cmobtocrei makes the whole passage clear 
and consistent. And even in the next 
two lines we have two examples of the 
omission of y', since R. and V. are the 
only MSS. which insert it after prj^apcos, 
and R. the only one which omits it after 


1262. bumpUTBeicv MSS. vulgo. 
Some recent editors have taken objec- 
tion to the use of the plural verb in 

conjunction with 86para, and SiaTrpto-- 
Qdr) was suggested by Meineke in his 
V. A. and is read by Holden, Blaydes, 
Herwerden, and Van Leeuwen. This 
alteration is sometimes attributed to 
Dindorf, but I do not know on what 
grounds. In his edition Meineke read 

1266. ovprjo-ofieva MSS. Here again 
an objection has of late been taken that 
two quite different reasons are given for 
the appearance of the boys, and Bergk 
suggested pawpi£6peva (which Green 
adopts probably for decency's sake) or 
6p6pi£6iJL€pa, Meineke opxncrofjLeva which 
Holden, and Blaydes ^ivvpofxepa which 
Graves, adopts, probably for the same 

1267. fioi 8oK€i MSS. vulgo. Bothe 
suggested boKuv which is read by 
Meineke, Holden, and Van Leeuwen. 
He also suggested 7rpoava(3d\r]T ifiol, 
which is read by Blaydes, Van Leeuwen, 
and Graves. 

1270. SirXorepoov and in the next line 
oTvXorepovs MSS. vulgo. Dawes, with 
more than his usual confidence, and 
without his habitual sanity of judge- 
ment, proposed to substitute oTr\o<f)6pcov 
and oTr\o<j)6povs. He could not have 
observed that the words are a quotation. 
He says " Locum interpretatur Florens 

Rursus db armigeris nunc incipiamus. Try. AM, aufer 
Cantare armigeros, infelicissime, pads 
Tempore praesertim, indocte execrande puelle. 

Felix quidem ideo, quod ipsa orationis 
indole cogente SirXoTepav db armigeris 
reddiderit; infelix, quod non viderit 
eos operam ludere qui voci oirXorepos 

cum onXa quidquam praeter sonum 
commune esse statuant." But on this 
Tyrwhitt truly remarks "Quanquam 
vox 67rXoT€pos nihil praeter sonum cum 



o7rXa commune habeat, sufficit tamen, 
opinor, ipse sonus, ut ex eo Trygaeus 
occasionem arripiat inceptum poema, 
quasi armisonum, abrumpendi. Quin- 
etiam haec verba "Svv avd^ oirXorepcov 
avbpcov apxa^QcL revera initium faciunt 
poematis cujusdam antiqui de expedi- 
tione Thebana t&v 'ETnyovav. 'Apx^ ™v 
y A.vTL^idxov 'E7ny6p(ov inquit Scholiastes. 
Sed verins, credo, dixisset t&v aV'O/^poz/ 
dvac^epofievcov 'Enriyovoav. Nam eo tem- 
pore, quo acta est Aristophanis Elprjvr), 
dubito an poema Antimachi in lucem 
prodierit." Dobree for oTvkorepovs 
proposed to read oVX' rjfiiv. 

1271. adop MSS. Junta, Dobree, 
Bothe, Dindorf, Weise, Paley, Blaydes, 
Herwerden, Hall and Geldart, Mazon, 
and Zacher. But in both R. and V. 
there is an erasure between the o and 
the *>, and there is little doubt that 
each of these MSS. originally read aScoj/ 
which has been corrected into q8ov. 
And qbmv is read by Florent Chretien, 
Zanetti, Farreus, Bentley, Kuster, and, 
save as aforesaid, all subsequent 
editors, elbov the other editions before 
Kuster, with the exception of Rapheleng, 
who reads e'ldap. I should have much 
preferred to read acW, but am con- 
strained in this line to retain acW, not 
only by the authority of the MSS., but 
by the d^xaOes and Kardpnrov of the 
following line, which show that in this 
little speech Trygaeus is keeping in 
mind the neuter mubiov of his previous 
speech. It is otherwise in lines 1275 
and 1278, The use of the neuter di- 
minutive Traidlov or iraibdpiov for the 
masculine nols constantly involves 
a confusion of the two genders, the 
speaker sometimes having in mind 

the boy before him, sometimes the 
neuter appellation by which he has 
previously addressed him. See Elmsley 
at Oed. Tyr. 1165, and Dobree on the 
present passage in his Addenda to 
Porson's Aristophanica. 

1275. /JLtjivrj/jLevos MSS. VulgO. fJL€[AVr)- 

[xevov Dindorf, Weise, Paley, and 

1277. Kkavail MSS. Aldus, Junta, 
Fracini, Junta II, Gelenius, Portus to 
Bergler, Bekker, Bergk, and Mazon. 
And see KkavcrovfMOa in the same metre 
supra 1081. Kkavo-ei Cratander and the 
other editions, except Gormont's, which 
leaves the word unaccented. 

1278. abcov R. (and apparently V. 
originally, but altered into JcW as in 
1271 supra) Junta, Gormont, Cratander, 
Zanetti, Junta II, Farreus, Grynaeus, 
Portus, recentiores, except Bothe, 
Dindorf, Weise, Paley, Blaydes, and 
Mazon. adov the other MSS. and editions. 

1281. \rdo-ao-0ai (cf. supra 1092) R. P 1 . 
Brunck, recentiores. pdoacrOai or finad- 
<rd<u (cf. infra 1310) V. I. F. P 2 . editions 
before Brunck. This and the preceding 
line are omitted in V.'s text but are 
given in the margin. 

1284. 4'r' fjaQiov R. V. P l . Bentley, 
Dawes, Bergler, recentiores. Karr\(jQiov 
I. F. P 2 . editions before Bergler. 

1285. ravr'ade R. V. Zanetti, Farreus, 
Bentley, Dawes, Bergler, recentiores. 
ravrdbe, ravra de, or ravrd de the other 
MSS. and editions. For KeKopruxevoi 
Dawes proposed, and Brunck and 

Wairpi VAfl.rl veitnnemLevni. 

.. __ A r 7 

Weise read, KeKopeapevoi. 

1286. TrerraviJLevoi MSS. VulgO. " Fuit 
cum putarem legendum Treiraa-pievoL, ut 
esset idem ac KeKoprnievoi, et quasi echo 
daret illi responsum ao-p.evoi. Tamen 



nihil muto, et calidum fortasse nimis 
hoc inventum," Florent Chretien. ts Cali- 
dum fortasse nimis hoc inventum? 
Immo ingeniosum adeo, ut nihil a te 
alias vel simile vel secundum excogita- 
tum sit ; at timide adeo gelideque 
ministratum, ut vix persensisse videaris, 
quantum vulgatae lectioni praestet," 
Dawes. ' ' Florentis conj ecturam maximo 
probavit Dawesius opere,quam ego, licet 
ingeniosam, nee recepi, nee vellem re- 
cepisse," Brunch. However, everything 
comes to those who wait ; and Florent 
Chretien's pleasant conjecture, after 
waiting for upwards of three centuries, 
has at last found in Herwerden an 
editor bold enough to admit it into 
the text of Aristophanes. — o1/jlcu MSS. 
Scaliger (in notes), Brunck, recentiores. 
In the Aldine edition the word was unac- 
countably omitted, and thenceforward 
in every edition before Brunck the line 
ended abruptly with aa^voi. Florent 
Chretien proposed to supply the blank 
with ovroas ; Dawes proposed ehv (with 
Trenao-fxevoi) or ca rav (with TrejravyLevoi) 
"ac si dixisset ; Immo 7re7rao-fieVoi caue, 
non7re7rai>/xe *>oi." Scaliger alone hit upon 
the true reading. 

1292. etrjs V. (on erasure) Dawes, 
Brunck, recentiores. et? R. r)s I. F. P 2 . 
editions before Brunck with the ex- 
ception of Grynaeus. rjada P 1 . Grynaeus, 

1294. lav V.Kuster, Meineke,Richter, 
Holden, Herwerden, Hall and Geldart, 
Sharpley, Van Leeuwen, and Graves. 
I6v (variously accented) R. F. P 1 . Fracini, 
Grynaeus, Gelenius, recentiores, except 
as aforesaid. I prefer Icov, because in 
the preceding lines we have vlbs and not 
the diminutive natdiov, and the lov at 

the close of this line may so easily have 
arisen from the Traib-iov at the close of 
the next, vlbv I. P 2 . and the other editions 
before Gelenius. This reading may be 
due to the vlos at the close of the 
preceding line. 

1297. $<r«s MSS. editions before 
Brunck, and Invernizzi and Mazon 
afterwards. " Rescribendum est aaet. 
Futurum utique activum a verbo aSo> 
formatum Attici non agnoscunt, sed 
medio duntaxat aao^iai utuntur, supra 
1267, Ach. 14, 261, Eccl. 887," Dawes. 
And on this authority Brunck and all 
subsequent editors, save the two men- 
tioned above, have changed qo-ns into 
acrei. I wish that I had a better array 
of editors to countenance me in retain- 
ing the MS. reading, for there seems to 
me to be no sufficient foundation for 
Dawes's view. The use of the future 
middle does not in any way negative the 
coexistence of the future active, adeo 
is merely a contracted form of d<rt§«, 
both the future middle and the future 
active of which are in common use. 
There is therefore no a priori presump- 
tion against a future active of ado, and 
two such thoroughly well attested ex- 
amples of it as the acreis here, and the 
acroven of Plato's Laws ii. 10 (p. 666 D) are 
quite sufficient to authenticate its use. 
1301. F. and P 1 . come to an end here. 
TOKrjas R. V. Bekker, recentiores. rotcijeov 
I. P 2 . editions before Bekker. 

1307. efiftdWer ovu. This is Holden's 
conjecture, which I adopted in my 
former edition and which is also adopted 
by Mr. Graves. itipaXkerov MSS. Suidas 
(s. V. avdpiKcos and S. V. (r/xeb^ere), vulgO. 
But the dual is quite incomprehensible 
here, and various efforts have been 



made to supersede it. e/x/3aXXere Portus, 
Scaliger, Faber, Kuster, Bergler, Weise, 
and Hall and Geldart. This, however, 
does not account for the final -ov in the 
MSS. Bergk proposed ififidWer a>, which 
has obtained greater vogue than it 
deserved, being adopted by Meineke, 
Paley, Blaydes, Herwerden, Merry, 
Mazon, Sharpley, Van Leeuwen, and 
Zacher. Dobree proposed e/z/SaXXere 
*2fid>xovT€9. Holden's suggestion is the 
most simple in itself as well as the most 
likely to have given rise to the MS. 

1308. ralv yvaOoiv I. P 2 . Suidas (s. V. 
o-jLia)x ere and the best MSS. s. v. 
av8pLK$>s) } VulgO. Tolv yvddoiv R. V. 

Bekker, Meineke, Riehter, Holden, 

Blaydes, Herwerden, Merry, Mazon, 
Sharpley, Van Leeuwen, and Zacher. 

1317. Kanixoptvav V. (on erasure) Din- 
dorf, Holden, Meineke, Richter, Green, 
Paley, Blaydes, and Hall and Geldart. 
See the Commentary. miriKekcvew 
R. I. P 2 . vulgo. 

1344. ol 7rpoT€TayfjL4voL Bentley, Dawes, 
Dindorf, recentiores, except Blaydes. 
ol 7rpoo-T€Tayn€voL MSS. editions before 
Dindorf. ovTrirerayixevoi Blaydes. 

1354. S xa/pere . . . £iW7n7cr0e poi. These 
two lines are found only in R. and V. 
and are omitted in all editions before 
Invernizzi. But all the previous editions 
had recognized the lacuna, some writing 
" AEUIEI," others "AEIIIEI to de Xuttov 
Zdrj\oi>" as supra 948-1011. 

In the former edition, there being at that time no translation of the Peace into 
English verse, I collected in the Appendix half a dozen poetic versions by various 
authors of favourite and isolated scenes. Of these I now retain only two, one by 
Professor Eugene Fallex and the other by Henry Hart Milman, Dean of St. Paul's ; 
and these I retain because Fallex and Milman were the only two authors cited who 
were then living, and their kindness in allowing me to cite their versions is 
gratefully acknowledged in the Introduction. The first passage is taken from the 
"Theatre d'Aristophane ; scenes traduites en vers francais par Eugene Fallex, 
Professeur de seconde au Lycee Napoleon. Deuxieme edition. Durand, Paris, 
1863 ;" and the other from "The Agamemnon of Aeschylus, and the Bacchanals 
of Euripides, with passages from the other Poets of Greece : translated by Henry 
Hart Milman D.D. Dean of St. Paul's. Murray, London, 1865.' 1 

Parlez a Mercure, portier de l'Olympe. 

arap iyyvs eivni : VV. 177—237. 

Trygee (sur son escarbot). Ah ! j'approche du ciel, ce me semble, a cette heure 
Deja de Jupiter j'apercois la demeure. 
Oii done est le portier ? Ouvrez, quelqu'un, venez ! 









Trygee (h 






Quelle odeur de inortel me monte jusqu'au nez ? 
Effraye a la vue de la monture de Trygee. 
Hercule ! dieu puissant ! que vois-je ? Quelle bete ! 
Tu vois un escarbot-cheval. 

I/ignoble tete ! 
Impudent, effronte, miserable goujat, 
Scelerat, scelerat, cent fois plus scelerat 
Que le plus scelerat des scelerats des homines ! 
Viens ici, scelerat, dis comment tu te nommes. 

Ton pays ? — Ton pere ? 

Par la Terre ! Ton nom ? traitre, tu le diras, 
Ou je vais t'assommer, vois-tu ? 

Je suis Trygee ; 
Honnete vigneron et natif d'Athmonee, 
Peu delateur, plaideur encor moins. 

Fort bien : mais 
Que viens-tu faire ici ? 
'ui offrant unplat). Te presenter ces mets. 

(se radoucissant). Eh ! mon pauvre garden, as-tu fait bon voyage ? 
Gourmand ! comme deja tu changes de langage ! 
Depuis qu'a tes regards j'ai fait briller ce plat, 
Je suis pauvre garcon, et non plus scelerat. 
— Va me chercher Jupin. 

Ah ! facheuse disgrace ! 
Tu venais voir les dieux ? lis ont vide la place. 
Ces messieurs hier soir ont quitte la maison. 
Ou done sont-ils alles ? Sur la terre ? 

Ah ! mais non. 
Plus souvent qu'ils voudraient se risquer sur la terre ! 
Mais alors, ou sont-ils ? dis-moi. 

La troupe entiere 
Au fin fond de l'Olympe a couru se blottir : 
Tu ne la verras pas de sit6t en sortir. 
lis font laisse tout seul a la maison ? 

Je reste 

Pour garder, mon ami, la cuisine celeste, 
Avec sa batterie, en plats, pots et chaudrons, 
Table et menus objets, fioles et cruchons. 
Et pour quelle raison ont-ils plie bagage ? 
Par courroux contre vous. A la guerre, au carnage 



lis livrent un pays qu'on les voyait cherir, 

Leur donnant carte blanche afin de vous punir. 

Pour eux, ils ont gagne les profondeurs celestes 

Afin de ne plus voir vos querelles funestes, 

Afin de se soustraire aux supplications 

De peuples devores d'absurdes passions. 
Trygee. Mais pour quelle raison nous traiter de la sorte ? 
Mercure. Votre soif de combats, nion eher, est par trop forte. 

Vingt fois ils ont voulu vous faire pactiser, 

Vingt fois ils vous ont vus sottement refuser. 

Si Sparte triomphait, " Par les freres d'Helene ! " 

Disait-elle, " il s'agit de corriger Athene ! " 

— AtheneSj d'autre part, a l'ombre d'un succes, 
Si Sparte en suppliant venait offrir la paix, 
Athenes de crier: "Par Minerve ! on nous leur re, 
Ne les ecoutons pas. Par Jupin ! a toute heure, 
A la charge on verra ces gens-la revenir, 
Si nous gardons Pylos qu'ils voudraient obtenir." 
Tu dis vrai. C'est bien la le refrain ordinaire. 
Si bien que vous voila condamnes a la guerre, 
Et que je ne sais pas si vous verrez jamais, 
En depit de vos vceux, la deesse la Paix. 
Elle est aussi partie ? Ou s'est-elle portee ? 
Au fond d'un antre obscur la Guerre l'a jetee. 
Cet antre, ou done est-il ? 

Dans le fond, tout la-bas. 
Pour que de sa prison vous ne la tirez pas, 
Voici ces rocs a Tentree amonceles par elle. 
Helas ! que nous veut done cette Guerre cruelle ? 
Je ne sais : mais hier, pas plus tard qu'hier soir, 
D'un immense mortier on la vit se pourvoir. 
Un immense mortier ? Juste ciel ! Pourquoi faire ? 
Pardieu ! pour y piler, broyer la Grece entiere. 

— Mais je rentre ; au fracas qu'elle fait retentir, 
II est aise de voir qu'elle est pres de sortir. 

Trygee (epouvanU). Malheur a moi. Fuyons. Helas ! J'entends de reste, 

Du mortier des combats j'entends le son funeste* 
La Guerre. Mortels ! mortels ! mortels ! . . . . Je vous tiens, malheureux. 






Au mortier vos machoires, vos yeux .... 

Eugene Fallex. 


The Parabasis. 

el 5' ovv €ikos TLva TifjLrjaaL : w. 736-60. 

Be honour given where honour's due, our poet stands confest 

Of all our comic teachers the wisest and the best. 

For he alone, with nobler aim, his rivals made to cease, 

On rags for ever jesting and waging war on fleas. 

Still making poor starved Hercules like a glutton munch and eat ; 

And now a runaway and rogue, and ever soundly beat. 

All these, dishonoured, from your stage he drove away and gave 

A truce to that eternal flogged and ever howling slave ; 

While evermore his brother slave would o'er his stripes begin 

His sorry jests, " Poor fellow ! what's the matter with your skin ? 

Alas ! and has the bristly whip thus ventured to attack 

Thy sides with his fierce legions, and thus laid waste thy back ? " 

This wretched burthen off he threw, this low-born ribaldry : 

Created you a noble art and set it up on high 

With lofty words and sentences, disdaining as unfit 

Women and petty private men for his unvulgar wit. 

At once upon the highest with Herculean strength I sprung, 

Through stench of filthiest tanhides and pelting showers of dung ; 

And first that blatant beast I fought with sharpest teeth o'ergrown, 

Whose fiery eyes more fierce than those of shameless Cynna shone. 

And all around his brows the heads of sycophants were hung 

That rolled out o'er his noisome cheek the flattering slavering tongue. 

And torrent-like his voice poured forth fierce ruin unreprest, 

With all the mingled filth and stench of every loathsome beast. 

Against this dreadful monster I feared not alone t'arise 

In your defence, my countrymen ! and the Islands our allies. 

H. H. Milman. 



In Course of Publication 


To be completed in 6 Vols., the contents 
of which will be as follows : 


„ II. Clouds. 

„ III. Peace. 


Vol. IV. Lysistrata. 

Thesmophoriazus^e . 
,, V. Frogs. 

„ VI. Pltjtus, with the 
Menaechmei of 
Plautus, & Index. 

Vol. V. is now ready, price 15s. ; also the following separate 
Plays : Frogs, 105. 6d. ; Ecelesiazusse, 75. 6d, ; Thesmo- 
phoriazusse, 7s. 6d. ; Birds, 10s. 6d. 


York House, Portugal Street, W.C. 











This Play, when the series is complete, will form the second 

part of Volume III. The title-page of the Volume will be given 

with the Peace. 

oxford; hokace habt, printer to the university 


The five preceding comedies form a consecutive series, one having 
been issued in each successive year from 425 to 421 b. c. inclusive ; the 
Acharnians in 425, the Knights in 424, the Clouds in 423, the Wasps in 
422, and the Peace in 421. Then follows a gap of six years. And in 
the seventh year, 414 b. c, Aristophanes exhibited the Comedy of the 

We know from one of the arguments to this play that in the same 
year, 414 b. c, Aristophanes produced a second comedy, which was 
known as the Amphiaraus. / And we may be quite sure that his pen was 
not idle during that interval of six years of which no record remains v 
/ At the same time we need not suppose that the composition of the 
" Birds " was deferred till the last year or so of the interval. , It is by 
far the longest of the extant comedies ; and dealing as it does with 
a subject outside the ordinary range of the poet's thoughts and language, 
and embodying scraps of bird-lore culled from every quarter — from history, 
poetry, legend, fable, proverb, and personal observation — it is obviously 
a comedy which must have been long in incubation, and could not (as 
was the case with the Peace) have been hastily put together to meet 
a particular emergency. Indeed there are not wanting indications from 
which we may surmise that it was taken in hand, if not immediately 
after the production of the Peace, at all events whilst the mind of Aristo- 
phanes was still filled with the topics and ideas which possessed it while 
he was engaged in the composition of the earlier play. In the vagrant 
Oracle-monger (xp^o-ptoAoyos) of the Birds, with his prophecies of Bakis ? 
his lust for a share of the o"n\ayxva, and finally his ignominious expulsion, 


we cannot fail to recognize the exact counterpart of Hierocles, the XP^^M " 
Ao'yos of the Peace. The description which Cinesias gives of the sources 
from whence the dithyrambic poets derived their inspiration is merely an 
amplification of a sarcasm placed previously in the mouth of Trygaeus ; 
whilst the whole scheme of the proposed sacrifice on the stage, its 
preparation, interruption, and final abandonment, with the allusion to the 
predatory habits of the Kite, and to the unwelcome pipings of Chaeris, is 
substantially identical in the two plays. 

So again the two plays have an idyllic character which belongs to no 
other of the poet's comedies : the innocent charms of a country life are 
depicted as they are depicted nowhere else ; in each of them, and in them 
only, we hear the " sweet song " of the remf, and in each it is designated 
by its Doric name 6 ayiras, the chirruper. Here too, and nowhere else 
in Aristophanes, the coaxing address 2> dciAa/cpiW is employed; and 
although the Aeschylean phrase £ov6bs linraXeKTpvcbv is found also in the 
Frogs, yet it there occurs in its natural place as part of a criticism on the 
style and the language of Aeschylus, while in each of these two plays it is 
introduced, apropos of nothing, in the Parabasis, as the sarcastic description 
of a showy military officer. And possibly the germ of the present drama 
may be discovered in the determination of Trygaeus /xer' opvldw is KopaKas 
ftabC&iv. Minor coincidences, such as Trohanos to yivos, are very numerous, 
but are hardly worthy of mention. 

So again, although the Athenian dependencies on the coasts of 
Macedonia and Thrace were in a chronic state of disturbance, and were 
giving some trouble at this very time, yet the advice to the reckless 
young Athenian to " fly off to Thrace- ward regions and fight there " would 
seem more naturally adapted to a time when those regions were the chief 
seat of Athenian warfare, than to a time when the entire attention of the 
Athenian people was directed to the military operations in Sicily: And 
the very remarkable verbal allusions to the History of Herodotus would 
seem more suitable to a period when that History was still fresh in the 
hands and thoughts of the poet and his audience. 

But whatever weight may be due to these considerations, the comedy 


would of course not receive its final touches until it was about to be sent 
in to the Archon, in the winter o£ 415-414 b. c. And there is no reason 
to doubt that the allusions to the delays of Nicias, and the dispatch of 
the Salaminia with a process-server on board refer to the well-known 
incidents which occurred during the preliminary stages of the expedition 
to Sicily. 

The Birds was exhibited at the great Dionysia in the archonship of 
Chabrias * in the year 414 B. c. It was placed second in the competition. 
The prize was awarded to the Revellers (Kco/xaorcu) of Ameipsias. The 
other competing play was the Solitary (MovoTpo7ro$) of Phrynichus, which 
was plai^w " "K 

The Koo/Jtaorat of Ameipsias is not elsewhere mentioned; and as several 
authors refer to a Kco/xao-ral of Phrynichus, it is suggested by Bergk 2 
that both the comedies which competed with the Birds were the work of 
Phrynichus, who exhibited one in his own name, and the other in the 
name of Ameipsias; just as Aristophanes, eight years previously, had 
exhibited the Wasps in his own name, and the Rehearsal in the name of 
Philonides. But there seems to be no sufficient ground for this suggestion. 
There is nothing surprising, or unusual, in the circumstance that one of 
the competing comedies is never heard of again ; or that plays bearing 
the same name should be written by two comic poets. As to the former 
circumstance (to take one instance out of many) the plays which 
competed with the Acharnians in the year 425 B. c. were the Xct^afo/xe^ot 
of Cratinus, and the Nov/xrjznat of Eupolis. Cratinus and Eupolis were 
far greater and more popular poets than Ameipsias, yet neither 3 of these 

1 By some unaccountable mischance the exhibition of the Birds, in the Intro- 
duction to the Thesmophoriazusae, p. xxxv, is placed opposite the name of Peisander. 
It was intended to stand opposite the name of Chabrias. 

2 At the close of Fritzsche's "Quaestiones Aristophaneae," vol. i. See also 
Meineke's Historia Critica, p. 155. 

3 Non minus perierant, aut potius nunquam editae erant, Eupolidis Nou/iiyw'ai, 
quam Cratini Xei/*afo>«/oi. — Elmsley, Additional Note to the Argument of the 


two plays is ever heard of again. And as to the other circumstance, we 
need not travel beyond the three plays produced in this very competition. 
The name Kwjutaoral was selected not only by Ameipsias and Phrynichus, 
but also by Epicharmus and Eubulides for one of their comic plays. 
We hear of an "OpviOes by Magnes, and an "OpvuOes by Crates, as well as 
an "OpviOts by Aristophanes. Nor was the Movorpoiros of Phrynichus the 
only comedy bearing that name. A play with the same title was 
exhibited by Anaxilas, and another by Ophelion. And it seems in the 
highest degree improbable that Phrynichus should have entrusted one, and 
presumably the better, of his two plays to be exhibited in the name of 
a rival at least as distinguished and successful as himself. We have 
therefore no reason for doubting that Ameipsias himself was the author 
of the play which defeated this famous Aristophanic comedy. 

The Birds is universally recognized as one of the most brilliant and 
most musical of extant comedies ; and many have expressed their wonder 
that it failed to obtain the prize. We know nothing of the " Revellers " 
of Ameipsias ; but if the two plays were before us, we should probably 
have no hesitation in awarding the prize to the " Birds." And yet we 
need feel no surprise that the Athenian audience and judges arrived at 
a different conclusion. With all its dainty bird-melodies, and its wealth 
of poetic imagination, it is unmistakably lacking in the robust humour, 
the strong human element, the broad personal satire, political or literary, 
which the Athenians expected their comic poets to supply. The audience 
may, for aught we know, have found these qualities, in profusion, in the 
Revellers of Ameipsias; they would find but slight traces of them in 
the play which recounts the adventures of Peisthetaerus and Euelpides. 

But before proceeding further, it is necessary to apologize for giving 
to the principal character his genuine Aristophanic name, neKrOircupos. 
For Dobree observing, truly enough, that the name is not formed in 
accordance with the usual fashion of such compounds — though of course 
the syllable newO- is found in tenses of tt^lOoo — suggested, with less than 
his usual sagacity, that it should be written either rieto-eratpo? or 
Tlfc(r0er(u/)o?. To these two unAristophanic names Bergk added a third, 


YleiQiraipos* Meineke, however, was the first to tamper with the text, * 
and subsequent editors have rung the changes on these three suggested 
alternatives : — 

llio-0erai/>os. Meineke, Hall and Geldart. 

HuOiraipos. Holden, Koek, Merry. 

TleiortTaipos. Blaydes, Van Leeuwen. 
They cannot agree which is the right name, but they are sure that 
Il€ior0erai/oos is the wrong one, and with the customary zeal of innovators 
fall foul of all those who x venture to adhere to the genuine Aristophanic 

For whatever may be said as to the unusual formation of the compound, 
there cannot, I think, be the slightest doubt that the name came so 
written from the hand of Aristophanes. It is found, so written, in every 
MS. wherever it occurs, alike in the text of the play, the arguments, 
and the dramatis pereonae ; and it is so written by every Scholiast and 
every grammarian. There is no discordant note anywhere. In the 
course of the last century a very ancient fragment of the play — the 
Arsinoe fragment — was discovered in Egypt, amongst the ruins of 
Medinet-el-Faioum. It is supposed to be 500 years older than our 
oldest MS. It happens to contain line 1123, and there also the name 
is written Tiuo-Qiraipos 2 . And we must remember that we are dealing 
not with Aristophanes the grammarian but with Aristophanes the comic 

1 " One who sustains and propagates it " (the name Peisthetaerus) " is only 
betraying his own defective information, and misleading others,"— Professor 
Kennedy, in a letter addressed (December 1883) to a newspaper which had noticed 
that in his translation he had substituted Peithetaerus for the traditional name. 

2 The Florentine palimpsest does not contain the full name ; but Keil, after 
mentioning other passages in which it agrees with the MSS. generally, says, " neque 
minus cum libris folium facit in nomine alterius Atheniensis ; supplementum enim 
nofcae nd quae in vv. 1423 et 1446 deprehenditur, e vitiosa nominis forma Tlciade- 
raipos quam libri omnes praebent, sine dubio repetendum est." — Hermes vi. p. 133. 
I of course agree with Keil's conclusion, well knowing that the forms nao-eVaipos and 
Ucideraipos are, as regards Aristophanes, corruptions of the nineteenth century. But 
how Keil himself arrived at that conclusion I cannot imagine, since the abbrevia- 
tion net. would suit any of the three names. 


poet, who was at liberty, and was accustomed, to coin words in any 
fashion 1 he pleased. And it seems extremely probable that he added 
the 6 to Peisetaerus, just as the Athenians in general added it to ixakanos 
(making it fjiakOaKos), for the purpose of giving to the name a fuller and 
a softer sound. It was possibly for a similar reason that Shakespeare 
named his wordy braggart Parolles instead of Paroles. 

Peisthetaerus and Euelpides, therefore, weary of the troubles and 
worries of Athenian life, and especially of the litigious spirit prevailing 
in the city, find their way to the region of the birds, to the dwelling-place 
of the hoopoe and the nightingale, formerly Tereus of Thrace and his 
wife the Athenian princess Procne. They hope that Tereus will be able 
to tell them of some quiet easy-going place, where they can spend their 
days in peace and happiness. But before he has found one to their taste, 
Peisthetaerus hits upon a wonderful scheme whereby the birds can 
become the Lords of mankind, and the Rulers of the universe. The 
birds are summoned; they adopt his scheme, and place themselves 
under his command. By his instructions they inclose the Air, the 
midspace between Heaven and earth, with an enormous brick-wall, 
so that without their permission nothing can pass from Heaven to earth, 
or from earth to Heaven. The Gods, deprived of the savoury steam 
which used to arise from the sacrificed victims, are starved into 
submission ; and the play ends with the wedding of Peisthetaerus, the 
leader of the birds, with Basileia, the incarnation of the Sovereignty and 
prerogatives of Zeus. 

The manner in which the birds were represented on the stage and in the 
orchestra 2 is sufficiently disclosed by incidental notices dropped in the 

1 As, for example, 3ovAo/xaxou in Peace 1293. 

2 It is perhaps a little unfortunate that the grotesque and repulsive figures 
delineated on a vase in the British Museum — which were published by Mr. Cecil 
Smith in a pamphlet, reprinted (a. d. 1881) from the Journal of Hellenic Studies— 
should ever have been brought into connexion with the Comedy of Aristophanes. 
They are admittedly of an earlier and a ruder age ; and nothing is more certain 
than that they bear no manner of resemblance, in costume or otherwise, to the 
bird-characters of the present play. 


various scenes. They wore the heads and wings of birds, but were 
otherwise featherless. They had long beaks, and probably their hands 
were clothed as birds-feet with claws and talons. So far as they were 
not feathered, they would presumably wear the ordinary costume of 
human beings. In general, the dress of the birds in the Cambridge per- 
formance of the comedy seems to have been a very fair representation 
of their dress in the original performance at Athens. One important 
alteration, however, was rendered necessary by the different conditions of 
ancient and modern acting. At Athens actors wore masks, and therefore 
the head of the bird would be fitted, as a mask, to the head of the actor, 
who would look through the eyes, and speak through the mandibles, of 
the bird. No mask being worn in modern times, the bird's head was 
necessarily elevated above the head of the actor, whose face was visible 
below through an aperture in the throat of the bird. 

The sceneiy of the play is exceedingly simple \ A sheer rock rises at 
the back of the stage, with an indistinct door in the centre, which 
indicates the abode of the Hoopoe. A solitary tree stands out at the 
side. The Plover's page makes his entrance in the ordinary way : but 
the Hoopoe, like Agathon in the Thesmophoriazusae, is brought out by 
means of the eccyclema. And with the Hoopoe is brought out a portion 
of the interior of his dwelling : viz. a section of the copse, Aox/xr;, which 
forms his roosting-place, and in which his wife Procne is still reposing ; 
together with the apartment wherein Peisthetaerus is discovered, towards 
the close of the play, stewing the oligarchical thrushes. With this 
exception, the scenery appears to remain unchanged throughout. 

No play of Aristophanes has been more happily turned into English 
verse than the present ; though the translations are not very numerous. 
They are by the Rev. Henry Francis Cary, a.d. 1824; the Right 

1 M. Paul Mazon's fanciful description of the entrance of Peisthetaerus and 
Euelpides (Essai sur la Composition des Comedies d'Aristophane, p. 96) is strangely 
inconsistent with the conditions of the Athenian drama. There is an excellent 
appreciation of the play in M. Simile Deschanel's " fitudes sur Aristophane," pp. 


Honourable John Hookham Frere, a.d. 1840; Leonard Hampson Rudd, 
a.d. 1867 ; the Rev. Professor Kennedy, a.d. 1874 ; and the Rev. George 
Samuel Hodges, a.d. 1896. 

But although the actual translations are few in number, the play has 
always possessed considerable attraction for English poets. Both Mr. Cary 
and Mr. Frere distinguished themselves in other fields of literature; Thomas 
Gray * worked out a careful analysis of the whole play ; the Parabasis 
proper has been translated in the metre of the original by Mr. A. C. 
Swinburne; and a version of the earlier scenes will be found among the 
poetical works of the late Dean Alford. 

At the date of the exhibition of the Birds, Athens was at the height of 
her power and prosperity. Six or seven years of comparative peace had 
recruited her numbers, and replenished her treasury. She had just 
launched against Sicily the most formidable armament that ever issued 
from an Hellenic harbour. No shadow of the coming catastrophe 
dimmed the brightness of the outlook. Everything tended to prog- 
nosticate the success of an enterprise which, however important in itself, 
was yet only a stepping-stone to far vaster and more ambitious designs. 

"We have seen in the Introduction to the "Peace" that after the 
capture of the Spartan troops on Sphacteria the ambition of Athens 
began steadily to rise ; fxeiCovcav (apiyovro, as Thucydides says (iv. 21, 41). 
And although her hopes were checked for the time by the disaster of 
Delium and the raid of Brasidas, yet after the Peace of Nicias they 
quickly sprang up again, and took a still wider and loftier range. 

For the Peace of Nicias really gave to Athens all, and more than all, 

for which she had braved the united power of Hellas. She entered into 

the Peloponnesian War against the great Hellenic confederacy, headed 

by Sparta the acknowledged Panhellenic leader, for the sole purpose of 

preserving her Imperial position ; and by the Peace of Nicias, b. c. 421, 

that position was not only preserved, but recognized as a constituent part 

1 It may be as well to mention that both Gray's analysis and Cary's notes are 
by Dr. Blaydes invariably attributed to Cookesley, the well-known Eton master, 
who incorporated them in his pleasant edition of the play " for the use of Schools/ 


of the general Hellenic system. We cannot wonder that her confidence 
in her own destiny waxed stronger, and that visions of conquest and of 
extended empire began to loom more largely before her eyes. And now 
too the great and irregular genius of Alcibiades was at hand to foment 
and direct her ambition. 

Even from the guarded language of Thucydides it is plain that 
Alcibiades was cherishing designs which reached far beyond the immediate 
objects of the Sicilian expedition. The historian himself says 1 , in his 
own person, that Alcibiades looked forward to the conquest of both Sicily 
and Carthage. And he puts into the mouth of Alcibiades a much clearer 
and more detailed exposition of the schemes which he had conceived and 
hoped to carry out. "We sailed to Sicily," he tells 2 the Lacedaemonians, 
" for the purpose of subduing, if we could, first the Sicilian, and then the 
Italian Greeks; and next we intended to make an attempt upon the 
Carthaginians 3 and their empire. And if we succeeded in these designs 
or the bulk of them, we contemplated attacking the Peloponnese, collecting 
for that purpose the entire Hellenic force which we should have acquired 
from those quarters, enlisting many barbarians, Iberians and others, 
belonging to the most warlike tribes, and building numerous triremes in 
addition to what we already have, Italy supplying us with abundance of 
ship-timber ; and with these, encircling and blockading the Peloponnese, 
and at the same time assailing it with our troops, we expected to subdue 
it without difficulty, and so become lords of the whole Hellenic world, rod 
^vixrcavTos 'EAAtjwkoS ap£ziv" 

Thucydides does not tell us how far the Athenian people were acquainted 
with, and participated in, the adventurous designs of Alcibiades ; save 
indeed that he does on one occasion represent him as saying 4 , before the 
Athenian assembly, that the Sicilian expedition, if completely successful, 
might make them the rulers of Hellas, rrjs 'EAAaSos iracnqs ap^o^v. But 
Plutarch, whose lively gossip is generally derived from contemporaneous 

1 vi. 15. 2 vi. 90. 

3 Hermocrates had previously advised the Syracusans to apply for help to the 
Carthaginians, who were themselves, he said, always in fear of an attack from 
Athens, vi. 34. 4 vi. 18. 


sources, gives a very vivid picture of the eager hopes and excitement 
which pervaded the whole population. He tells us * that long before, 
even in the lifetime of Pericles, there were some who dreamed about 
Tyrrhenia and Carthage, but that all such aspirations were repressed by 
that sagacious and far-seeing statesman. But after his death the Athenians 
began in a tentative manner, by means of small expeditions dispatched 
at considerable intervals, to intermeddle with Sicilian affairs. It was 
however Alcibiades, he says, whose hand first applied the torch to their 
smouldering ambition, and who persuaded them to send out not mere petty 
and partial expeditions, but one mighty armament to subdue the island as 
a whole. And he inspired the Demus with extravagant hopes, whilst he 
himself reached out to still larger things than they. For to him Sicily 
was not, as it was to the rest, the goal ; it was the mere commencement 
of his designs 2 . For he was dreaming of Carthage and Libya, and when 
he had acquired these, of compassing by their means Italy and the Pelo- 
ponnese, treating Sicily as little more than a storehouse of supplies for 
prosecuting the war, ecj)6b ta tov TroXejiov. — So far we should suppose that 
the hopes of the people at large were bounded by the conquest of Sicily ; 
but Plutarch goes on to say, and he repeats the statement, almost in the 
same words, in his Life of Nicias, that they too looked forward to much 
wider conquests. For he tells us that the proposed expedition soon became 
the one absorbing topic with the whole people ; and young men in the 
wrestling-schools, and old men in the workshops and semicircles 3 , would 
group together, drawing plans of Sicily, and the surrounding sea, and 
such of the harbours and coasts of the island as looked towards Libya and 

1 Pericles 20, 21 ; Alcibiades 17. 

2 tov dijfiov [itydXa rrucras iXm^ip, avros re fj,€i£6i/oov dpeyofxevos, ap\rjv y^P ^vai, npos 
a rj\mK€i 9 dievoelro rrjs (rTparciW, ov t£\os, aairep ol Xonrot, StKfXiW. — Ale. 17. 

3 ipyaa-rrj plots kcu fjpuKVKKiois. — Nicias 12. Plutarch uses the same word tjiukvkXiols 
in Ale. 17, and may possibly have borrowed the language from some Comedian, who 
may have ended one senarius and commenced another with the words iv rolo-tv 
cpyacmypLow \ f)p.iKVK\iois re. rjixiKvuXiov, a semicircle, was the name applied to the 
row of chairs in the front of the theatre, next to the orchestra, Pollux iv. 131 ; but 
it seems here to be used for any semicircular lounge in a public building or place 
of resort, where the old men sat to watch what was going on. Cf. i^bpa. 


Carthage. For they counted Sicily not the final prize, but the starting- 
place, of the war, from which they were to enter into a struggle with 
Carthage, and possess themselves of Libya, and the sea (that is, I suppose, 
the littoral of the sea) within the Pillars of Heracles *. 

Such were the buoyant hopes of the Athenian democracy when the 
great armament sailed for Sicily about midsummer in the year 415 b. c, 
and the whole population, 6 aAAos opukos anas &$ elireiv 6 iv rfj ttoKzl, kcu 
clvt&v kcu ££vo*v 2 , came down to the Peiraeus to witness its departure. 

Aristophanes, in the comedy before us, gives a comic representation of 
the high schemes and ambitions which were in the air; not as encouraging 
them, for his caricature is fantastic and ludicrous in the extreme ; yet not 
as discouraging them, since even his fantastic adventure is crowned with 
a brilliant success. 

In this sense, and no further, may the Birds be considered as allegorical; 
an allegorical representation of the soaring ambitions and the spirit of 
reckless adventure which the poet saw everywhere around him. 

But this light touch of Hellenic satire was too vague and indefinite for 
the robuster appetites of our Teutonic cousins ; and for the last eighty 
years they have been endeavouring to coarsen the delicate fibre of 
Aristophanic fantasy by discovering some actual event or events to which 
it may be possible to attach it. 

The only one of these attempts which it seems here desirable to mention 
is the essay of Professor Siivern, read before the Royal Academy of 
Sciences at Berlin in July 1827, a translation of which by W. R. Hamilton 
was published in London in the year 1835. It was at once the earliest 
and the most elaborate of them all, and is, besides, the only one which has 
attained any general notoriety. 

Siivern imagined that the Birds was an allegorical representation, not 
indeed, as is often stated, of the Sicilian expedition, but of that great 
paullo post futurum war foreshadowed by Alcibiades in his speech to the 

1 ov yap a$\ov inoiovvTO tov iroXepov IZuceXiav, dW* 6pfir)Tr)piov, cos air avTr\s dtaycovi- 
&6p,€voi 7rpos Kapx^oviovSf Ka\ crxwovT€s ap.a Aiftvrjv kcu rrjv cptos Hpaickeioav (TttjXcop 
SdXnaa-av.—^icmB 12. 2 Thuc. vi. 30. 


Lacedaemonians, when Athens, having achieved the conquest of Sicily, 
Magna Graecia, Carthage, Libya, and the Western Mediterranean, 
should, with the united forces derived from all those regions, attempt to 
blockade the Peloponnese with innumerable triremes, and starve the 
Lacedaemonians into submission. Consequently, he considered the Gods 
of the play to represent the Spartans ; the Birds, the Athenians ; and the 
men of the play, the minor Hellenic states. 

Yet if we turn to the play itself, we find the Gods described as living, 
like the Athenians, under a democratic constitution; as electing their 
officials by show of hands as in an Athenian democratic assembly ; and as 
actually governed, in their testamentary dispositions, by the laws of Solon. 
We find the Birds everywhere distinguished from, and sometimes sharply 
contrasted with, the Athenians. Whilst all the men mentioned, from 
Peisthetaerus and Euelpides themselves down to Syracosius, Midas, and 
the like, so far from belonging to the smaller states, are uniformly and 
distinctively Athenian. 

And how does Professor Silvern deal with these awkward facts, which 
shatter the very foundation of his theory? He certainly cannot be 
reproached with any lack of candour. He acknowledges at once that 
" this intricate confusion has thrown a veil over the fundamental idea of 
the poem " (p. 12, Hamilton's translation) ; that " a mysterious veil has 
been thrown over the main idea of the whole play " (p. 160) ; or in other 
words that the play as it stands lends no colour to the suggestion on 
which his entire speculation is built. It seems to me that Siivern was 
far too intelligent a man to have been deceived by his own fallacies ; and 
I cannot but suspect that he was amusing himself, either by displaying 
his ingenuity in support of: what he knew to be a hopeless paradox, or by 
satirizing the tendency of his countrymen to erect vast and ponderous 
edifices on no particular foundation. 

But although Siivern's theory was quickly seen to be untenable, yet 
the idea that the play " is not what it seems " has proved so fascinating to 
the professorial mind, that Professor after Professor has advanced some 
new theory which if satisfactory to its author has proved satisfactory to 


nobody else. I do not propose to enter into these, for in my opinion no 
one who has not throughly purged his mind from these unsubstantial 
cobwebs can rightly appreciate and enjoy the Birds of Aristophanes. 

In truth it is no very difficult thing to detect an allegory in a fantasy. 
Had Siivern set himself to allegorize Shakespeare instead of Aristophanes, 
he might have used very similar arguments to prove that the iC Tempest'' 
and not " Henry the Eighth " is the last of his historical dramas, being 
an allegorical representation of the reign of Queen Elizabeth and the 
defeat of the Spanish Armada. It is impossible, he would have urged, 
that Shakespeare should have left unnoticed that mighty struggle which, 
occurring when he was about twenty-four years of age (soon after his 
removal to London), must have left an indelible impression on his mind. 
It requires but little penetration to see that the Virgin Miranda, dwelling 
on her sea-girt isle, was intended to represent the never-sufficiently-to-be- 
admired Virgin Queen, dwelling in " this little isle " of England. 
Prospero, extirpated out of Southern Europe, but cc prosperous " here, 
represents (not, as Peisthetaerus, the sophistical spirit of the age, but) 
the spirit of the Reformation. If anything could make the matter 
clearer (I am using the Silverman method) it would be the statement 
that Ci the inveterate enemy to " Prospero is the king of Naples ; for 
who was king of "Naples at this time but Philip of Spain, the inveterate 
enemy of the Reformation ? He is now approaching the island, which 
is Prospero 's last refuge, when his ship is wrecked by a sea-storm raised 
against him by powers more than human. " I sent my fleet, 3i said 
Philip, "to combat with the English, but not to war against the 
elements : God's will be done V 9 If any one would expend as much time 
and ingenuity on this allegory as Siivern expended on his treatise, he 
could make out a case no whit more improbable or baseless than Severn's. 

Before leaving this branch of the subject, it may be desirable to 
refer briefly to another suggestion. It has been thought that although 
the general plot of the comedy cannot possibly be an allegorical repre- 
sentation of any present or future expedition, yet the poet may have 

intended, in his principal character, to delineate the figure of Alcibiades. 



But Aristophanes could not have drawn Peisthetaerus other than he is 
without departing from the ordinary type of Athenian citizen depicted in 
these comedies. He is the shrewd canny old Athenian who strikes out 
a novel and ingenious scheme of his own and successfully carries it into 
execution. That is precisely what Dicaeopolis is and does in the 
Aeharnians, Trygaeus in the Peace, and Chremylus in the Plutus. His 
character and conduct are at bottom undistinguishable from theirs. If 
indeed Peisthetaerus had not been the ordinary hero of these comedies, we 
might almost have suspected that Aristophanes had been careful to make 
him as unlike Alcibiades as he could. The one, a haughty young aristocrat, 
proud of his birth and of his wealth *, gay and dissolute in character, 
restless in his ambition, revelling in argument and dialectics, petted and 
spoiled by all ; the other, an old and needy citizen, respectable in character, 
to whom politics and litigation are alike distasteful, and who longs only 
for peace and quietness; there seems no point of contact anywhere 
between the two. Professor Kennedy indeed in the Preface 2 to his 
translation of this play, while rightly rejecting the notion that Peisthe- 
taerus was intended to represent Alcibiades, yet professes to find u some 
striking analogies " between the two characters ; and the first instance he 
gives is that " both are dissolute." But I protest against the application 
of that epithet to Peisthetaerus. Of course, being a character in the Old 
Comedy, he is bound to give utterance to one or two coarse speeches, for 
the delectation of his audience ; but he does so to a far less extent than 
either Dicaeopolis or Trygaeus, whom nobody, I should think, would 
consider to be intended for " dissolute " characters. 

To see how baseless is the attempted identification of Peisthetaerus 
with Alcibiades, we have only to consider whether he might not with 
equal facility be identified with any other of his contemporaries. Take 
Euripides for instance. Euripides is an elderly Athenian citizen ; Peisthe- 

1 a>yKa>ix€VOs fiev €7r\ yevei, iirrippLCVOs & em 7t\ovtg>, irctyvariixepos 8' cm bwdfiei, biaTt- 
6pvfxji€vos V vnb 7ro\\a>v avSpairav. Such is Xenophon's description of Alcibiades in 
the second chapter of the Memorabilia. 


taerus is an elderly Athenian citizen. Euripides is called a fox in the 
Thesmophoriazusae ; Peisthetaerus is called a fox in the Birds. Both are 
Ae7rr&) koyiara. Peisthetaerus is an assailant of the Gods: Euripides is the 
same. The action of Peisthetaerus prevents men bringing their offerings 
to the Gods. So also does the action of Euripides (Thesm. 450-2). 
Peisthetaerus obtained an ascendancy over a feckless unstable race : so in 
the opinion of Aristophanes did Euripides. The very name of Peisthe- 
taerus may be thought to involve an allusion to the plausibility of 
Euripides ; if indeed his original name was not Stilbonides (line 139), 
a name analogous to that of Euripides in form and scansion. 

Moreover all these theories proceed on the assumption that the comedy 
was both commenced and finished very shortly before its performance in 
the Athenian theatre, which is quite inconceivable ; and indeed there are 
some grounds for believing, as was observed in the early pages of this 
Introduction, that it had really been taken in hand a considerable period 
before that date. However I lay no stress upon this. But I repeat that 
no one can appreciate the enjoyment which the play is calculated to 
afford unless he can enter into the spirit in which it was written, and 
regard it as a vision of wild hopes fulfilled, a brilliant caricature of the 
extravagant dreams and sanguine fancies which had for years past been 
fluttering and winging the Athenian mind; but not in any sense an 
allegorical narrative of actual events, an enigmatic representation of 
actual characters. 

In translating a play of Aristophanes, it is perhaps not necessary or 
even always desirable to render the Greek names of birds and other natural 
objects with strict scientific accuracy ; it seems better to substitute the 
name of some known bird which will call up for an English reader ideas 
similar to those which the Greek name was intended to call up for the 
original audience, than to render the dialogue stiff and constrained by 
introducing unfamiliar names which would very possibly convey an 
erroneous meaning, or no meaning at all, to English ears. But in a play 
which is concerned almost exclusively with birds and bird-life, which 



has a chorus of birds, and which derives its very name from the birds, 
it is only respectful to set ourselves to ascertain, with what accuracy we 
can, what the particular birds to which the poet introduces us really 
are. And this is no light task, since in many cases the notices which 
have come down to us from old Hellenic days are lamentably meagre 
and scanty; and also because the progress of ornithology is marked 
by constant subdivision, so that one name might a century ago, and 
much more in the days of Aristophanes, have comprehended various 
birds which are now separately named and carefully distinguished, the 
one from the other. 

The following notes were completed x before the publication of Pro- 
fessor Thompson's (C Glossary of Greek Birds " (Oxford, 1895), otherwise 
they would never have been completed at all. His examination is not 
only of far wider scope ; it is also far more learned and scientific than 
mine : and at first it seemed desirable that mine should be suppressed 
altogether. But my inquiry is conducted on very different lines, and 
arrives more often than I could wish at different conclusions ; and perhaps 
it may be convenient to a reader of this play to have before him a short, 
popular, and unscientific account of the various birds which are mentioned 
in its scenes. Of course a writer's natural reluctance to sacrifice 
altogether an inquiry which, if it cost him some time and trouble, has 
given him very great pleasure, has also to be taken into account. 

Aristotle's 2 remarkable works on natural history are the foundation of 
all ancient knowledge on the subject. Pliny 's account of the different 
birds is often a mere translation of his ; a translation so faithful that it 
is even of use, occasionally, in fixing the true text of the Greek original. 
Aelian adds little of importance. Alexander the Myndian, so far as we 
can judge from the fragments which have reached us, was a very careful 

1 They were completed before 1892, when I moved into my present residence. 

2 A reference to Aristotle, without mentioning any treatise, is invariably to his 
Be Animalibus Historia ; to Pliny, to his Historia Naturalis ; to Aelian, to his De 
Natura Animalium. Where any other work by these authors is meant the name of 
the work is given. 


and observant ornithologist. And the treatise known as "The Para- 
phrase of DionysmVs history of birds " {Ylapafypav is t&v Alovvo-lov 
dpviOLaK&v) and quoted under the name of " Dionysius de Avibus^' gives, 
in its second book (7T€/h t&v apLcfrifiiodv opviBav), some surprisingly full and 
accurate descriptions of certain kinds of waterfowl. Phile's curious 
iambics are of no ornithological value. 

Aristotle does not confine himself, nor need we suppose that Aristo- 
phanes confines himself, to birds actually found within the limits of 
Hellas ; though of course there is a strong presumption that any bird 
mentioned in the play was more or less familiar to the audience. And 
again birds not now found within those limits may well have been found 
there in ancient times ; and vice versa ; for of course there are frequent 
and unaccountable changes in the distribution of birds. A catalogue 
of all birds seen up to that time in Greece by modern observers was 
published in 1875 by Kriiper and Hartlaub, being in fact the catalogues 
previously published by von der Muhle and Lindermayer, enlarged 
and brought up to date. But this is superseded by Mr. Dresser's great 
work on the Birds of Europe, which gives with extraordinary care and 
minuteness the regions in which every bird has in modern times been 
observed, embodying as regards Greece in particular the observations 
of that admirable ornithologist, the late Lord Lilford. Of the other 
ornithological works chiefly quoted in the ensuing investigation (a list 
of which is given in the note below 1 ) it may be mentioned that the 
edition employed of Mr. YarreH's Birds is the fourth, the first two 
volumes of which are edited by Professor Newton, and the last two by 
Mr. Howard Saunders. The editors do not distinguish between the 
original work and their own additions ; a system which makes the 
book very pleasant to read, but leaves the reader ignorant whether any 

1 Gould's Birds of Europe. 5 vols, folio. Dresser's Birds of Europe. 8 vols. 
quarto. Macgillivray's British Birds (the Land Birds). 3 vols. 8vo. YarrelFs 
British Birds (fourth edition). 4 vols. 8vo. Morris's British Birds. 8 vols. 8vo. 
BufFon's Natural History (Wood's translation). 20 vols. 8vo. Wood's Natural 
History. 3 vols. (vol. ii. Birds). Bewick's British Birds. Bp. Stanley's Familiar 
History of Birds. Kriiper's Catalogue of Greek Birds. 


particular statement is stamped with the approval of Mr. Yarrell. 
I have therefore thought it best to cite the volumes as " Newton's 
Yarrell " and " Saunders's Yarrell " respectively. Of course I had access 
to many other ornithological treatises, but these were always by my 

As the nomenclature of ornithology is constantly altering, I have 
thought it best to refer throughout to the plates and names given by 
Mr. Gould in his splendid work on " The Birds of Europe," and have 
therefore for convenience sake arranged the birds in the Orders and 
groups in vogue at that time. 

Order I. Raptoues (Birds of Prey). 

yi>\jr. lepa£. 

(prjvT]. vepros. 

aUros. K€ PX U V 9 ' 

(p\££is. IktIvos. 

aXiaieTOS. kvjiivSls. 

rpiopyjis. y\av£. 

"Of vultures/' says Aristotle 1 , "there be two kinds; one small and 

of a whitish colour, the other larger and of a somewhat cinereous colour." 

The first is obviously the Egyptian vulture (Neophron 

Yu\|/ Percnopterus, Gould, 3), "one of the smallest of the 

Vulturidae" in its adult state mostly of a creamy white, 

and still "tolerably numerous in Greece." The second is the Cinereous 

Vulture (Vultur Cinereus, Gould, 2), "the largest of the European 

vultures/' very common in Greece, though not more so than the Griffon 

vulture (Vultur fulvus, Gould, 1), which Aristotle does not seem to have 

distinguished from it. 

Aristotle 2 describes the <f>rprq as a bird of prey of a cinereous colour, 

1 Toav he yvira>v bvo iariv e'ldrj* 6 fxev piKpbs kcu e'fcXevKorepo?, 6 Se fieifav Km 
OTroSoeiSeorepoy. — viii. 5. 1. 

2 tcqv &€ opviOoav ocroi pep yap\r<javv)(es, o~apKo<t>dyoi iravres elcri' . . . olovrd re t&p 
aercov yevrj iravra* . . . en be (f>f]Prj ml yvty eon be f] pep (f)rjvrj to peyedos derov peifap t 
to be XP&H-* 1 (TTrodoeifys* — viii. 5. 1. 


larger than an ordinary eagle (though smaller than the golden eagle *), but 
neither an eagle nor a yvifr. It is clear, however, that he 
confined the name yv\j/ to those vultures whose heads are 4>r\vq 
not feathered. And the ^vrj is evidently the Lammergeyer 
(Gypaetus barbatus, Gould, 4) which Aristotle could hardly have over- 
looked, and which stands on a sort of neutral ground between the true 
vultures and the true eagles. It is common in Greece and answers very 
well to the description of Aristotle. In later times it was called apwr}. 

Aelian (N. A. xii. 4) says that the ^rjvrj was sacred to Athene. And in 
literature it makes its first appearance in the Third Odyssey, where 
Athene, leaving Nestor and Telemachus, soars away in the form of 
a lammergeyer, <f>rjvr) etSo/xeV^- OdfAfios S' cXe -n-avras tSovra?. And in the 
Sixteenth Odyssey, when Telemachus first recognizes his father, the two 
cling together, lifting up their voices, and crying aloud, aScvurepov v\ r 
oioovoi, Qrjvcu rj aiyvirioi ya/xi/^wvi^es, oi<ri re re/a/a Ayporai i$€i\ovro 2 . 

The ancient Greeks were acquainted with many kinds of eagle ; rwv 
acT&v io-rl irXdova yivrj says Aristotle (ix. 22), and he proceeds to enumerate 
six species. Pliny (x. 3) merely copies the account of 
Aristotle, which is indeed marked with a fullness and pre- ale-rds 
cision somewhat rare in his History of Animals. But no 
doubt the chief representative of the class was the great Golden Eagle 
(aquila chrysaeta, Gould, 6), 6 x/owaieros, as Aelian (ii. 39) calls it, the only 
bird, according to Aristotle, which is of thoroughly pure 
breed, all other birds being mongrels. The following are xP U(rc " CT °s 
the descriptions of the Golden Eagle given by Aristotle, 
Pliny, and Aelian : 

€Ti $e aWo ytvos icrr\v acrcov oi Kakovfi€Voi s yvrjcrioi. <J>a<ri Se tovtovs povovs Kal ra>v 
aWav opviditiv yvrjaiovs tlvai' ret yap aWa ykvi) \ii\xiKra\. Kal fi€/xoi^evrat vn aXkfjXodV, Kal 

1 ix. 22. 3. 

2 Odyssey iii. 372 ; xvi. 217. With the latter passage compare Aeschylu3, 
Agamemnon 49. 

3 I suspect that yvrjaioi is a corruption of xpuo-eoi, occasioned by the occurrence 
of yvr)(riovs immediately below. If yvfjo-iot were the true reading we should have 
had yap instead of Se in the sentence immediately following. And Aelian cer- 
tainly seems to imply that Aristotle had spoken of the x? V(Tai€T0S under that 
name ; though it seems probable that Pliny had yvrjo-ioi in his copy. The name 
Xpva-aUros was well known before the time of Aristotle ; and is the model on which 
the $vp<rai€To$ of Knights 197 is formed. 


rcov aercQV, kol tcov lepaKoov, kol twv eXaxicTTcou. ecrrt 5' ovtos ueyicrros ra>v aercbv arravrav, 
peifav re rrjs (j)r]vr)S l , tcdv (f aer&v fjuioXios 2 , xp^f 10 - 3 %av66s' (paiverai b' okiyaKis, (ocmep 
f) Kokovixevt] kv/jllvBis. — Aristotle ix. 22. 3. 

"The so-called Golden Eagle is yet another kind of Eagle. They say that 
these are the only birds of pure breed; for all other kinds— whether of eagles, 
or hawks, or small birds — are crossed and intermixed with each other. And this 
is the finest of all the Eagles; it is larger than the Lammergeyer, and half 
as big again as other eagles ; and it is of a yellow-red colour ; and it is rarely seen, 
like the so-called Cymindis." 

Quintum genus yvrjo-tov vocatur, velut verum, solumque incorruptae originis, 
media magnitudine, colore subrutilo, rarum conspectu.— Pliny x. 3. 

aKOvco be tl kcu yevos aUrSiV, kol ovoaa avrcbv xP V(Ta ^ T0V edevro' oparai be ov tto\- 
XaKis* \eyeu be ' ApicrToreXrjs avTov drjpdv kcu veftpovs, kol Xayccovs, kcu yepdvovs, kol 
Xnvas e£ avXrjs (domesticated geese, Odyssey xv. 162). peyiaros be aier&v eivai 
TrcTrtWevrat.— Aelian ii. 39. Aristotle's remark, however, applies to Eagles generally. 

The Grolden Eagle may be taken as the best specimen of its class. 
Amongst other eagles Aristotle mentions the /xop<£vog, which is identified 
with the Spotted Eagle (aquila naevia, Gould, 8). Of this bird he says : 

" Another Eagle is that which is called plangus, the second in size and strength ; 
it haunts glades, and glens, and marshes. It is called the duck-killer and morphnus. 
And Homer mentions it in the Expedition of Priam."— ix. 22. 1. 

Morphnos, quam Homerus et percnon vocat, aliqui et plancum, et anatariam, 
secuncla magnitudine et vi ; huicque vita circa lacus.— Pliny x. 3. 

Of the Spotted Eagle Schwenckfeld says (for we need not trouble 
ourselves about any distinction between the Larger and Lesser Spotted 
Eagle) "anates et columbas venatur" (Dresser v. 493). It preys on/ 
waterfowl of various kinds, and hence is very commonly found near water 
(Id. 497). Lord Lilford says, "It is very abundant in all the marshes of 
Epirus ; I never saw one except in or near marshes ; and it is certainly 
the most tree-loving eagle with which I am acquainted " (Id. 502). And 

1 This is not correct. The Lammergeyer is larger, though less compact and 
weighty, than the Golden Eagle. 

2 " The Spotted Eagle is very similar to the Golden Eagle, but almost one-third 
smaller in size."— Newton's Yarrell, i. 21. There must be some error in Pliny's 
words media magnitudine, for Pliny is here, as elsewhere, copying the statements of 

3 £avdbs, gold-coloured, asflavum aurum, Aeneid i. 592. So in the same poem we 
have fulvum auritm, fulva aquila, fulvas Jovis ales, vii. 279 ; xi. 751 ; xii. 247. 


in India, when new canals are made, the Spotted Eagle soon makes its 
appearance (Id. 503, 504). 

The lines of Homer, to which Aristotle refers, are as follows : Priam, 
starting on his perilous journey to the tent of Achilles, prays to Father 
Zens for a sign, and Zeus 

alerbv 77 zee, reXetoraroi/ irererjvap^ 
p,op<j)v6v, 6r)pr)Trjp y i bv Km TtepKvbv Kakeovcriv. — Iliad xxiv. 315. 

irepKvbv certainly, and [xop<f>vbv probably, means of a dusky colour ; and in 
the adult Spotted Eagle " the whole of the plumage is of a fine rich glossy 
brown," Gould. 

Hesiod also mentions the iiopfaos. In the Shield of Heracles 134 
he speaks of the wings pLop^volo <j>\eyvao. And it may be that ^Xcyw?, 
which stands here as the name of an eagle, is identical 
with 4>\e£is, the name of an unknown bird in line 883 of <f>\e'£is 
this play. 

Yet another eagle mentioned by the poet can be identified from its 
description by the philosopher. 

" The so-called sea-eagles are another kind of eagle. They have a large 
stout neck, curving wings, and broad tail ; and dwell by the sea and the 
beach. And many a time when they seize their prey, and 
cannot carry it off, they are themselves dragged down into dXicueTos 
the depths. And it has the keenest sight of any eagle, and 
gets its living by hunting the sea-birds. And when the sea-bird, coming 
to the surface, catches sight of the eagle, it dives down again, intending to 
emerge at some other place : but the eagle is so keen-sighted that it keeps 
flying above it, till it either drowns it or catches it when it comes up." — 
ix. 22. 3 and 23. 3. Pliny (x. 3), whilst copying Aristotle, adds several 
interesting particulars, obviously from his own observation. 

The aXiateros is by common consent identified with the well-known 
osprey (Pandion haliaetus, Gould, 12). 

6 aXiaieros kol irep\ rrjv Bakarrav §iarpt/3et, kcll to. Xip,vaia Korrrei. — Aristotle Vlli. o. 8. 

" The osprey from its habit of feeding almost exclusively on fish must be looked 
for near the seashore or about rivers or large lakes, which may be expected to afford 
a plentiful supply of the particular food in which it is known most to delight.' 1 
— Newton's Yarrell, i. 30. 

The other eagles described by Aristotle may be identified with the 
Imperial Eagle (Aquila Imperialis, Gould, 5) and the Erne (Haliaetus 


leucocephalus, Gould, 10). But his list is not complete. It does not seem 
to include Bonelli's Eagle (Aquila Bonelli, Gould, 7), which modern 
ornithologists describe as one of the commonest in Greece ; or the 
Booted Eagle (Aquila Pennata, Gould, 9) which is also found there, but 
more rarely 1 . 

There can be no doubt that Pliny 2 is right in identifying the Greek 

Tpiopxn? w ^ n the Latin bufeo, our Buzzard (Buteo vulgaris, Gould, 14). 

Aristotle (viii. 5. 1) says that it is as large as a kite, and 

Tptopx^s (i x * 24. 1) the most powerful of the falcons, 7w UpdKtav 

KpoLTio-ros. It is, however, a heavy and indolent bird, less 

quick to perceive, and less alert to follow its intended quarry than other 

falcons ; and being therefore quite unfit for the sport of hawking, it fell into 

disrepute in England and France. With us " as blind as a buzzard " has 

become a proverbial expression, and Buffon classes the buzzards and kites 

together as ignoble, filthy, and slothful birds, and observes that in all ages 

it has been common to compare a gross shameless man to a kite, and 

a disgusting stupid woman to a buzzard, 

"At times," says the Kev. J. G. Wood, "it seems to be inspired with 
the very soul of laziness." Its name is with us so much a term of 
reproach that in the Wasps I substituted for it the Hobby (Falco sub-buteo, 
Gould, 22), which is by some called subbuteo hypotriorchis ; I know not 
why, for it resembles the Peregrine Falcon rather than the Buzzard. 

The name tipa£ is often used generally 3 for any hawk or falcon ; 
yiyy] tQ>v UpaK<j)V <f>acri Ttves ttvai ovk eXaTTW tw 8eKa, says Aristotle (ix. 
24. 2), yivrj UpaKuv icrrl irdfiTroWa, says Aelian (xii. 4), but in strictness it 
was applicable to two short-winged kinds only, viz. the Goshawk (Astur 
palumbarius, Gould, 17) and the Sparrow -hawk (Accipiter fringillarius, 
Gould, 18) which "has been aptly termed a goshawk in miniature," 
Newton's Yarrell, i. 88. 

" All birds with talons," says Aristotle 4 , are carnivorous, as eagles, and 

1 Kruper 26, 27 ; Dresser v. 483, 577. 

2 Triorchem a numero testium, cui principatum in auguriis Phemonoe dedit ; 
buteonem hunc appellant Romani.— Pliny x. 9. 

3 In line 1179 of this play the name appears to include all the Raptores : but 
that is merely for a comic purpose. 

* t&v b* opviO&v 6aoL pev ya/rvj/wu^es: <rapKO<fcayoi Trdpres el&\v, olov tol re t£>v acrav 
y€vrj irdvTa Ka\ IktIvoi, kcli U panes afKJxoy o t€ (f)acr(ro(j)6vos feat 6 oiriQas (8ia(f>€povart 5* 
ovtoi to fxeycdos ttoXv dWrjk&v), kcu 6 rpiopxqs. — Aristotle viii. 5. 1. From <£aarcro- 


kites, and both the lepa/ces, the goshawk, and the sparrow-hawk (and 
these two are widely different in size) : also the buzzard. " 
And so in the present play Aristophanes distinguishes U'paf 

between the l£pa£ and the kestrel, 303, 304, 1454. 

Hesychius describes the vepros as an Upa£ ; and that is really all we l 
know of the vepros. , 

The beautiful little Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus, Gould, 26), 
still often seen hovering above the skirts of our English 
woods, was called by the Greeks Kepxvrjs or KeyxpW, and by the Latins 
cenchris. And the name is said to have been derived from Ktpxvos or 
k *7XP°Sj millet-seed, in reference to the round spots, as of 
seed or grain, with which its body is decorated. Aristotle, K€pxH1 s 
and Pliny after him, notice that the kestrel lays more eggs 2 
than any other bird of prey, for sometimes, they say, it lays four. Their 
estimate of the fecundity of other birds of prey is not confirmed by 
modern observers ; but the kestrel probably retains its pre-eminence in 
this respect, " six young birds having been found in one nest," Morris i. 
98. Its eggs are blotchy red, ZpvOpa, Aristotle (vi. 2. 2) : "rubri colons," 
Pliny (x. 74). It is still the very commonest of all hawks in Greece. 

Even if we had nothing but the notices in the Peace and the Birds to 
guide us, we could not fail to identify the Iktlvos with the 
greedy and ubiquitous Kite (Milvus vulgaris, Gould, 28), iktTkos 
which swarmed in the streets of ancient Athens much as, 
1800 years later, it swarmed in the city of London ; Newton's Yarrell, 
i. 94. It was rapacious enough to invade the public markets, and to 
carry off portions of the victims from the very altars, ko-riai, whence 
Aristophanes, in the present play, dignifies it with the epithet io-novxo$. 
Aristotle however, and therefore, of course, Pliny and Aelian also say 
that it spared the altar of Zeus at Olympia. It migrates to southern 

cj)6vos or, as others read, rfrnfioTviros, comes our palumbarhis for the goshawk ; and 
from <T7rc£ia9, our fringillarhis for the sparrow-hawk. Apollo took the form of a gos- 
hawk in Iliad xv. 238. 

1 Professor Thompson, however, thinks that vepros is derived from an Egyptian 
word, signifying a vulture. 

2 ra yapy^covvxa iravra okiyoyova icrriv, e£oD Keyxp&os' avrrj de TrXeiora riKrei r<ov 
yajjLyjrcovvxW ^nrat pev ovv kcu rirrapa rjbr], Ti/cret Se tcai 7rXe/a>. — vi. 1. 2. Pennatorum 
autem infecunda sunt, quae aduncos habent ungues ; cenchris sola ex his supra 
quaterna edit ova. — Pliny x. 73, 


climes for the winter (Aristotle viii. 18. 1), but apparently returns to 
Greece "before the swallow dares." 

We shall not, I think, be wrong in identifying the ku/xivSis with the 

great Eagle Oivl (Bubo maximus, Gould, 87) ; though as 
KujULi^Sis the identity of the two birds has never before, so far as I 

know, been suggested, it may be desirable to go somewhat 
fully into the reasons which seem quite sufficient to prove it. The 
KVjuuvfos is first mentioned by Homer (Iliad xiv. 291). Sleep, summoned 
by Hera to close the watchful eyes of Zeus, travels with her to many- 
fountained Ida. There he settles himself amid the branches of a lofty 
and umbrageous fir, 

opvidi Xiyvprj evaXiyiao?, rjv r iv opeorcn 
XCLkidba KiKkfjO-Kovcri 6eo\ } avbpes be Kvpwbiv. 

It can hardly be doubted that the bird to which Sleep is thus compared 
is the bird of night ; and none but the mightiest of its kind could be 
expected to operate with success upon the mind of the mightiest of the 
Gods. This bird the Gods call ^aWs. Now we know that when 
Homer attributes to an object two names, one employed by men and the 
other by the Gods, he means that the former is a sort of fancy name 
given by men, while the latter denotes some essential and therefore God- 
given quality, inherent in the object itself; SrjXov yap &>), as Plato says 
(Cratylus, chap. ix. 391 D), citing this and other passages, on ol ye Oeol 
avra kolXovctl wpbs opOor^ra, airep ecm cfrvcru ovofiara. The word ^aA/ds there- 
fore, the bronze- coloured, is actually descriptive of the bird. And there 
could hardly be a better description of the colour of the Eagle Owl. 
Or, if there could be a better, it is supplied by the Homeric scholiast 
6 KVfAivSis otKet /xei/ 6p7)' ecrrt Se /xeAas, ^oXkl^v tjjv xpotav. The Scholiast on 
Birds 261 says rrjv yXavKa Sorb tt)s jjiopcj>7J<s ^otA/aSa \j<iKkr](TKOvo-iv\ iireiSrj 
Xa\Kit,€L TO) x/oto/xaTt. 

. Aristotle's account of the kv/juvSls very closely resembles the description 
which modern ornithologists give of the Eagle Owl. 

" The l Kvpivbis is not often seen (for it dwells in the mountains), but it is dark, 

1 f) be Kvpivbis 6\iyaKis pev (fraiverai (olt<e2 yap opt]), ecrri be peXas, kciI peyedos ovov 
lepa£ 6 cfracraocfrovos KaXovpevos, kol rr]V Ibeav paKpbs kol XeiTTos' Kvpivbiv be KaXovcriv 
' I <ave s avrqv, r\s Kai "Ofirjpos pepLvrjrat iv rfj 'Wiabc eln-oov, i( xaXidba kikXtjo-kovcti 6eo\, 
avbpes be Kvfiivbiv." [H be v/Spis* (JmmtL be rives elvai tov clvtov tovtov opvida tg> Trrvyyi.] 
ovtos rjp.€pas fiev ov <f)aiverai bia. to p.r) fSXeneiv 6£v t ras be vvKras 6r)pevei &o~7rep ol aero\ 


and the size of a Goshawk ; and long and thin in shape. It is not seen in the day- 
time owing to its being dull of sight, but it hunts its prey in the night like the 
Eagles. And these birds fight with the eagle so furiously that both combatants 
are often taken alive by the shepherds. It lays two eggs, and nests in the 
rocks and the caverns." — ix. 13. 3. 

(1) The most striking point in this description is the statement that 
the KvfuvSts will fight with the Eagle on equal terms. Can this be 
predicated of the Eagle Owl ? 

" Mr. Nilsson states that these Owls not unfrequently engage in combat with 
the Eagle himself, and that they often come off victorious.'' — Wood's Natural 
History, ii. 102. 

"This bird, the most powerful amongst the Owls, is also one of the boldest 
and most rapacious of the European birds of prey. Naumaun states that it will 
even attack, and has been known to vanquish, the Eagle." — Dresser v. 345. 

Buffon merely observes that " they often fight with buzzards and are 
victorious in the combat." 

(2) Aristotle, it will be observed, calls it /xiXas ; but the term with him 
means little more than dark He applies the same epithet to the Imperial 
Eagle, the Stock-dove, and other birds which nobody could call black. 
And the colour of the Eagle Owl varies considerably. Some are paler, 
and some darker, than the normal bird ; and Mr. Dresser (v. 340) remarks 
that "the darkest of his specimens is a male bird from Greece." 

(3) The Eagle Owl is larger than the Goshawk, but not much. The 
length of the male Owl is " rather more than two feet," and the length 
of the female Goshawk is " rather more than two feet " ; but in each 
case, according to the usual rule with birds of prey, the female is larger 
than her mate. 

(4) The Eagle Owl "makes a very rude nest on a convenient ledge of 
rock or other similar locality, and lays two or three pure white and rather 
globular eggs." In this all authorities agree. 

Such are the grounds, and they seem satisfactory, for identifying the 
kvimvSls with the Eagle Owl. 

kol fxaxovrai be irpos top aerov ovtco cr0oSpa,cocrr' cifKpa) XafApdvcadcu ttoWcikls £covto.s xrno 
t5)V vofj.e<ov. Tiicrec fiev ovv bvo cod' veorrevet $e kol ovtos iv 7T€Tpai? ical ariirjkaiois. The 
words in brackets [ ] are an interpolation. They are not noticed by Eustathius 
(on Iliad xiv. 291) who quotes the passage in full : or Pliny x. 11. The expression 
IxaKpbs KaWtTTrbs seems to show that Aristotle had seen only a dead specimen which 
had lost the bulk wherewith its fluffy feathers endow it during life. " It owes its 
apparent magnitude to its feathers and not to its body." — Wood ii. 101. 


We need not trouble ourselves about the yXav£, the little bird 
of Athene. This is well known to be the Little Owl 
yXaOJ (Strix nudipes, Gould, 48). It is only about eight inches 


• II. 

Group 1. 









d/jL7reXh t 




The Kot/ax os or Koarcrvcjios is the Blackbird (Merula vulgaris, Gould, 72). 

"Thei*e be two kinds of blackbirds," says Dionysius 1 , "one 

K<tyiX°s black all over, the other with a beak like unto beeswax" 

(that is, yellow), "and these latter birds be the best singers." 

This seems to be merely the distinction between the cock and the hen 


Aristotle (ix. 18. 1) says that besides the common blackbird which 
is known everywhere there is also a white species. These white birds 
were probably albinos, which are not uncommon among blackbirds and 
thrushes. In August, 1887, a blackbird's nest was found near Faversham, 
Kent, which contained four nestlings, two black and two white. 

" Of thrushes/' says Aristotle 2 , " there be three sorts; first, the Mistletoe 
thrush, which feeds only on the mistletoe, and the gum which issues 
from trees, and it is as large as a jay; secondly, the rptxas, which has 
a clear voice, and is equal to a blackbird in size ; and thirdly, that which 

1 Avo S' icrTL yivrj Koa-o-vfyav* kclI oi fih wdvTr) fieXaves, ol be Krjpqi ra X*'^ 1 ! TrpocreoiKores, 
kcu tS>v kripoav jjiaXXov rrpos ras codas iirirrftciai. — i. 27. 

The same writer calls attention to the now well-established fact that the Black- 
bird is one of the earliest birds to pair and hatch. 

2 Kt^Xwi/ 6° e'lbrj rpia, f} fiev IgojSopos* avrrj 6"' ovk ioOLet aAX' rj ll-bv Kai prjriprjv* to de 
fxeyedos oo-op kLttcl cWtV. 'Erepa rpixd-S' ami) 6° o^v (pdeyycraf to 8e p.€yedos oo~ov kot- 
TV<pos. "AXA?? o° rjp KaXouarl rives IXidda, ekaxicrrij re tovtow, ical t\ttov 7tolkl\i]. — ix. 18. 2. 
This is cited by Athenaeus ii. 68. 


is called IXtas (or LVAas). This is smaller than the others, and less marked 

in its colouring." Linnaeus identifies these as follows: (1) the l£of36pos, 

our Missel Thrush (Turdus viscivorus, Gould, 77) ; (2) rptxas, 

the Fieldfare (Turdus pilaris, Gould, 76) ; and (3) IXtas, the ki'xXtj 

'Redwing (Turdus Iliacus, Gould, 78). In this latter class 

the Song Thrush (Turdus musicus, Gould, 78), which is extremely 

common 1 in Greece, would seem to be also comprised. 

No thrush is really as large as a jay, but the Missel Thrush, which is 
eleven inches and upwards in length, comes nearest to it. The fieldfare, 
which is somewhat more than ten inches long, is of almost precisely the 
same size as the blackbird ; whilst the Redwing and Song Thrush are 
only between eight and nine inches long. 

In the passage cited above, Aristotle goes on to describe the Blue Rock 
thrush (Petrocincla Cyanea, Gould, 87) which he says is chiefly found in 
Scyrus, and which is still observed in the Aegean isles. But this does 
not seem to be one of the klxX&v of which we read in the poets. 

In another place he says 2 , "Thrushes make their nests of mud like 
swallows, on lofty trees, and they build them close to each other and 
contiguous, so that from their contiguity they form as it were a chain of 

This is a peculiarity of the fieldfares, which are the only thrushes that 
build in colonies. "Mr. Hewitson says that the number of nests in one 
colony sometimes amounts to upwards of 200. I have never seen above 
eight or nine nests together." — Rev. A. C. Smith, apud Dresser ii. 53. 
" The nests are composed of long fine dry grass, with a coating of mud 
or clay between the outer and inner layers of grass. This mud seems to 
be carried by the birds to the nest in the form of small round pellets, 
several of which we found in a half-finished structure." — Messrs. Brown 
and Alston. Id. ii. 51. 

Athenaeus (ii. 68) and Eustathius (on Iliad xiii. 572) are mistaken in 
supposing that the tXtaSes or (as they spell it) IXXdSes are the birds that 

1 Von der Muhle indeed says that the Redwing is the commonest thrush in 
Greece ; but Lindermayer says that this is an entire mistake, and that Redwings 
are only occasionally found, and then in the flocks of Song Thrushes. See 
Dresser ii. 22. 38. 

2 al 5e KL)(\ai veorriav pev iroLovvrai aairep at x^iboves e/c 7TT]\ov 9 in\ rots vyfnjKois tvv 
devftpcov* i(f>€^rjs de noiovariv dXkrjXais kcu i^opivas^ toar elvai dta ir]v dvvix ilav &o-7T(p 
oppaOov veoTTioiv. — vi. 1. 3. 


dwell in colonies. Their error seems to have arisen from the fact that 
tXXcu (as explained by Hesyehius) means ayiXat, and that they concluded 
therefore that the IXXas was the most gregarious of the thrushes. 
Hesyehius however calls the thrush IXia. 

Nothing is known of the viroOvpls except its name. And if I suggest 

that it may have been the Wheatear (Saxicola Oenanthe, 

utto9ujji!$ Grould, 90) or one of the cliats, it is merely because the 

Athenians must often have seen these birds fluttering about, 

and nesting in, the thymy slopes of Hymettus. 

The iXeas of Aristophanes is doubtless the same bird as that described 
by Aristotle under the name of the iX£a. (Perhaps both words should be 
aspirated.) "The iXea has as pleasant a life as any bird, sitting in 
summer in airy and shady places, and in winter in sunny spots sheltered 
from the wind, on the reeds by the side of the marshes. It is small of 
size but sings excellently 1 ." Its small size and good song are also 
mentioned by Callimachus (quoted by the Scholiast on Birds 302), 4'Aeia 
jJLiKpoVy <f><Dvrj aya06v» 

This can be nothing but the Reed Wren or Reed Warbler (Salicaria 

arundinacea, Gould, 108). This little bird " is seldom seen 

eKeds amongst bushes, and never in trees, but it climbs about 

amongst the aquatic herbage, seldom going on to the 

ground. It creeps through the dense forests of reeds with the greatest 

ease, climbing about amongst the stems with grace and facility." — Dresser 

ii. 570. As to its song, I will follow Mr. Dresser's example in quoting 

the account given by Mr. Stevenson in his " Birds of Norfolk," i. p. 117. 

" The Reed Warbler is an incessant songster heard at short intervals through- 
out the day, except in windy weather, but saving its choicest music for the 
twilight hours. Its lavish notes are thus associated in my mind with many 
a calm summer's night on the open broads, the stars shining brightly overhead, 
and the soft breeze sighing through the rustling reeds. It is at such times that 
the song of these marsh nightingales is heard to perfection. All is still around, save 
those murmuring sounds that seem to lull to sleep. Presently, as if by magic, the 
reed-beds on all sides are teeming with melody ; now here, now there, first one, 
then another and another of the reed-birds pour forth their rich mocking notes, 
taken up again and again by others ; and still far away in the distance the same 

1 17 d' eXectj eurep aWos tls tcov opvldcoVj evfiloTos, Kal KaOlgei Bepovs piv iv Trpoa- 
r)V€(jL(p Kal ovaa, x €L l J '^ )V0S & * v tvrjXicd /cat ima'Keire'i iw\ rcov dovaKoov irep\ ra e\r]* eVrt 
$€ to fJiev peyeOos fipaxys, <pa>vr>v §* €\ei aya6r\v. — ix. 16. 2. 


strain comes back upon the breeze, till one is lost in wonder at their numbers, so 
startling to the ears of a stranger, so impossible to be estimated at all during the 

The ayS^bv is, of course, the Nightingale (Philomela luscinia, Gould, 116). 
Nightingales abounded in the neighbourhood of Athens, 
and Aristophanes, whose ear had doubtless often been &t]8wj> 
charmed with the music of their song, endeavoured to 
imitate some of their most conspicuous notes by the syllables no no no 
no rtf. I have seen many attempts made by modern ornithologists 
to translate the nightingale's melody into articulate sounds, and in every 
one of them the Aristophanic syllables are retained. The most elaborate 
is to be found in Bechstein's " Cage Birds," which consists of no less 
than twenty-four lines. I will only cite the first four : 

Tiou, tiou, tiou, tiou, 

Spe, tiou, squa, 

Tio, tio, tio, tio, tio, tio. tio, tix, 

Coutio, coutio, coutio, coutio. 

Aristophanes calls the 6px&o<s the King of the birds, and when Photius 
describes the dpx&os as /3ao-i\iKos, he probably means /3a<xt- 
\io~kos. For paviklcrKos is the Greek name, as Begulus the opx^Xos 
Latin, roitelet the French, and Kinglet the English, of the 
Golden-crested Wren (Begulus vulgaris, Gould, 148). 

The best description of the ftacriXio-Kos is given incidentally in a passage 
transcribed by Schneider (on Aristotle ix. 12. 3) from the MS. of Aetius, 
where Philagrius, speaking of the Common Wren (Troglodytes Europaeus, 
Gould 130), says 1 : "It is wellnigh the smallest of all birds except that 
which is called the fiao-ikio-Kos, and in many points it resembles the 
fiao-ikio-Kos, but lacks its golden crest. And the Common Wren is rather 
larger than the /?, and darker too ; and it is for ever cocking its 
tail erect, which is spotted underneath with white. And it is more 
vocal than the /3olo-l\lo-kos, and is sometimes coloured with iron-grey on 
the outermost edge of its wing." 

And how is it that this tiny bird has attained such royal dignity ? 

1 orpovOiov ion crpiKporarov cr^dois aivavraiv tcov opvicav irkrjv rod (3aai\icrK.ov koXov- 
pevov' TrapeoiKe ds r<» fiaoikLoKoo Kara izohXa, avev ra>p xpvcn£6vToov iv perdnrcp ntepcov' 
evpeyeOeorepov S* ion ptKpco 6 rpiDyXoovTrjs tov fiao Ckio kov kcu peXdvTcpoSj Kal tijv ovpav 
iyrjyeppivrjv e^et aef, Xev/ca) Karecrrtypevrjv oniodev ^poo/xart. \aKiarepos S' io~Tiv ovtos. 
tov (3ao~i\ioKOV) kcu eoB y ore yj/apa)T€pos iv ciKpa nepLypacpfj rrjs irripvyos. — -Aetius xi. 11. 



Partly, no doubt, from its golden crown ; " which glitters," says Gilbert 
White, in his sixteenth letter to Pennant, " like burnished gold " ; but 
partly also, it may be, from its domineering character. In Wood's 
Natural History a correspondent gives a remarkably interesting account 
of this little bird's conduct in an aviary, from which I extract a few 
sentences. The crown, the writer believes, " typifies a nature imbued 
with a spirit of empire." The Golden-crested Wren is " running over 
with the governing spirit ; and his cool audacity, fiery courage, and 
fierce domination beggar description." In the very cold weather of 1853 
two of these little birds came to dwell in an open aviary belonging to 
the writer. " Whilst they honoured us with their company they ruled 
the whole bird community, and what they could not achieve by force they 
would accomplish by stratagem. Before the winter was over there was 
not a bird in the aviary which did not give way to the two little Kinglets, 
and they always went to roost upon the backs of some other birds." The 
last detail illustrates the fable of Aesop * mentioned in the note to line 
568 of this comedy: how when the Eagle had soared to the utmost height 
in its power, a little Kinglet, nestling on its back, spread its wings and 
flew up a few yards higher. 

The Fire-crested Wren (Regulus ignicapillus, Gould, 148) was so long 
confounded with the Golden-crest, that the very discovery 

K€J3Xi5irupis of the difference between the two is constantly attributed 
to E. L. Brehm, who in the early part of the last century 
distinguished the former bird by the name of Eegulus pyrocephalus*. Yet 
the distinction was clearly recognized by the ancient Greeks. Aristotle 
in his list of worm-eating birds, o-KwA^Ko^aya, mentions both the fiao-iXevs 
and the rvpawos 3 . The latter, he says, "is a tiny bird not much bigger 
than a locust ; it has a red crest, and is altogether a graceful and trim 
little bird." This is certainly the Fire-crested Wren. And, beyond all 
doubt, Aristophanes mentions the same bird under the name KefiXrj-Trvpis, 
a name which is equivalent to the ignicapillus of ornithologists, and 
identical with the pyocephalus 4 of Brehm. The fire-crested wren is 

1 6 Alo~u)7rov fiacriXio-Kos, irri tcdv a>ixa>v rod derov KOfiio-deis, alcpvidiou e^tirTr) Kal npo- 
4(j)0a(r€v. — Plutarch, Praecepta Gerendae Reipublicae xii. 

2 Newton's Yarrell i. 457. 

s rvpawos' ovtos to fxeyedos fUKp<» pei£cov aKpidos' eon 8e <f>oiviKovv \6<$ov exa>i>, kcu 
ifXXcoff €vx a pi to opviOiov kcll evpvOpov. — Aristotle viii. 5. 3. 

4 K€@a\f) and KepXrj are mere variations of KeqtaX?), the head ; the <p being in some 


common in Attica, and is indeed found there all the year round. Its 
Aristotelian name Tvpawos shows that it is imbued with the same " spirit 
of empire " which animates the Golden-crest. And Tennyson in " The 
Window " speaks of it as " the king of the wrens with a crown of fire " : 

" Look, look, how he flits, 

The fire-erown'd king of the wrens, from out of the pine ! 
Look how they tumble the blossom, the mad little tits." 

For both the Golden-crest and the Fire-crest are fond of associating with 
the various kinds of titmouse. 

The halo of sovereignty, indeed, rests on all the wrens : and even the 
common wren is called in the popular rhyme " the wren, the wren, the 
king of the birds." 

Aristotle, enumerating the birds which feed on worms, crK0i\7}Kocj>dya t 
mentions the alytOaXos (or alyfflaXXos), our titmouse, and observes that there 
are three varieties of the alytOaXos, viz. 

(1) " the cnri&Trjs \ This is the largest ; for it is as big as a finch, o-7rt£a." 
This is, of course, the great BlacMeaded Tit (Parus major. 

Gould, 150). alytOaXXos 

(2) " the optLvbs, so called from its living in the mountains. 

And it has a long tail." This is the Long-tailed Tit (Parus Caudatus, 
Gould, 157. Mr. Gould, however, merely gives the English variety, from 
which ornithologists now distinguish the continental bird, Acredula 
ccmdata, Dresser iii. 67). In Switzerland it is found "as high up in 

dialects changed into /3, as in the noted Macedonian instance of BepevUrj for Qepevita]. 
Thus Hesychius explains KeficiXr) by Ke<pa\rj, and the Etymol. Magn. says K€(S\r) etc 
tov K€<j)a\r} ylverai, Kara crvyKoirrjv. The form KefiXrj is used by Callimachus (Fragm. 
140, Bentley) : 

dp<pi Be /cefiXfjv 
elppevos dyXtOcov ov\ov e\€i GTecpavov. 

And Nicander (Alexipharmaca 433) employs KefiXfjyovos, seed-headed, as an epithet 

of the poppy : 

teal Be ah firjfcowos tcefiKrjyovov oTTirore Zatcpv 
ttlvooclv iretrvOoio fcaOvirveas* 

1 eVrt be todv alyiQakayv e'ldrj rpta' 6 pev (rm&Trje peyiaTOS (eari yap oo~op cnr/fa)* 
erepos 6' opeivbs, bia to diarpifieiv iv rols opecriv, ovpalov paKpbv e^v' 6 be rpiros opoios 
pev tovtols, biacj)epei be Kara, to peyeBos* eart yap iXdxicrTOS. — Aristotle vili. 5. 3. The 
Scholiast on Birds 884 and (what is more surprising) Dionysius, de Avibus,, i. 15, 
confound the alytOaXos with a totally different bird, viz. the alyodrjXas, the Latin 
caprimtilgus, our goatsucker. 

C % 


the mountains as 5,000 feet above the sea level." — Dresser iii. 71. And 
so long is its tail, that when the bird is sitting on her nest (which is of 
an oval form with a hole in the side) she keeps her head out of the hole, 
and curls back her tail over her head, so that it also protrudes out of the 
same hole. — Id. 66. 

(8) " The third is like the other two, but differs in size, being the least 
of all." This is, no doubt, the common little Blue Tit (Parus caeruleus, 
Gould, 154). 

The term peXayKopvcfros, like our English Blackcap, may have been, and 
probably was, applied to many blackheaded birds ; but on the whole, 
after much fluctuation of opinion, I agree with those who consider that 
the fjieXayKopvcfros of the ancients was the Marsh Tit (Parus palustris, 
Gould, 155) which is also with us popularly called the " blackcap" (Bewick 
i. 250; Morris i. 210; Atkinson, British Birds' Eggs, p. 65), from the deep 
black of its head and neck. 

Aristotle 1 writes "the titmouse, they say, lays the greatest number of 

eggs ; and, according to some, the pcXay Kopvcf^os lays the 

juteXayKopu+os most of all, with the single exception of the ostrich ; for 

seventeen eggs have been found in one nest ; and indeed it 

lays more than twenty. And people say that it invariably lays an odd 

number of eggs. And it makes its nest in trees, and feeds on worms." 

It seems to me that the whole of this passage must refer to the tits, 
which do, as a class, lay by far the greatest number of eggs, if (as 
Aristotle says) we except the ostrich 2 . Eighteen eggs and upwards have 
been found in a blue tit's nest. The peculiarity of laying always an odd 
number of eggs is not indeed observed of the titmouse, though it is noticed 
in the case of some birds, such as the Emu. See Harting and Mosenthal, 
p. 138. 

1 6 d* alyiOaXos tlktcl pev cSa irXelcrTa, cos (j)a(riv' evioi di kol rov peXayKopv(pov kciXoi- 
pevov (fiacn nXelara tlktciv per a ye rov iv Atfivr] (rrpovdov' eooparai fiev yap eirraKaibeKa' 

TLKT€L pivTOl KCU 7J"A €l<0 Y) e'lKOCTLV" TLKT6L 5' del 7T6ptrra, G)S <f>CHTlP* VeOTT€U€l $€ KOL OVTOS 

iv toIs bevbpeai, kol fioo-Kerai rovs cr/ccoX^Kaf. — ix. 16. 1. It is doubtful whether by 
tov peXayKopv(j)ov naXovpevov we are to understand " the titmouse called blackcap " 
or "the bird called blackcap," but probably the latter, since Aristotle did not 
reckon the blackcap as one t5>v alyiBdX&v. 

% The Arabs consider twenty-five eggs to be the proper complement of an 
ostrich's nest, but it is thought that two or more females lay in the same nest. 
See " Ostriches and Ostrich farming " by Harting and Mosenthal, x>p. 40, 59, 60, 


And if we turn to Athenaeus ii. 69 we shall find the /xeXay «6pv<l>os 
distinctly described as a titmouse. " Alexander the Myndian," it is there 
said "relates that one of the titmice, in the time of ripe figs, is called the 
o-vkolXls. And of this bird there be two kinds, the avKaXk and the 

It is interesting to observe, though it is not a circumstance from which 
any inference can be drawn, that in the comedy before us the fieXayKopv^os 
and atytOaXXos are mentioned together. 

Of the du7reAts or (in the masculine form) d/x7reXiW we know little beyond 
the name 1 ; but the name itself imports (as we may 
confidently infer from the names o-vkolXIs, aKaXavOls and the d^ireXls 
like) that the bird was in some way or other distinguished 
by its partiality for the vine. And as the only bird known, in vine 
countries, to choose grapes in preference to other food 2 is the Bohemian 
Chatterer or Wcmving (Bombycivora garrula, Gould, 160), Aldrovandi, the 
Linnaeus of the sixteenth century, gave it the name of Ampelis. And 
Linnaeus himself, two centuries later, confirmed Aldrovandi's nomenclature, 
calling the bird Ampelis garrulus. In deference to these illustrious 
naturalists, I have translated apureXls by waxtving. But the Waxwiiig 
is not found in Greece ; and although it " occasionally visits North 
Italy, and individuals may therefore have sometimes crossed the Adriatic, 
yet it can hardly have been a familiar bird, qualified to form one of 
the Chorus in an Aristophanic comedy. 

And it seems to me more probable that the d/x,7reAW of Aristophanes 
was the Spotted Flycatcher (Muscicapa grisola, Gould, 65), which is very 
common in Greece : which even in England 3 is fond of nesting in vines ; 
and which, in lands where vineyards are found, loves to take its station 

1 Pollux (vi. segm. 77) says that apneXiBes and o-vKaXides are roasted and served 
up on paste composed of fine wheaten flour and honey. Dionysius (de Avibus iii. 
2), speaking of the various ways in which birds are captured, observes l£& alpovvTca. 
. . . ol djjL7re\i(ov€Q ol kov<J)6tcitoi ; and Pollux (vi. segm. 52) mentions dpTreXifes as vvv 
aix7re\i<oi>as kclKoxxtiv. With apneWs, d/x7reXiW compare 7rop(pvp\s, TTOpcfrvpiav, ^XwpW, 
xXaploov, &C 

2 Buffon xiii. 479. 

3 " The flycatcher builds in a vine or a sweetbriar against the wall of a house, 
&c." Gilbert White, 40th letter to Pennant; and in the sixteenth letter, "the 
flycatcher usually breeds in my vine." " They are sometimes found in the thick vine- 
yards."— Buffon xv. 119. Cf. Newton's Yarrell i. 221 ; Wood ii. 357. 


on the upper layer of the vine, sallying thence in pursuit of its prey, and 
returning thither when the chase is over. However this is a mere guess, 
and the Flycatcher cannot displace the Wax wing. 

The statement in Aelian * that the -n-dinros is one of the birds in whose 

nests the cuckoo is accustomed to desposit her egg has 

-nrainros caused some to identify the 7ra7T7ros with the Hedge-sparrow 

(Accentor modularis, Gould, 100). The reason is very 

inadequate ; but it is as likely to be that bird as any other. 

Insessores. Group 2. 
Kopag. KopvSos. 

Kopd)vr]. o~rpov6b$. 

<r7r6pp,o\6yo9. (/)pvyi\o$, 

koXolos. aKa\av6h. 


We may safely follow Linnaeus in identifying the Kopa£ with the Haven 
(Oorvus corax, Gould, 220) ; the Kopoyv/j with the Crow (Corvus corone, 
Gould, 221) ; and the o-7rep/xoXoyos with the Booh (Corvus frugilegus, 
Gould, 224). 

All the qualities attributed by the ancients to the Kopa£ belong to the 

Eaven, the largest and strongest of the Corvidae. 

Kopa£ It is described as a fierce and determined bird, not less 

daring than the eagle : attacking large animals, such as the 

bull and the ass ; pecking out their eyes, and tearing out their sinews, 

Aristotle ix. 2. 6 ; Aelian ii. 51. 

" In the wilder and mountainous parts of Britain, considerable loss is 
inflicted by the Raven on the owners of sheep, while even larger cattle 
suffer from its attacks." — Newton's Yarrell ii. 260. u The eagle himself 
hardly dares to contest the supremacy with so powerful, crafty, and 
strong-beaked a bird. And even the larger cattle are not free from its 
assaults." — Wood ii. 390. " Bold as well as wary, it does not hesitate to 
attack the eagle when it approaches its nest." — Dresser iv. 573. 

All nations have looked upon the "boding raven" as a bird of fatal 

1 ov irdvTcav opviOcov Kakiais innr^a 6 kokkv^, aXXa Kopvdov, kclI (pdrrrjs, Kal x^wp^os 1 , 
Kcii irairirov. — iii. 30. 


augury and mysterious knowledge ; and so was the Kopag regarded in old 
time, Aelian i. 48. See Bp. Stanley, chap. ix. 

" Of all birds the ko/xx.£," says Aelian ii. 51, " is 7ro\vcf>o>v6TaTo<s, and, 
when trained, can imitate the human voice." "The Raven is an excellent 
linguist, acquiring the art of conversation with wonderful rapidity, and 
retaining with a singularly powerful memory many sounds which it has 
once learned. Whole sentences are acquired by this strange bird, and 
repeated with great accuracy of intonation, the voice being a good 
imitation of human speech." — Wood ii. 392. "Among British birds 
there is none able to imitate the varied sounds of the human voice more 
successfully than the Raven." — Newton's Yarrell ii. 266. Readers of 
Dickens will remember the raven of Barnaby Rudge. 

So again the Raven has always been considered " the very Methusaleh of 
birds," unequalled for its longevity. And this pre-eminence is accorded by 
Hesiod to the Kopa£ in the verses quoted on line 609 of this play. It is 
there said to live 108 generations of men. The statements of Hesiod are 
given in Latin by Pliny (vii. 49) and Ausonius (Id. 18). They both 
translate Kopag by corvits (the Raven), and Kopwvrj by comix (the Crow). 
Cf. Ovid, Met. vii. 274. 

So again the Raven is universally credited with driving away its young 
when once they are able to fly ; see Newton's Yarrell ii. 263. And this 
trait is attributed to the Kopag by both Aristotle and Aelian 1 . "So soon 
as the young Ravens are able to fly," says the former, " the old birds first 
expel them from the nest, and then chase them out of the neighbourhood." 

Many other points might be mentioned, which prove the identity of 
the Kopai and the Raven ; but those already set forth seem amply sufficient 
for the purpose. 

The KopwvY) is frequently coupled with the /copaf, as a bird of similar 
character and habits ; a circumstance which, while it 
accounts for, proves the error of, the statement of Hesychius, KopcSvr] 
that the Kopwrj was the same as the Kopaf. 

1 KCLl TOVS €CIVTG)V V€OTTOVS, QTOV OlOl T (UCTIV fj&T] 7T€T€a6ai, TO fX€V TTp&TOV €Kftd\\oV<TW, 

vcrrepov be kol ck tov tottov €K($io)kov(tlv. — Aristotle ix. 21. 3. eV/3aXXet tovs veorrovs 6 
Kopa£. — Id. vi. 6. 2. ol KopaKes rovs veorrovs tovs itcrpafyevTas diaKovcri, Kai rrjs 
iavrcov KaXias (favyabas a7ro<paivovoriv. — Aelian ii. 49. It is to this peculiarity that 
the Psalmist and sage in the Old Testament are supposed to refer when they say 
that the Almighty " feedeth the young ravens when they call upon Him," Psalm 
cxlvii. 9 ; Job xxxviii. 41. 


The Kopwvr) is no doubt our common Crow. Aristotle, speaking of birds 
that frequent the seaside, says 1 : " And the Koptovcu feed there, catching 
the creatures thrown up by the waves ; for the bird will eat anything." 
There could not be an apter description of the Crow. "Sometimes it 
goes to feed on the seashore, and there finds plenty of food among the 
crabs, shrimps, and shells that are found near low- water mark." — Wood 
ii. 393. Cf. Newton's Yarrell ii. 286. 

The TToXta Kopuvr) in 967 of this play is, I suppose, the Grey, Hooded, or 
Eoyston Crotv (Corvus cornix, Gould, 222). 

The cnrep/jLoXoyos is described by Hesychius as a bird of the daw kind, 

KoAotcoSes C4>of, a description which at once limits it to a very 

o-TrepjAoXoyos few species. It must however have been larger than a daw, 

for Alexander the Myndian (Athenaeus ix. 58) says that it 

is as big as a rirpa^, by which name, as we shall presently see, he appears 

to designate what we now call the Greek partridge. It is classed among 

the birds which are good for the table (Athenaeus ii. 69 ; viii. 32 ; ix. 58) ; 

and whilst its name implies that it is fond of grain, Aristotle (viii. 5. 3) 

includes it in his list of cr/ccoX^Ko^aya, birds that devour worms. And that 

it collects in flocks is plain from line 579 of this play, and from the vaunt 

of Demetrius Poliorcetes (Plutarch, Demetrius 28) that he would scatter 

the host of his enemies with a cry and a stone, as if they were a flock of 


No bird answers so well to all these notes as the common Eook. 

With us the name o-n-eppLoXoyos, partly perhaps from its use in the Acts 
of the Apostles xvii. 18, is more familiar in its secondary sense of a 
"babbler," an "idle chatterer." A play on the double meaning of the 
word is recorded of the poet Alexis. Some idle talkers, cnreppidXoyoi, were 
chaffing the poet on his love for the table ; and when they asked him 
which dish he liked best, o-7rep/xoAoyovg 7re^pvyjUL€vovs (roasted rooks) he 
replied : as we might say, fried boobies, Athenaeus viii. 32. 

"Of KoAotot," says Aristotle, "there be three kinds; one, 
koXoios the Coracias ; this is of the size of a crow and has a red 
beak : another is called Lycus (or Lycius) ; and besides these 
there is the little one, the y&D/xoAdxo? 2 . " 

Kai at Kopcovai 8e vepovrai, airropevai tg>v €K7TL7Tt6vtcov faoo^' 7rafx(j)ayou yap iarivi 
-^-Aristotle viii. 5. 7. 

Ko\olg>v o icrr\v e'ldrj rpia* ev pev 6 KopaKLas" ovros oaov Kopavrj, (froiviKopvyxos* 


Of these three kinds, we may be sure that the first is the well-known 
Chough (Fregilus graculus, Gould, 219), which is not much less than the 
Crow, and is remarkable for its red bill ; the second is probably the Magpie ; 
whilst the third, the little one, is our familiar Jackdaw (Corvus monedula, 
Gould, 223), one of the commonest birds of Greece, which may have earned 
the name of /3co/xoAdxos, either in its literal sense, as a haunter of altars, 
or in its metaphorical sense, as a bird full of tricks and buffoonery. 

Where the name koXolos is used alone, it almost invariably signifies the 
jackdaw. The social nature of the bird gave rise to a proverb, del koAoio? 
TTorl KoXoibv l£dvei \ And its Greek name 2 is probably derived from its 
continual chattering. 

In the Iliad, Homer twice couples jackdaws with starlings. In the 
first passage (xvi. 583) Patroclus is described as darting upon the Trojan 
and Lycian hosts like an eager falcon which drives before it starlings and 
daws. In the second (xvii. 755) the Achaeans, bearing back the lifeless 
body of Patroclus, are driven before Hector and Aeneas like a cloud of 
starlings and daws pursued by a bird of prey. 

Notwithstanding the difficulty to be presently mentioned, it is reasonably 
certain that the klttol is the Jay (Garrulus glandarius, Gould, 

214). KITTa 

The /arret, says Aristotle, changes its voice with the greatest 
frequency, uttering a fresh voice, so to say, every day. It lays about nine 
eggs, and builds its nest in trees, of hair and wool. And, when the acorns 
are beginning to fail, it hides them away, and stores them 3 . 

aXXos 6 \vklos (alii Xvklos) KaXovfievos' etl 3' 6 [Aitcpos, 6 (3a>fjLo\6xos. — Aristotle ix. 19. 
3. He adds that there is yet a fourth kind found in Lydia and Phrygia, which is 
webfooted. This webfooted daw is doubtless the Shag (Phalacrocorax graculus). 

1 Scholiast on Iliad xvii. 755 ; Eustathius, ibidem ; Aristotle, Ethics, viii. 1. 6. 

2 '* As Dohle, a jackdaw, comes from dahlen to chatter, so koXolos comes from 
a similar root which means a cry or scream, and with which are connected KaXeoa, 
KtXco, /ceXopu." — Buttman's Lexilogus, § 72. 

3 f) de Ktrrn epeovas pev fxeTafiaWei 7r\tL(TTas' lead' eKaaT7]P yap, gk elirelv, f)pepav akXrjv 
€<fiir}<riv tlkt€L de jrepi ivvea a>a, TTOLelrat de rrjv veoTTiav eVt rcov deudpoop €K rpix&v kcli 
€p[(ov' orav 8' v7roXeL7Tco(TLv ai ftaXavoi, anoKpvnTovo-a ra/xte^erai. — Aristotle ix. 14. 1. 

Aelian vi. 19 says that the klttci is a talkative bird, and the greatest mimic of 
other sounds and especially of the human voice. 

Plutarch (de Solertia Animalium, chap. 19) tells a story of a wonderful klttci, 
6avfxaar6v tl xpW a 7roXv(j)o)vov kclI 7ro\vcp66yyav kltttjs, which could imitate the voices 
of men and animals, and every other sound ; but one day, hearing the sound of 


Except that in our colder climate the Jay does not lay more than seven 
eggs ("from 4 to 7" Newton's Yarrell : " 5 or 6" Morris) this is a very 
fair description of the Acorn-loving gabbler, the Garrulus glandarius. 
Acorns it " frequently stores in chinks of the bark of trees, hides under 
fallen leaves or buries in the earth." " There is scarcely any sound that 
comes in their way which they will not imitate more or less exactly, from 
the human voice to the noise of any instrument, a saw for example/' 
— Newton's Yarrell ii. 324-6. " The nest is of an open shape, formed of 
twigs and sticks, and well lined with small roots, grasses, and horsehair." 
— Morris ii. 57. 

The difficulty mentioned above is that at the present time Greeks give 
the name wWa to the magpie, and call the jay koXolos. But this 
difficulty is easily explained. So long as the Greeks were under the 
Turkish yoke, they still retained the name la'o-a for the jay (see Schneider 
on Aristotle, ubi supra), and called the magpie Kapa/cafa. But when they 
became a free people they wished to revert, in all matters, to the 
nomenclature of the ancient Greeks, and finding that Buffon had, on 
wholly erroneous grounds, identified the KtWa with the magpie, they 
followed his example ; and though the name KapaKa£a still holds its 
ground, yet it is considered a vulgar and unscientific name. It is 
impossible that KiWa can be the magpie. Aristotle, as we have already 
seen, says that the missel thrush is as large as a /arm. Now the missel 
thrush is not quite as large as a jay, though there is no absurdity in 
comparing the two birds ; but it could not reasonably be compared to 
a magpie which is a good deal larger than the jay itself. 

It should be observed that even if the jay were properly called a koAoios, 
it would have nothing to do with the little /3a)/xoAoxos, the Jackdaw ; and 
in the present play, and generally, koAoios should always be translated 
" Jackdaw." 

The KopvSbs or KopvSaWbs is the Crested Lark (Alauda cristata, Gould, 

165), though the name may also include the Skylark (Alauda 

Kopu86s arvensis, Gould, 166). Aristotle says of it that it does 

not perch upon trees, but dwells on the ground (ix. 10. 1) and 

makes its nest on the ground (ix. 20. 1). In another place he says that 

there are two kinds, of which one dwells on the ground and has a nest ; 

the trumpet, he appeared to be struck dumb, and so remained for a considerable 
period : till all at once he broke out into a vivid imitation of the trumpet tone, 


the other is gregarious, and similar in its plumage, but is smaller and has 
no crest (ix. 19. 4). 

That the KopvSbs of Aristophanes is the crested kind is certain, for it was 
the fact of its having a crest which gave rise to the fable as to its having 
buried its father in its head. Thus Galen, endeavouring, he says, clearly to 
identify the bird on account of its valuable medicinal properties, observes 

€)(€l $€ €7Tt T7]9 K€cf>a\fjs ilXTTTep TWO. X6cj>0V, €KT(jJV TpL)((A>V aVTO<j>vfj' 8t OV KOtl 6 /AV0OS, 

ov Api(TTO(f>dv7)s o kcojjukos eypcaf/ev, lirXadOy)" keyeu 8e 7repl clvtov tovSc tov rporrov 
(here he cites lines 471-5 of this play). And he proceeds, tovto Se <£acrt /cat 
tov ®eoKpiTOV alvLTTtwOai Aeyovra u ovb* hriTvpLfi'iSiai KopvSaXXtSes rjXaivovTat " (Id. 
viL 23) *. 8?;Aow yap avrbv ras tov tv/ul/Sov i-irl t?}s KecfxxXrjs e^OTxras. De 
Simplicium Medicamentorum temperamentis ac facultatibus, xi. 87. And 
to the same effect Aelian xvi. 5, and the Scholiast on Theocritus, ubi supra. 

The o-TpovObs or Sparrow (Pyrgita domestica, Gould, 184) was as common 
and familiar in ancient Hellas as it is in England now ; so common and 
familiar that Aristotle does not think it necessary to give it 
any detailed notice. He couples it as a small bird with the crrpouOds 
swallow, ii. 12. 16, and elsewhere ; mentions that the cock 
has black under its chin, ix. 8. 5 ; and comments on its habit of bathing 
and dusting itself, ix. 36. 5. 

But what puts the identity beyond all doubt is that o-Tpov6bs is by the 
Latins invariably rendered passer. To take one instance only. When 
Aristotle 2 tells us that the cock o-TpovObs is supposed to live for one year 
only, Pliny, translating the passage, refers it to the passer. 

Of the cjypvylXos nothing is known except the name, but from its 
similarity to the Latin fringilla, some have supposed it to be 
a bird belonging to the finch tribe. I have therefore ^puytXos 
translated it linnet I do not know on what ground some 
give the name oifregilus to the chough. 

1 For now the lizard sleeps upon the wall, 

Now folds the crested lark his wandering wing. 

Calverley's translation (slightly altered). 

2 Xeyovcri be Tives kclI tq&v (rrpovSiav iviavrbv p.6vov £rjv tovs appevas, iroiovpevoi 
<rr)p,eiov on tov eapos oi (j)aivoVTai %x. 0VT€S ciiObs to, irep\ tov 7ra>ya>va fieXava, varepop 
§* tcrxovo-i, ras be Srjkelas iiaKpofticoTepas ehai rcdv crTpovBlcov. — Aristotle ix. 8. 5. 

Passeri mininum vitae. Mares negantur anno diutius durare : argumento quia 
nulla veris initio appareat nigritudo in rostro, quae ab aestate ineipit. Feminis 
longiusculum spatium. — Pliny x. 52. 


Every countryman is aware of the partiality which the Goldfinch 
(Carduelis elegans, Gould, 196) displays for the seed of the 

&&a\ai>0!s thistle. When I lived, as a boy, at Yarlington, in Somerset, 
and every old orchard had its goldfinch's nest, you could 
hardly, in the autumn, pass a group of wayside thistles without seeing 
a flock of these pretty little birds clinging about them in every variety of 
posture, and rising from them, as you approached, with their golden wings 
and bright hues glittering in the sunshine. It is from this special trait 
that the bird has everywhere derived its name ; aKaXavOls or aKavOh (from 
faavOa, a thistle) in Greek ; carduelis (from carditus) in Latin ; calderello 
(from cardo) in Italian ; chardonneret (from chardon) in French ; thistle- 
finch in English ; distelfink in German ; and so on. 

So connected is the goldfinch with the thistle, that the growing 
scarcity of the bird in England is attributed to the improvements in 
husbandry which have diminished the crop of thistles (Morris iii. 103 ; 
Newton's Yarrell ii. 121); but something, I suspect, is due to the 
introduction of railways, which have brought this ^lXtoltov dpviw within 
reach of the London bird-market. 

Naturalists have with one accord identified the cnrtvos with the Siskin 
(Carduelis spinus, Gould, 197), and though the materials for 
trnivos such an identification are extremely meagre, there is no 
reason to doubt its accuracy. 

It is plain from the play before us that the o-n-wos was a common and 
lightly esteemed little bird, being sold " seven for an obol." Aristotle does 
not, I think, mention it at all. Theophrastus says it is a sign of stormy 
weather when the passer called cnrcvos sings at daybreak, ^ttlvos o-TpovObs 
o-ttl&v eootfej/, x €l ^P i0Vt D e Signis Tempestatum, 39. The word used of its 
song, o-7rt£€«/, connects it with o-7rt£a, a finch. Aelian (iv. 60) says that these 
birds foresee the winter and snowstorms; and commends their sagacity 
for retiring in time ds ra dXo-coS?; xw/oia kcu ra Saa-ea. This is a special trait 
of the siskin. " In winter," says Bechstein, " it most frequents the parts 
well planted with alders." 


Insessores. Group 3. 

e7royjr. SpvKoXdwTrjs. 

kokkv£. Spvo^r. 

There is no difficulty in the identification of any of these birds. The 
first two derive their names from their peculiar notes ; and 
there is consequently but slight variation in their ancient e-n-oij/ 

and modern names. "Very many birds," says Varro, k6jcku| 
de Ling. Lat. v. 76, " derive their names from their notes/' 
and the first examples which he brings are the hoopoe and the cuckoo ; 
pleraeque a suis vocibus ; ut liae, upupa, cuculus. And the Greek e-n-oij/ is 
really the same word as the Latin upupa, and the English Hoopoe (Upupa 
epops, Gould, 238). See the note on line 265 of this play. So again, 
k6kkv£ is the same word as our Cuckoo (Cuculus canorus, Gould, 240). 

Spvoij/ and SpvKoXdirrrjs (properly $pvoKo\a.7rTY)<;, the oakpecker) are not two 
different names, but two forms of the same name ; and it is merely for 
the convenience of metre that Aristophanes uses the shorter 
form in one place, and the longer in another. Aristotle's Bpuo\|/ 
account of the hpvoKoXdirrr]^ is amply sufficient, even if the SpufcoXtfirnqs 
name itself were insufficient, to identify it with the wood- 
pecker. But which of the eight different kinds of woodpecker now 
observed in Greece (Krtiper 52-9) are to be identified with the various 
kinds mentioned by Aristotle it is extremely difficult, and fortunately or 
our purpose unnecessary, to determine. Only the one, which he describes 
as not much smaller than a domestic hen, must necessarily be the largest 
of the woodpeckers, the Great Black Woodpecker (Picus martius, Gould, 

"The SpvoKoXa7rTYjs 7 " he says 1 , " does not settle on the ground, but taps 

6 be bpvoKokaTTTr}$ ov Ka6i£et ijri ttjs yr\s' kotttei be ras bpvs tcdv o~KG)Xr)KGiv kol arKViTrcov 
evenev, tv* egiaxriv' avaheyerai yap i^eXOovras avrovs rfj yKcorrr), irXarelav 8' e^ei kcu 
fjieyaXrjv. Kal iropeverai im tols bevbpecri Ta^cos iravra rpoivov, kol v7Ttlos, Ka6a7rep 
ol do~KaXa(3S>Tai. '^X €L ^ KaL T0 ^ s ° vv X as faXriovs tcdv koXoi5>v nefyvKOTas irpbs rrjv 
d(T(j)d\€tav rr}S eVt tols bevbpeo-iv ccpebpelas' tovtovs yap ifnrr]yvvs 7ropeverai. "Ecrn 
be rZiV bpvoK.o\a7rTa>v ev fiev yevos eXarrov rod kottv<J>ov, e^et b* virepvOpa fjuicpa' erepov 
be yevos, pcel^ov tj Korrvfpos' to be Tpirov yevos avrcov ov ttoXXS eXaTTOv eo~Tiv 
dkeKTOplbos OrjXeias. NeorTevei b* eirl tgov bevbpcav, a>o~7rep e'lprjTai, ev aXXois Te tg>v 


the oaks to bring out the worms and insects ; and when they come out, it 
licks them up with its tongue, which is broad and long. And it runs 
about the trees nimbly and in every position, even underneath the 
branches like the lizards. And its claws are better suited than those of 
the daws to keep it safe when settling on trees, for it fixes them into the 
wood as it walks along. And of the SpvoKoXairTwy, one kind is less than 
a blackbird, and has little reddish colourings ; and another is larger than 
a blackbird ; and a third is not much less than a domestic hen. And it 
makes its nest in the olive, and other trees ; and feeds on ants and worms 
which come out of the trees." 

Elsewhere 1 speaking of the o-Kvnrofyaya, birds which get their living 
principally by hunting the insects called nKi/hres (see the note on line 590 
of this play), he says : u Of such are the greater and lesser 7rt7ro>, both of 
which some call SpvoKoXdwra^ and these two are like each other, and have 
the like voice ; only the greater has the greater voice ; and both of them 
get their living, flying on to the trees." He goes on to enumerate certain 
other <rKVL7ro4>dya, some of which are almost certainly woodpeckers. 

All the common English woodpeckers are common in Greece. 

Insessores. Group 4. 



Although the name xeAiS<W was applied by the Greeks, as hirundo by 

the Latins, and swalloiv by ourselves, to all the various 

XcXiSwy kinds of swallows and martins, yet it is certain that the 

XeXiStov proper, into which according to the legend a 

daughter of Pandion was metamorphosed, was our Common or Chimney 

swalloiv (Hirundo rustica, Gould, 54). 

Thus the ruddy or deep chestnut patches on the throat and forehead, by 
which the common swallow is distinguished, were regarded as traces of the 
bloody tragedy which preceded and occasioned the metamorphosis. The 
swallow is described by Yirgil as "Procne, bearing on her breast the 

BevBpcov kcli iv iXaiais. Bda/cerai Se rovs pvpfiyKas kcu tovs (TKa>Xr)<as rovs iic tcov 
dMpw.—ix. 10. 2. 
1 viii. 5. 4. 


mark of bloody fingers " ; and Ovid pictures the two sisters as changing 
into two birds, whereof one seeks the woods, the other finds her way into 
the dwellings of men. " Nor have the marks of the bloody deed," he says, 
" yet faded from her breast ; her feathers are yet stained with blood 1 .' 5 

That of the two sisters one should have been changed into a nightingale, 
and the other into a swallow, illustrates the high estimation in which the 
ancients held the song of the swallow. And this again is a proof that the 
common swallow is intended. For though we should hardly allow to 
the swallow such praise as the ancients awarded it, yet it is beyond all 
question the songstress of the hirundinidae. "It is a great songster" 
says White of Selborne in his nineteenth letter to Barrington. And 
an able and well-informed writer in the Edinburgh Eeview (Jan. 1885, 
p. 233) observes that u a more incessant, cheerful, amiable, happy little 
song no other musician has ever executed." I remember one Easter 
week, some fifteen or sixteen years ago, listening for fully five minutes to 
the song of a swallow, as it sat on a telegraph wire between Friston and 
East Dean (near Eastbourne). It was singing when I came, and still 
singing when I left, and the Reviewer's description applied very well to 
its song. I had never previously, nor have I since, heard so prolonged 
a song from a swallow. But of course there is no comparison between 
its notes and the song of the nightingale. 

Many passages will be found cited in the Commentary, on Peace 800, 
Frogs 683, and elsewhere, showing the pleasure which the Greeks felt in 
the song of the swallow ; and how they coupled it with the song of the 
nightingale ; and how, to complete the choir, a third musician, the swan, 
was sometimes introduced. Here I will only give two additional passages. 
" When Bion died," says Moschus, Idyll, iii. 47, " the nightingales, and all 
the swallows, which loved his song, mourned him in rival dirges." And 
Odysseus, says Homer (Od. xxi. 411), tested the string of his bow ; rj 8 viro 
koXov aeio-e, x^ L ^ VL elKckrj avSrjv. I will give the lines in Mr. Way's 
translation : 

1 Et manibus Procne pectus signata crueutis. — Georgics iv. 15. 

Neque adhuc de pectore caedis 
Effluxere notae ; signataque sanguine pluma est. — Met. vi. 669, 670. 
Eulbro pectore Procne. — Ode on Philom. 43. 

In Aristophanes Procne is the nightingale ; but generally she is the sister who 
was changed into a swallow. 


Even as a man that can skill to play on the lyre and to sing, 

On a new-fixed peg at his will full easily stretcheth the string, 

Straining the sheep-gut taut, having tied it above and below ; 

So laboured Odysseus naught, but lo, he hath strung the bow. 

With his right hand thereafter to try it he twangeth the fateful string; 

Clear-sweet to his touch as the cry of a swallow in chase did it sing. 

The KYjpvXos and oXkvmv of Greek literature are really mythical birds ; 

but in their natural character they are merely the male 

&\ku&>*> and female Kingfisher (Aleedo ispida, Gould, 61). The 

io]pu\os transformation of Ceyx and his wife Alcyone (one of the 

daughters of Aeolus, the ruler of the winds) into these two 

birds is variously accounted for by ancient mythographers. Apollodorus 

(i. 52) says 'AXkvovtjv Se. K.rjv£ eyt)\xev 'Ewcrc^opov 7rcu9. ovtol Se $l V7repr)cf>aveiav 

a7T(X)Xovro' 6 /jlcv yap tyjv ywai/ca eXeyev f/ HpaF, rj Se rov avSpa Ata. Zevs Se 

avrovs a7rwpvio)cr€, /cat rrjv /mev SlXkvovol eiroiy](re^ rov Se KrjVKa. However, as 

the name of the bird, Krjv£ seems to have been soon superseded by KrjpvXos, 

Aristotle viii. 5. 7. Ovid (Met. xi. 410-748) says that Ceyx was drowned 

at sea, and that Halcyone, beholding his body from the shore, sprang from 

an artificial mole to reach him, and the two were changed into halcyons, 

who still live in happy conjugal fidelity. 

Perque dies placidos, hyberno tempore, septem 
Incubat Alcyone pendentibus aequore nidis. 
Turn via tuta maris ; ventos custodit, et arcet 
Aeolus egressu ; praestatque nepotibus aequor. 

Hyginus, Ovid's friend, (Fab. 65), agrees with the poet, both as to the 
method of the transformation and as to the duration of the " Halcyon 
days." But in the orthodox legend l there were fourteen Halcyon days, 
seven before and seven after the winter solstice, that is from December 14 
to December 28 ; the first week being occupied with the building of the 
nest, the second with the hatching of the young. It is interesting to 
remember that this is the very period during which, according to a later 
and more sacred bird-legend, no evil thing has power to harm, "so 
hallowed and so gracious is the time." 

Marcelhis. Some say that ever 'gainst that season comes 
Wherein our Saviour's birth is celebrated, 
The bird of dawning singe th all night long. 

1 Aristotle v. 8. 2, 3 ; Pliny x. 47 ; Dionysius, de Avibus, ii. 7. 


And then, they say, no spirit dares stir abroad ; 
The nights are wholesome ; then no planets strike, 
No fairy takes, nor witch hath power to charm, 
So hallowed and so gracious is the time. 
Horatio. So have I heard, and do in part believe it. 

The fancied derivation of oXkvuv from aAs and kvm, as if the name meant 
the Sea-breeder, added the aspirate to Halcyon, and doubtless gave rise to 
the legend of the " Halcyon days " ; or rather, perhaps, attracted that 
legend to the very unlikely Kingfisher. For I cannot help thinking that the 
legend really belongs to the Manx Shearwater (Pumnus Anglorum, Gould, 
443) or the cognate- Mediterranean Shearwater, of whose singular evolutions 
on the surface of the Bosphorus so very curious and interesting an account 
is given by Bishop Stanley (pp. 84, 85), Dresser (viii. 520), and others. 
Bishop Stanley observes that it has frequently, though erroneously, been 
considered a Kingfisher, and called the Halcyon Voyageur. And this is 
probably the bird called the " larger Halcyon" by Aristotle (viii. 5. 7) 
and Pliny (x. 47). 

For other references to the Halcyons, their conjugal affection, their 
connexion with calms and winds, and their Halcyon days see Aristotle 
ix. 15 ; Aelian i. 36 ; v. 48 ; vii. 17 ; ix. 17 ; Theocritus vii. 57, and the 
Scholiast there ; Apollonius Rhodius i. 1085 ; Plutarch, de Solertia Anima- 
lium, chap. 35 ; Plautus, Prol. in Casinam 26 ; Poenulus i. 2. 143. And 
as to the original legend, see the very beautiful lines by Mr. C. Newton 
Robinson entitled " Ceyx and Alcyone." 

A superstition long lingered in England that a dead Kingfisher, 
suspended by a string, served as a weathercock or vane, ever turning with 
the wind. Hence in King Lear ii. 2 Kent speaks of the smiling rogues 
who " turn their halcyon beaks with every gale and vary of their masters." 
And in Marlowe's Jew of Malta i. 1 we read " How stands the vane ? Into 
what corner peers my halcyon's bill ? " 

The " halcyon brooding on a winter sea " is, of course, a very familiar 
topic in our literature ; and the name " halcyon day " has become 
proverbial for any day of placid unruffled weather. 


Order III. Rasokes (Birds that scratch). 

(frctTTa. (ZTTayas. 

weXeta (or epvdpoTrovs). nepSig. 

7T€pLarepa. oprv£. 

rpvycov. dXeKTpvcov (or MfjSos or Tlepo-iKos). 

(pacriavbs. (TTpovObs fieydXr]. 

T€Tpa£. ram. 

All the four recognized species of European doves are mentioned in 
this comedy. They are : — 

(1) <j>a.TTa, the Ring-dove or Woodpigeon (Columba palumbus, Gould, 

(2) TreAeta (or ipvOpoTrovs), the Stock-dove (Columba oenas, Gould, 244). 

(3) 7repicrrepa, the Rock-dove (Columba livia, Gould, 245). 

(4) rpvycov, the Turtle-dove (Columba turtur, Gould, 246). 
In his Fifth Book Aristotle says 1 : 

" Of the Dove tribe there are several varieties ; for the 7reAct<xs and the 
7reptorTepa are different. The 7reXeias is the smaller bird of the two, but 
the Trepto-repa is more easily domesticated. The ^Actas is both black, and 
little, and red-footed, and scaly-footed : for which reason nobody breeds 
it. Of all birds of this sort the garret is the largest in size ; and next 
comes the olvas which is rather bigger than the 7n-p«rrepa ; and the least 
of them all is the rpvyw. Now the Trepiorrepal lay their eggs, and rear 
their young all the year round, if they have a warm place and all necessary 
requisites : otherwise only in the summer." 

Omitting the olvas (which, if not the bird now called the Sand-grouse, 
is probably some larger specimen, or variety, of the Stock-dove), we see 
that Aristotle places these four kinds in the following order as regards 
their size : (1) the <£arra, (2) the 7repto-T€pa, (3) the irekuas, and (4) the 

1 tcov be 7r€pKTTepoeid<bp 7rXeio> rvyxavei ovra yevrj* ecrrt yap erepov 7reptcrrepa kol 
TreXctas. 'EXarroav pev ovv 17 TrcXetas, rtOaacrov Se yiverai paXXov r) 7T€pio~Tepd' rj 8e 
TreXeids Kai peXav, kcu piKpbv y kcu epvOpOTrovv, kcu rpa^V7row. bto kcu ovdels rpcqbei. 
MiyuTTOV [xev ovv tg>v tolovtcdv f] cj)a.Tra eVrt, devrepov d' fj olvds* avrrj di piKpcS [i&i(a>v 
€(tt\ rrjs TrepuTTtpas. eXa^toro? fie rav toiovtoov fj rpvyoav, Tiktovo~i ?f at 7T€ptaT€pal 
naaav <&pav /cat e/crpe<£ overt v 9 iav roizov e^cacrtx/ dXeeivov Kal tcl eVtTqSeta* et Se /L07, tov 
$€pov$ povov. — v. 11. 2. See also Athenaeus ix. chaps. 50 and 51. 


tpvywv. Now the length of the average male of the four European species is 
given by Yarrell and others as follows : (1) Ring-dove, 17 inches ; (2) Rock- 
dove, 14 inches ; (3) Stock-dove, 13| inches ; (4) Turtle-dove, 11^ inches. 
It will be seen that these measurements quite agree with the statements 
of Aristotle. It remains therefore to see whether there is anything in the 
description given of these birds by the ancients which would lead us to 
doubt the identifications so made. 

In i 1. 13 Aristotle distinguishes between the c^drra and the -n-epLorrepa, 
in that the former lives in the country, the latter loves to 
dwell with man ; ra fxlv aypoifca, wa7r€p </>OLTTa' ra SI avvav- <J>aTTa 

0p<o7ri£a, oXov TrepicrTepd. " The Cushat [or Ring-dove] is an 
arboreal species, nesting and roosting in trees ; and does not possess the 
capability of being domesticated ; even when its eggs have been obtained 
and hatched under domesticated pigeons the birds so reared have always 
betaken themselves to the woods on acquiring their full power of flight." 
Tegetmeier on Pigeons, p. 13. 

In ix. 8. 3 Aristotle observes that the ^drra keeps faithful to her mate, 
and that both male and female take their turns in the work of incubation. 
So the Ring-dove is strictly monogamous ; and " the male and female both 
take their turns in hatching the eggs and in feeding the young: the 
former sitting from six to eight hours, from about nine or ten in the 
morning to about three or four in the afternoon." — Morris iv. 162. 
However this trait is really common to all the Dove tribe. 

" The <£arra," says Aristotle \ "is not heard in the winter, but when 
the spring arrives then it begins to coo." " The well-known note of the 
cushat, its soft ' coo, coo-coo, coo-coo ' begins towards the latter end of 
February and continues till October." — Morris iv. 160. 
] So again Aristotle (viii. 14. 5) observes that the cf^drra assembles in 
large flocks when they arrive, and again when the time draws nigh for 
their departure. And every countryman must have noticed the large 
flocks of woodpigeons which are so conspicuous in the country side during 
spring anfr autumn. 

Whilst therefore the <£arra is in the first instance identified with the 
woodpigeon as being iw TrepicrrepoeiS&v /xeyto-rov, we find that the various 
characteristics ascribed to the one are equally true of the other. 

1 t) <j)aTTa rod p.€v x.€tficdpo$ ov <p64yy€Tai' aXX* orav cap ycvrjrat, tot€ apxerai (fxdvelv. 
— ix. 36. 8. 



We have seen that Aristotle calls the 7re'Aeta, jmiXav ; but we have already 

noticed, in connexion with the kv/uvSis, that by //Aav he does 

•n-eXcia not mean the colour which we call black. And when we 

ipvQpoirovs remember that in the Odyssey /xeXas is a recognized epithet 

for tvine \ we can have no difficulty in concluding that the 

same epithet, as applied to the Stock-dove, refers to the dark vinous colour 

which has gained for it the specific name of olvds. And although all 

doves have more or less "rosy feet," yet in none is the colour so bright 

and pronounced as in the Stock-dove. Aristotle specially applies to it 

the epithet ipvOpo-n-ovs ; and I do not doubt that Aristophanes in using the 

same epithet is applying it to the same bird. 

The Rock-dove is universally believed to be the original of our 

domesticated pigeons. " There can be no reasonable doubt " 

-rrepiorcpa of the fact, says Macgillivray, in his delightful description 

of this bird, i. 275. And Aristotle 2 not only dwells strongly 

on the capacity of the Trepicrrepa for domestication, but obviously uses the 

name as well for the tame pigeon as for the wild bird. And he gives 

a variety of details about the irepio-Tepa which, though more or less common 

to all the Dove tribe, yet had no doubt been more closely observed among 

tame pigeons. 

There remains only the rpvyw, the Turtle-dove. And this is sufficiently 

identified by the statement that it is the smallest of the 

Tpuywy Dove tribe. Aristotle (ix. 8. 8) mentions the fidelity of 

the woodpigeon and the turtle-dove to their mates. 

The <£ao-iavo?, or k/xxo-lclvikos opvis, our Pheasant (Phasianus Colchicus, 

Gould, 247), derives its name from the circumstance that it 

4>aorta^6s was originally introduced into Europe from the regions 

surrounding the River Phasis in Colchis. It was domiciled 

in England before our Saxon ancestors arrived, having, it is supposed, 

been brought here by the Romans. 

Athenaeus has two or three pleasant chapters about this bird, ix. 36-8. 
Myrtilus, one of the guests, has been holding forth at great length to the 
learned jurist Ulpian, another of the party (whom he addresses as 

1 kv 5e oi clokov e0j]Ke 0ed pekcvos o'ivoio. — v. 265. 
@t}v arap cuyeov clgkov t\ov jxe\avos o'lvoio* — ix. 196. 
KiGOv&iov fiera XH-^ ^X 0JV f^Xavos olvoio. — ix. 346, 

2 See i. 1. 13 ; v. 11. 1, 2 ; vi. 2. 10 ; 4. 2 ; ix. a. 2 ; 36. 5. 


oA/fooyao-rw/) Ov\7nav6s), when he suddenly observes that by chattering to 
Ulpian he has lost the chance of helping himself to some QcunaviKol, 
which had been brought round and taken away again. Never mind, says 
Ulpian, if you will tell me whence you got that word 6A/&oyao-T<o/>, and 
what ancient writer makes mention ^ao-tavtKQJv dpvidw, then to-morrow 
" early, I ween, in the morn 1 ," as Homer says, not indeed "in my 
ships o'er the Hellespont" but on my feet to the market-place will 
I be borne, and there I will buy me a <j>a<TLavLKo<s, and you and I will 
eat it. 

Done, says Myrtilus; the word dXfiioydarTiDp is used by the comedian 
Amphis ; and mention of the <£ao-iai/iKos opvts is made by that most 
delightful Aristophanes in his Comedy of the Birds. For there two old 
Athenians, out of their desire for peace and quietness, are trying to find 
some city where they may live without troubles and lawsuits. And life 
with the birds taking their fancy, they go off to the birds ; and all of a 
sudden they are frightened by some wild bird flying towards them, and 
amongst other things they say (citing lines 67, 68 about the <£a<riaFiKos). 
Myrtilus next quotes the line in the Clouds tovs <£aonai/oi>s ovs rp€<j>€i 
Acwydpas, which he refers to pheasants and not to horses ; and then 
proceeds to cite various passages from Aristotle, Theophrastus, Aga- 
tharcides, and other writers of repute. 

Now then, he concludes, keep your promise, and buy the pheasant 
to-morrow ; if you don't, I won't indeed prosecute you for swindling, but 
I will banish you to the River Phasis. 

The rirpa^ — called by Aristotle vi. 1. 2 the Terpig and by the Latins 
tetrao — was of two kinds. The larger was our Capercaillie 
(Tetrao urogallus, Gould, 248). And in Pliny, at all rirpai 
events, the smaller was our Blackcock (Tetrao tetrix, Gould, 
250). But the Blackcock is not now found in Greece : and it seems 
probable that in speaking of the smaller reV/oaf, Greek writers were 
referring to the bird now known as the Greek partridge (Perdix saxatilis, 
Gould, 261), called by some tetrao rufus, Dresser vii. 93. 

1 He is alluding to the passage in the ninth Iliad (359-61), where Achilles, 
rejecting the overtures of Agamemnon, declares his intention to sail home on the 
morrow : 

Early, I ween, in the morn, (Ye can see me if such be your wishes) 
I in my ships will be borne O'er the Hellespont swarming with fishes. 


Pliny 1 says of these birds that "they have a trim shining brightness© 
that becommeth and graceth them exceeding well in their perfect and 
absolute black hew, and their eiebrows painted as it were with deep 
scarlet." It would be impossible to describe more accurately the glossy 
plumage of both blackcock and capercaillie, and the remarkable "patch of 
bright scarlet " which extends immediately above the eye in each species, 
and which is a piece of naked skin like the wattles of a cock. Pliny 
proceeds to give some further details concerning the capercaillies. They 
are, says he, bigger than vultures, and not unlike them in colour. "And 
there is not a foule (setting the ostrich aside) that poiseth and weigheth 
more heavy than they. These breed in the Alpes 2 and the North 
countries. If they be mued up and kept in a pen, they lose their pleasant 
taste, and are no good meat." 

In the Ninth Book of Athenaeus, Laurentius j>ropounds a question to 
his fellow -guests, rbv reVpa/ca tl i/o/ufeT€ ; What do ye consider the rerpat; 
to be? His companions appear unable to get beyond the schoolboy 
answer, eiSos opviov, a sort of bird. And Laurentius therefore himself 
proceeds to quote passages from various authors in which the Terpag is 
mentioned, and amongst them lines 882-4 of this play. And he observes 
that Alexander the Myndian, when he speaks of the rirpa^ in the second 
book of his work on " winged creatures," means not the large rirpag, but 
quite a small bird. For he writes: "The rirpag is about the size of a 
rook, of a brick colour, mottled with dingy spots and large stripes. And 
it feeds on fruits, and, when it lays an egg, it cackles 3 ." [This must be 

1 Decet tetraonas suus niter, absolutaque nigritia, in superciliis cocci rubor. 
Alteram eorum genus vulturum magnitudinem excedit, quorum et colorem 
reddit. Nee ulla ales, excepto struthiocamelo, maius corpore implens pondus, 
in tantum aucta, ut in terra quoque immobilis prehendatur. Gignunt eos Alpes 
et septentrionalis regio. In aviariis saporem perdunt. — x. 29. The translation in 
inverted commas is from Philemon Holland. This is that Holland who in the 
reigns of Elizabeth and James I translated Pliny, Livy, Suetonius Tranquillus, 
and many other Greek and Latin authors ; and of whom the lines were written : ■. 

Philemon with's translations so doth kill us 
That Suetonius cannot be tranquillus. 

2 Though not a true Alpine species, the capercaillie is still tolerably common 
in the mountains of Switzerland and North Italy, and in Greece ; and breeds in 
the forests of Acarnania. — Dresser vii. 228. 

3 Terpat;* to piyzOos 'l<rog o-7reppo\6yco , to xP^P a K^pafieovSf pvirapcus crTiypais Kal 


the Greek partridge.] Laurentius still finds his friends silent, and 
altogether in the dark about the bird ; but he has a surprise in store for 
them. He will show them the bird itself, for he has got one in a coop. 
He saw it when he was Caesar's Procurator in Mysia, and remembered that 
it was mentioned by the delightful Aristophanes. And while he was yet 
speaking a servant brought in the coop with the TeVpaf inside it. And the 
bird was bigger than the biggest cock, and in appearance like the Porphyrion ; 
and from its ears on each side it had wattles hanging, like a cock l [alluding 
apparently to the scarlet patches mentioned above], and it had a harsh 
voice. And so when they had all admired the beauty of the bird, it was 
presently served up, cooked ; and its flesh was like the flesh of an ostrich. 

There can be no doubt that this great rerpaf is the magnificent Caper- 
caillie, which after having been exterminated in Scotland has, by the 
fostering care of the Marquis of Breadalbane, again been planted in 
Perthshire, and may now be readily seen by the traveller, as I myself have 
seen it, in the regions between and surrounding Lochs Tay and Tummel. 

The capercaillie and black grouse are closely connected, and freely 
interbreed with each other. 

The aTTayas is the European Francolin (Francolinus vulgaris, Gould, 
259), a bird somewhat larger than a partridge, and much 
more splendidly coloured, the throat and breast being a &TTayas 
deep black, save for a bright chestnut collar round the neck ; 
the back and wings yellowish brown, but every feather mottled with 
a deeper colour ; whilst the lower part of the body and the tail are spotted 
or barred with white in a very singular manner. 

Its epithet " European " is rather a misnomer, since, though there is no 
doubt that it " formerly existed in Spain, Sardinia, Sicily, and the Greek 
Archipelago " (Dresser vii. 125), it does not seem to be found in any part 
of Europe now; and is rapidly disappearing even from Asia Minor. 
Probably it was always more common in Asia Minor, and especially in 
Lydia, than in Greece ; and that is why the Eomans called it attagen 
Ionicus, Horace, Epode ii. 54 ; Pliny x. 68 ; Martial xiii. 61. Its flesh is 

fieydXais ypafXfjLcus 7roiKiko9 y Kaprrocfrdyos. orav (ooroicfj $e, rcrpafei rjj (poavrj. — Atlienaeus 
ix. 58. 

1 tjv 8e to fxh fieyedos vwep akcKrpvova rbv peyio~TOV' rb de eibos 7rop(j)vpia>vi 
7rap(m\r]0-ios. kol airb ra>v arcov iKarepcodev ei^e Kpefidfievci, eooTrep oi dXeKTpvoves, to. 
KaXkaia. — Id. 


very delicate 1 , Mr. Gould says, and much esteemed in India. And he 
adds that, unlike the partridge, it exhibits a preference for moist and 
humid districts 2 . 

The best description of the drrayas left us by the ancients is that quoted 
by Athenaeus from Alexander the Myndian 3 . " It is a little bigger than 
a partridge, and speckled all over its back ; and it is brick-coloured with 
a yellowish tinge. And it is caught by the hunters by reason of its weight 
and the shortness of its wings ; and it loves to roll in the dust, and is 
prolific and granivorous. " 

The " amorous and wily " 7repSi£, which, if not identical with our Common 

Partridge (Perdix cinerea, Gould, 262), is not distinguishable 

ire'pSi£ from it in any of its habits, is very frequently mentioned by 

Aristotle and other ancient writers ; and the details which 

they give show that they had acquired an intimate knowledge of the 

character and habits of the bird. The trait which seems to have impressed 

them most was its affection for its young, and the artful devices with 

which it strives to decoy the hunter from their neighbourhood 4 . But 

instead of placing this trait to its credit, they upbraided it for being so 

unaccommodating to its pursuers, and declared that it was a KaKorjOes and 

Travovpyov bird. 

Quails, though not found in great numbers in England, yet in warmer 

countries arrive in such prodigious flocks 5 at the seasons 

op-ru£ of migration that they completely cover whole acres of 

ground ; and are so fatigued with their journey — for the 

1 arrayas rjdicrrov etyeip iv eTriviKiois Kpeas. Aristophanes in the Pelargi ; cited by 
Athenaeus ix. 39. By eVmWt he means the banquet given by the winner in the 
dramatic contest to celebrate his victory. 

2 Hence in Wasps 257 rbv TrrfXbv aWcp arrayas rvpftdcreis ftadifav. On which the 
Scholiast says 6 arrayas opveov cotlv evpWKOfievov iv rols eXfcrc, Kal reprrofi^vov iv rots 
7rrjX<a8€<rt roirois Kal TeXfiacriv, ripels $e drTayjjva (attagen) avrbv (frafiev. 

8 fLiKpti fxev pcifav itrrX 7rip8iKOs, 6\os de Kardypa<pos ra nepl rbv vSarov, Kcpafieovs 
rrjv xpoav, viroTrvppifav jxaXXov. Brjpcverai 5' imb rcov Kvvrjywv Sia rb fidpos Kal rrjv 
t<*)V 7TT€pcov fipaxyrr)ra' tfori be KovurriKos, TrokvrsKvos re, Kal (TirepfioXoyos. — Athenaeus 
ix. 39. 

4 See Aristotle ix. 9. 1. 2 ; Athenaeus ix. 41-3 ; Aelian hi. 16 ; Plutarch, De 
Solertia Animalium, xvi. 4; Pliny x. 51, and the quaint lines of Manuel Phile, 
xii. 25-41. 

6 Tristram, Natural History of the Bible, p. 230 ; Saunders's Yarrell iii. 128 ; 
Morris iv. 230 ; Daniel's Rural Sports iii. 139, 140. 


bird is shortwinged and, though small, plump and heavy — that at first 
they lie in heaps, and allow themselves to be taken by hand or trodden 
under foot. Vast migrations take place every spring and autumn. And 
the great multitude which, as we read in the Books of Exodus and 
Numbers, came up and covered the camp of the Israelites in the 
wilderness, when the Almighty "rained, flesh upon them like dust, and 
feathered fowls like as the sand of the sea " were but acting in accordance 
with the habits of their kind. 

The oprvg is our common Quail (Coturnix dactylisonans *, Gould, 263). 
The interesting account which Aristotle gives of these birds (viii. 14. 5) 
is translated with but slight variations by Pliny x. 33. They were 
habitually domesticated at Athens, and trained for the fashionable 
amusement of 6prvyoK<m m. See the notes on Peace 788 ; Birds 1299. 

The three birds which remain to be considered under the Order of 
Easores are not European, and are therefore not to be 
found in any work on the " Birds of Europe " ; but no d\eicTpuwi> 
difficulty arises as to their identification. If, as most Mij&os 
naturalists suppose, the jungle fowl of Java is the origin ncpaiKos 
of our domestic poultry, the latter in all probability, like the 
Peacock at a subsequent period, reached Europe through Persia. And 
this would account for the cock being called the Persian or Median bird. 
Cf. Varro, De Ke Kustica, iii. 9. 

In later times the ostrich was known as the arTpovOoKap/qXos (Latin 
stmthiocamelus), but that name, as Galen says 2 , was arjdts to 
the ancients, ovopid^ovcn yap avrds fjieydXas (rrpovOovs. orpouOos 

Thus Aelian (ii. 27) says that fj o-rpovOos f) pueydXr) has pey&hr) 
thick shaggy wings, but cannot raise itself from the ground 
to soar into the air. However it runs with great speed, and uses its 
wings like sails to help it along. And cf. Xenophon, Anabasis i. 5. 2. 

Aristotle, in the last chapter of his treatise De Partibus Animalium, 
says that the ostrich, which he calls 6 o-TpovBos 6 AiftvKos, is an abnormal 
creature, for in some things it resembles a bird, and in others a 

1 The epithet dactylisonans is derived from the quail's note, which consists of 
three consecutive chirps, supposed to resemble a dactyl. 

2 De Alimentorum Facultatibus iii. 20. The addition of kq/^Xos is intended to 
show the tall gawky stature of the ostrich. Compare the compound Kap.rjko~ 
ndpSaXis for the giraffe, and the expression Kap^ov dpvbv in line 1559 of this 


quadruped. To distinguish it from the quadruped, it has wings ; but 
to distinguish it from the bird, it cannot fly ; and so on. 

The Peacock (ra&s, Pavo cristatus) appears to have been originally 

a native of India * ; from those regions the ships of King 

Tatos Solomon fetched, some think, their ivory, and apes, and 

peacocks ; and in those regions peacocks are still found by 

English sportsmen in quite astonishing abundance. "Whole woods," 

says Captain Williamson in his great work on Oriental Field Sports 

(Plate 26, Peacock-shooting), " were covered w T ith their beautiful plumage, 

to which a rising sun imparted additional brilliancy. And I speak within 

bounds when I assert that there could not be less than twelve or fifteen 

hundred pea-fowls of various sizes within sight of the spot where I stood 

for near an hour." 

From India they seem to have been introduced into Central Asia 2 ; 
and thence they were probably brought to Athens after the Persian, but 
before the Peloponnesian, War. 

From the manner in which they are always mentioned by Aristophanes 
it is plain that in his time they were the greatest possible rarity. And 
with this all accounts agree. " For a long time," says Aelian v. 21, " they 
were very scarce ; and at Athens were exhibited every new moon to 
persons who paid to see them. A pair of pea-fowl were valued at 1,000 
drachmas." Athenaeus (ix. 58) cites several passages to show the extreme 
rarity of the bird. 

But in the following century — and especially, we may suppose, after 
the Asiatic conquests of Alexander — they became more plentiful, and 
Antiphanes (cited by Athenaeus, ubi supra) says of them : 

Once we thought a brace of peacocks was a goodly sight and rare ; 
Now they come like quails amongst us; now we see them everywhere. 

And thenceforward they were extremely common in both Greece and 

1 Aelian v. 21 ; xi. 33 ; xiii. 18 ; xvi. 2. 

2 St. Gregory Nazianzen (Orat. xxviii. 24) calls the Peacock 6 d\aCa>p opvi? kcu 


Order IV. Grallatores (Walkers on Stilts, Waders). 

yepavo?. Tpo)(L\o9. 

epcoSibs. <pa\r)ph. 

nekapybs. 7rop(f>vpL0Op. 

(pOLPLKOTTTepOS. 7TOp(j)Vph. 

yapaSpibs. *pH- 

f/3fS. opTvyoprJTpa. 

The graceful and elegant yepavos, our Crane (Grus cinerea, Gould, 270), 
has always impressed mankind rather by its remarkable 
migrations than by any other characteristic. Many legends yepo^os 
gathered around these great migrating birds, as that at the 
southern end of their journey, in Ethiopian regions, they settled among, 
and fought with, a little race of Pygmies. And again, that as they 
voyaged through the windy sky, they steadied themselves with stones, 
which they had swallowed by way of ballast. 

Aristotle several times mentions the migrations of the crane. 

"Some animals," he says, "change their quarters, migrating after the 
autumnal equinox from Pontus and the cold regions, fleeing the approaching 
winter; and after the vernal equinox from the warm regions to the cold, 
dreading the great heat ; and some migrate but a short distance, but others 
from the ends of the world, so to say : and this is the case with the cranes 
who migrate from the Scythian plains to the marshes beyond Egypt, whenee 
the Nile issues. And this is the district about which the Pygmies dwell. 
For the story about the Pygmies is not a myth, but in very truth there is 
a Lilliputian race, men and horses too, who dwell in caves V 

And again : — 

" The cranes, as already mentioned, migrate from one end of the world 

1 ra fA€V ck T(ov iyyvs TOTrav noiovfieva ras p.€Ta(3o\as, ra be kol €K tcov £(rx.dT<ov cos elnelv. 
olov at yepavoi noiovcrt.' fxera^aXXovai yap €K tcov HkvOikcdv TrediW els ra eXr] to. avoa rrjs 
Alyinrrov, odev 6 NetXos pel. ^Eort de 6 tottos ovtos, 7T€p\ ov oi Ylvyficuoi KaroiKOvo-W 
ov yap i(TTi tovto fivflos, dXX* eort Kara rrjv dXfjfleiav yevos fiiKpov, &(T7r€p Xeyerai, kol 
avroi feat ol Imroi, TpcoyXobvrai 6' eicri tov filov. — viii. 14, 1, 2. About the Cranes and 
Pygmies see also the simile at the commencement of the third Iliad ; Juvenal 
xiii. 167-70 ; Pliny x. 30. The existence of these Pygmies, long denied by 
sceptics and superior persons, is now placed beyond a doubt by the discoveries of 
H. M. Stanley and others. Some of them have recently been brought to England. 


to the other. But the story about the stone is a fiction ; for it is said 
that they carry a stone as ballast, which, when they throw it up, is useful 
for the testing of gold V 

And in Book IX. chap. 11 he describes the sagacity with which they 
conduct their migrations. The account in Dionysius, de Avibus, ii. 17, is 
a mere paraphrase of this ; but the writer affirms, as does the Scholiast on 
line 1137 of this play, that they do carry stones, not indeed as ballast, but 
in order to ascertain, by dropping them, whether they are passing over 
land or sea. 

All writers notice the KXayyrj of the cranes ; which modern naturalists 
describe as a clear, loud, trumpet-like note, heard before the birds are 
seen. Aelian (i. 44) says it is a sign of rain. 

Aristotle recognizes three kinds of herons, epwoW; one of a cinereous 

colour, the type of which is the Common Heron (Ardea cinerea. 

epco&ios Gould, 273) ; another white, which is the Egret, the Great 

Egret (Ardea alba, Gould, 276), and the Little Egret 

(Ardea Garzetta, Gould, 277) ; and the third, starred or spotted, which is 

the Bittern (Botaurus stellaris, Gould, 280). 

In his eighth Book he says 2 : " Some birds dwell about marshes and 
rivers, as the heron and the white-heron ; the latter is smaller than the 
former, and has a broad, long bill." It is obvious that in this passage 
the AcvKepwSios cannot be the Great Egret, which is the largest of all the 
herons. The description seems to apply to the Spoonbill, to which Linnaeus 
accordingly gave the name of Leucorodius (Platalea leucorodia, Gould, 286). 

In the ninth Book Aristotle mentions all three kinds 3 . "Of herons 
there be three sorts, the cinereous, the white, and that called the starred 

And again, more fully 4 . "The cinereous heron is a resourceful bird, 

1 to fie 7T€pl roii XWov tyevbos iaTLV' Xeyerat yap cos €)(ovo~iv i eppa, Xldov bs yiverai 
XprjTipos 7rp6s tcls rov xpwov fiamivovs, orav dpepeaoao-LV. — viii. 14. 5. See also Aelian 
ii. 1; iii. 13, 14; Phile xi. 

2 7T€pl tcls Xipvas evioi kol tovS irorapovs, olov ip(D$i6s kol 6 XtVKepabios' ecrrt 8e 
ovtos to piyeBos iiceivov eXdrroyp, Kal ?^« to pvy^os nXarv Kal paKpov. — viii. 5. 6. 
The XeuKepoSioff must not be confounded with the Xcvkos ipcobios. 

8 t£>v ipcahioiiv eaTi rpia ywrj, o re rreXXo? (cinereous), kol 6 Xcvkos, Kal 6 aarcplas 
m\ovp€vo£. — ix. 2. 8. Pliny (x. 79) merely appropriates, without translating, this 
passage, il Ardeolarum tria genera : leucon, asterias, pellos." 

4 tS>v m epG>8tS>v 6 peu neXXos €vpr)x avos Kai ^nrvo(f)6pos Kal €7raypos" ipyafcrai tie 


clever at catching, and carrying off its prey. It works by day. Its 
colour however is poor, and its stomach always relaxed. Of the two 
other kinds (for there be three species) the white heron is beautifully 
coloured, and builds its nest and lays its eggs very neatly in trees ; and it 
inhabits swamps and marshes, and flats and meadows. And the da-repias, 
which is nicknamed the " Sluggard," is fabled to have sprung of old time 
from slaves ; and, in accordance with its nickname, it is the most sluggish 
of all the herons." 

This is a very accurate description, so far as it goes, of the herons 
mentioned above. The observation that the common heron works by day 
is no doubt intended to contrast that bird with the bittern, which does not 
begin to bestir itself until the dusk of the evening 1 . The beautiful snow- 
white plumage of the egret is familiar to everybody. And the bittern, 
the only heron to which the epithet do-reptas could be applied, is also by 
far the most sluggish of these birds, flying heavily like an owl, and, even 
when flushed, immediately dropping again into its cover. "They will 
allow themselves to be almost trodden upon," says Mr. Morris, " before 
they attempt to escape. They do not fly far at a time, if disturbed, and 
then at a dull and flagging pace." 

Dionysius (ii. 8) had observed the fact that the herons do not dive after 
their prey like other waterbirds ; but stand and fish in shallows, taking care 
to stay in such a position that their shadows do not fall upon the water. He 
notices too that some have plumes, and some have not ; that though they 
spend their time in the water, they always build their nests on the dry 

rr]P f]fji€pav' rrjp ixivroi xpoav e^et <j)av\r)v f Kal rr]P Koikiav del vypdp. to>v 8e Xoirr&p 
8vo (rpia yap yevr\ ccttIp avrStv) 6 fiep XevKos rr t v re xp° av *X U *a^ J 7*'> K <u peorrevei 

KCU TLKTCL KO.\g>9 €7rl T<dV btvbptoV. V€fJl€Tai §' e\rj KOI XlflPCLS KCU 7Te67a KOI XeifXtOPClS. 

6 5' darepias, 6 cmKaXovnepos okpos, /JLvdoXoyelrai p.ep yeviaBai €K bovXcop to dp^aiop* 
io~r\ be Kara tijp eirccpvjiiap tovtcop dpyoraros. — ix. 17. 1. 

1 The epcobws which Pallas Athene, in the tenth Iliad, sent as a favourable sign 
to Diomed and Odysseus, as they started beside the River Simois on their mid- 
night expedition to the Trojan camp, was no doubt intended to be a bittern. 
They did not see it, the night was too dark for that ; but they heard it booming 
on their right. The Scholiast asks, Why did she send a heron ? Why not a yXaO£, 
her own special bird ? And he returns answer to himself, Because the heron loves 
to dwell in marshy and swampy places. 

And to rightward did Pallas Athene send, to their path full nigh, 

A heron beside them flying : they saw it not with the eye 

Through the mirk of the black dark night ; howbeit they heard its cry.— Way, 


land ; and that they are protected by sailors because they are believed to 
give warning of approaching gales. 

The name weXapybs, by which the Greeks denoted the stork, is said to 

mean the black and white bird (71-eAAos, a/oyos), a name 

TreXapyos appropriate enough whether applied to the WJiite Stork 

(Ciconia alba, Gould, 283), which is everywhere pure white, 

except the lower part of its wings which are of a glossy black ; or to the 

Black Stork (Ciconia nigra, Gould, 284), which is everywhere glossy black 

with various metallic reflections, except the lower part of its body, which is 

pure white. 

The characteristic for which the stork has been mostly noted both in 
ancient and in modern days is the reciprocal affection exhibited between 
the parent birds and their young. 

" Now about the storks," says Aristotle 1 , " it is a very widespread belief 
that the old are in their turn fed and maintained by the young." 

The same account is given by Aelian, Plutarch, Pliny, Phile, and many 

Many modern anecdotes relating to the family affection of the storks 

will be found in Buffon xviii. 277, and Bishop Stanley's History of Birds. 

The Common Flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber, Gould, 287), though not 

unknown, is a very rare bird in Greece. Heliodorus 

<|>oii>iKOTrT€pos (vi. 3) calls it NetXaJos cjxywiKOTrTtpos, and it is nowhere 

so common as in North-east Africa. In Dresser's Birds 

vi. 347, Mr. Salvin speaks of the magnificent spectacle in Tunis of 

a thousand or more of these beautiful birds rising from the water at one 

time, the whole mass from the colour of their expanded wings looking like 

an animated rosy cloud. And a similar description is quoted by Mr. 

1 7T€p\ p€V OVV TO>V TTcXcipyCDP, OTL aVT€KTp€(f)OVTai, OpvkeiTCU WapCL 7ToX\o7s. IX. 14. 1, 

Tpe<f)eiv pep rovs naripas 7re\ apyol yeyqpaKOTas Kai edeXovo-i, kol ipeXer-qa-av. — Aelian 
iii. 23. ol yap neXapyol rpecfrovai rovg narepas. — Plutarch, de Solertia Animalium, 
chap. 4. " Storks keep one nest stil from yeare to yeare, and never change ; and 
of this kind nature they are that the yong will keep and feed their parents when 
they be old, as they themselves were by them nourished in the beginning." — 
Pliny x. 32 (Holland's translation). 

a\K 7 ol TreXapyol rovs kavrwv (piXrdrovs 
\v a<p$6vois Tp4<povcri rats x°P r iy^ aiSt 
ol <f>i\raToi de rovs yoveis fierd yjpovov 
dvrirp€cj>ov<Ttv av9ts t as evtpyeras. — Phile vii. 


Dresser in the same page from Mr. C. A. Wright. And in Mr. Barham 
Zincke's Egypt, p. 439, there is a description, to much the same effect, of 
several flocks of flamingoes which he saw flying along the banks of the 

By the Eomans, after they had possessed themselves of Tunis and 
Egypt, the flamingo was domesticated, and kept for the table. A 
phoenicopterus ingens is mentioned by Juvenal xi. 139, together with 
hare, venison, pheasants, and other dainties, as a dish with which an 
accomplished carver would naturally have been instructed to deal. Indeed 
the flamingo is more frequently mentioned by Latin than by Greek 

Martial (iii. 58), describing to his friend Bassus the various domesticated 
beasts and birds to be found on a farm at Baiae, enumerates amongst 
other things the peacock, goose, and flamingo : 

vagatur omnis turba sordidae cortis, 
argutus anser, gemmeique pavones, 
nomenque debet quae rubentibus pennis. 

And in another epigram he writes this inscription for a flamingo's 

utterance : 

Dat mihi penna rubens nomen ; sed lingua gulosis 
Nostra sapit ; quid si garrula lingua foret ? — xiii. 71. 

For " Apicius, the most riotous glutton and belly god of his time, taught 
men first that the tongue of Phoenicopterus was a most sweet and delicate 
piece of meat," Pliny x. 68 (Holland's translation), Cf. Suetonius, 
Vitellius, chap. 13. 

Linnaeus identifies the x a P a &P L °s with our Plover ; and Charadriidae 
is the recognized scientific name of the Plover family. 
Aristotle says that it gets its food by the sea (viii. 5. 7) ; x a P a ^P l ° s 
and that 1 it makes its dwelling in torrent beds, and clefts, 
and rocks ; that its colour and voice are insignificant ; and that it comes 
out at night, and disappears in the daytime. Aristophanes in the present 
play classes it with the river-birds. 

Those who are not content with merely identifying the x a P a ^P L ^ with 

1 ras 6* olKrjtreLS ol pep ir^pl rcis x a P<*$pa$ <cu XVP 61 ! 10 ^ 9 Ttoiovvrai kol\ 7rerpa?, oiov 6 
Ka\ov[X€i>os x a P a $P L ° s ' ccrrt S* 6 x°P a $P l ° s Ka ' r h v XP® av K(1L T h v 4 >a>v *l v (f)av\os' (fiaiverat 
§e pvktcop, fjfiepas S' a7TodtSpao-/cei. — ix. 12. 1. It indeed derives its name from its habit 
of haunting x a P^P a ^' Plato's expression xapadpiov ftios (Gorgias, chap. 48, 494 B) 
refers to the bird's way of drinking a quantity of water, and then ejecting it again. 


the plover, but would also ascertain with what particular kind of plover 
the name was specially associated by the Greeks, are really essaying a vain 
task. . For the progress of Ornithology involves the perpetual subdivision 
of one large class into several smaller ones ; and the old naturalists, 
thinking only of the one large class, would attribute to it sometimes 
properties belonging only to one, and sometimes properties belonging 
only to another, of the smaller classes into which it is now divided. 

Buffon and others consider the x a P a $P L °s ^° ^ e ^ ne Ringed Plover, 
sometimes called the Bing Dottrell (Charadrius hiaticula, Gould, 296) : 
which no doubt answers very well to much that is said of the x a P a ^os. 
Gesner and others would identify it with the Norfolk Plover, otherwise 
the Thich-Jcneed Bustard (Oedicnemus crepitans, Gould, 288), for which there 
seems less reason. But the xa/)a8pios mentioned in the passages to which 
I am about to refer can be nothing but the Golden Plover (Charadrius 
pluvialis, Gould, 294). 

The xapa&pwsi says Aelian, u has this gift which is by no means to be 
despised. If a man sick of the jaundice look keenly at the bird, and the 
bird return the gaze unflinchingly, as though they were mutually angry, 
the man will be cured of the disease." — xvii. 13. 

Plutarch gives a similar account. " People who have the jaundice," he 
says, " are cured by gazing at a xa/>aSptos. For the bird is of such a nature 
and temperament that it draws out and attracts the disease, welling out 
like a stream through the eyesight. Wherefore the x a P a $P L °s does not 
look at, or endure, jaundiced persons : but shuts it eyes, and turns away ; 
not from any unwillingness to cure them, but because it is hurt, as if by 
a blow. " — Quaest. Sympos. v. 7. 2 (8). The same story is repeated by 
Suidas, and the Scholiasts on Plato and Aristophanes, who add that 
as the cure was effected by merely looking at the bird, dealers kept the 
XapaSpib<s out of sight ; and quote a line of Hipponax which, as amended 
by Ruhnken on Timaeus s.v. x a P a ^P 1 ^ runs Kal p^v KaXvirreLs. fiQ>v 
XapaSpcov Trepvas; Now Pliny calls the x a P a ^P L ^ itself by the name of 
tfcrepos (that is, jaundice) ; for there is not a shadow of reason to suppose 
that he is speaking of any other bird. And he says (I quote from 
Holland's translation) : 

"A bird 1 there is, called in Greeke Icterus, of the yellow colour which the 

1 Avis icterus vocatur a colore quae, si spectetur, sanari id malum tradunt, et 
avem mori.— Pliny xxx. 28. "iKTepos tis opvis airo ttjs ^poia? oiopafcraiy ov el tg> 


feathers carry, which if one that hath the jaundise do but looke upon, he or she 
shall be presently cured thereof, but the poore bird is sure to die for it." 

Now this can only be the Golden Plover : and indeed the whole legend 
about the cure of the jaundice in all probability arose from the resemblance 
which the bird's colour was supposed to bear to the complexion of a person 
suffering from that disease. 

On the other hand the artful little device attributed to the xapaSpios 
in line 266 of this play, though more or less common to other plovers 
and indeed to various birds is, by us at least, especially attributed to the 
green Plover, or Lapwing (Vanellus cristatus, Gould, 291). 

While therefore we can safely assert that x^/oaS/nos ^ properly translated 
by Plover, we cannot go further and identify it with any particular kind 
of Plover. 

The glossy Ibis (Ibis falcinellus, Gould, 301), though an occasional 
visitor to most European countries, including our own, and 
consequently finding a place not only amongst the Birds tflis 

of Europe, but even amongst the Birds of Great Britain, 
is more especially an Egyptian bird, and therefore the Scholiast on line 
1296 of this play, explaining why the nickname *I/?is should have been 
given to Lycurgus, says ^ o>s AlyvirTiu $ d>s fxaKpoo-KeXeu 

There were two birds * of this name in Egypt, the white Ibis, and the 
black Ibis. The former is the sacred Ibis : the latter the glossy Ibis, 
which in England, where it was formerly more common than it is now, 
obtained the title of the Black Curlew. The epithet Black however very 
inadequately expresses the splendid colouring of the glossy Ibis. 

The name rpox&os signifies merely a Bwmer ; and it seems not 
improbable that it was applied indiscriminately to all 
" those busy active flocks of little birds " comprising Tpox&os 
plovers, sandpipers, dunlins, curlews, and the like which 
are so often seen running with almost incredible celerity beside the 
waves, in search of shrimps, sea-worms, and small shellfish. See the 
description given by Bishop Stanley, chapter xv. 

The name is found first in Hdt. (ii. 68) 2 , where it is applied to the 
little bird of the Nile which flies into the crocodile's mouth and picks out 
7rd0€L tovtco ns avrjp e^opcvos Idoi, (pevi-erat iraaav avTiica tijv vo<rov. — Dionysius, de 
Avibus, i. 17. 

1 Hdt. ii. 75, 76; Aristotle ix. 19. 6. 

2 See also Aristotle ix. 7. 3 ; Aelian iii. 11 ; viii. 25 ; xii. 15. 



the leeches and insects which infest it. And this bird is known to be 
the Zic-zac or Spur-ivinged Plover (Pluvianus spinosus, Gould, 293), or its 
congener, the Blach-headed Plover (Pluvianus Aegyptus). See Dresser 
vii. 522, 542. 

This, of course, is not the European rpox&os, but the application of the 
name to the Egyptian plover clearly indicates the class of birds which 
the Greeks would employ it to describe. And this is still more con- 
clusively shown by the description of the rpox&os in the Paraphrase of 

rpoxtXot, it is there said 1 , " are of the number of amphibious birds, and 
run along the beach with such celerity that their running is more speedy 
than flying ; and it is from this that they derive their name. Large fish 
they do not attempt to assail ; small Crustacea, and whatever else the 
waves throw up on the beach, are enough for them. And the male birds 
feed by themselves, and likewise the females by themselves." 

The last sentence contains a very natural misapprehension. The 
division is one of age, not of sex. The old birds go together, and the 
young birds go together. 

This peculiarity is specially marked in the case of the Dunlin or Purre 
(Tringa variabilis, Gould, 329). Speaking of the Dunlin, Morris (vi. 57) 
says : u It is worthy of observation that the old and young birds are hardly 
ever known to migrate in mixed groups, but always keep each to them- 
selves." And Dresser (viii. 27) : " When the young are able to take care 
of themselves they flock together ; and during passage one often sees 
flocks composed almost entirely of young birds." 

Of the whole genus (Tringa) Mr. Dresser observes (viii. 9) : " They 
frequent muddy and damp localities both inland and on the sea-coast, 
some species being especially partial to the latter. They walk and run 
with ease, some being very nimble on foot ; and one may often see them 
following the receding waves, picking up food, and running back to avoid 
the water as it returns. Almost all the species wade in search of food, 
and are able, in ease of need, to swim. They associate in large flocks 

1 Ka\ oi rpoxikoi $e tgov a/x<£tj3iW opvkoav etcrt, kcu irpbs tols alyiako'is rpix ovcriv 


7rpoar)yopiav ivrevOev. rots ueyakois 6' ovk iiTLX^ipovcnv tx^variv, aW anoxpr} Orjpa 
KapKivdbos avToiS) rj o-vWaftetv aWo tl tS>v oirocra irpbs rovs alyiaKovs €K<f>€pei ra 
KVfidTa. vi/JLOvrai 6' ol apcr€V€S [xer aWfjXcov, kcu x°>pis irakiv at 6f)\€iai»—ii. 3. 


both with other species and with other individuals of their own species. 
They feed on insects, worms, minute shellfish, &c., and collect their food 
either on the shores of lakes and rivers or on the sea-coast." 

They are very plentiful about^the great lakes of Boeotia ; and we may 
remember that, in the time of Aristophanes, rpox^Xot formed an important 
portion of the produce sent by Boeotia to the Athenian market, Ach. 876 ; 
Peace 1004. 

So much for the genus; of the Dunlin in particular Mr. Dresser 
observes (viii. 26) : " The Dunlin frequents the muddy shores of estuaries 
near the coast ; sometimes the shores of inland waters, morasses, &c, but 
always such places as are entirely open and free from trees or bushes, and 
especially where the soil is muddy and not sandy. I have often seen 
them feeding close to the edge of the water, following the wave as it 
recedes, and running swiftly out of the way as it again advances ; but 
a large expanse of mudflat appears to be their most congenial haunt. 
They feed on small crustaceans, marine worms, and insects of various 
kinds." To the same effect Morris vi. 58, and indeed all ornithological 

Another circumstance may be mentioned — that, besides the separate 
flocks of old and young birds, there are said to be two races of Dunlin, 
of different sizes, which keep in separate flocks (Saunders's Yarrell iii. 379). 

It may be added that they are considered very good for the table. 

Moreover whilst the Plover proper has a comparatively short stumpy 
bill, the Dunlin has a remarkably long one, so justifying the exclamation 
which the travellers make on its first appearance in this play, 3f A7ro\Xov 
aTTOTpoTratz rov xaor/^/mTos. For of course the longer the bill the wider 
the gape. 

While therefore it is probable that the name rpox&os was applied 
indiscriminately to all birds of this sort — woXXa yap t&v rpox^W yivrj, 
Aelian xii. 15 — yet the Dunlin seems well qualified to be considered 
a typical rpox^Xos. 

And if the Dunlin is really the rpox^Xos, it is a curious coincidence, 
having regard to the part which the rpox^Xos takes in this play, that from 
its habit of dancing attendance on the larger Plovers, it goes in some parts 
of the country by the name of the Plover's page (Saunders's Yarrell iii. 
381 ; Morris vi. 56). 

The </>a\r)pls or <j>aXaph, our Coot (Fulica atra, Gould, 338), was by the 

e % 


ancients commonly, and not unnaturally, reckoned among the ducks. 

Athenaeus 1 says that it has a narrow beak (that is, for 
<J>a\r)pls a duck), and is rounder in form ; also that it is ash-coloured 

below and somewhat blacker above. Aristotle (viii. 5. 8) 
includes it in his list of web-footed birds, 7w o-T€yavo7r68<*)v ; but this is an 
error ; it is really what is called lode-footed, that is to say, its toes are 
"edged with broad scalloped membranes." It was. domesticated, Varro 
tells us, by the Eomans (De Ee Rustica iii. 11). 

The 7rop</>vptW, - still called by the same name Porphyrion (Porphyrio 

hyacinthinus, Gould, 840), is a member of the Rail family. 
7rop<|>upta>f It was formerly reckoned among the Gallinules, but there 

are several slightly different varieties of the bird ; and the 
Porphyrions are now made into a distinct species by themselves. Its 
j)lumage is one mass of purple, or rather deep blue varying from turquoise 
to indigo. Its unfeathered parts — the bill, legs, and feet — are all red ; the 
bill sealing-wax red, the legs and feet fleshy red. " Rostra iis et praelonga 
crura rubent," says Pliny, quite accurately, x. 68. Its name is of course 
derived from its purple plumage (Aelian iii. 42), but it happens to be the 
same as that of the mightiest of the giants, minaci Porphyrion statu; a coin- 
cidence on which Peisthetaerus plays in lines 1249-52 of this comedy, and 
which is also the subject of an epigram of Martial 2 . In modern times 
the earlier observers mentioned it as still found in Greece, but it has not 
been noticed there by more recent ornithologists. It is, however, tolerably 
plentiful in many parts of the Mediterranean littoral, European as well as 

The fullest description of the bird is that quoted by Athenaeus from 
Aristotle 3 . i{ Aristotle says that the porphyrion is not web-footed and is 

1 f) be <j>ahap\s, kol civtt) arevbv e^oucra to pvyxos, crrpoyyvkoTepa rrjv byj/iv oixra, 
evT€<f)pos rrjv ycxTTepa, p,iKp(5 fieXavrepa rbv vmrov. — ix. 52. 

2 Nomen habet magni volucris tarn parva gigantis (xiii. 78) ; a line which, 
detached from its context, might be rendered 

What diverse meanings hath the selfsame word ; 
So great a giant, and so small a bird. 

3 ApurroreXijs re crx^bav67robd (prjcriv airbv elvat, €X €LV re XP^i" a xvaveov, crKeKij 
fjLdKpa, pvyxos rjpyfievov e/c rrjs Ke(j>a\rjs <f>oiviicovv, fieyedos akeicrpvovos, arrofxaxov o 
%X* 1 Xenrov' bib Toov \ajjL(3aPOfi€V(DP els rbv iroba rafxieverat yaKpas ras ^rcop-ibas, Kanrcov 
be mvei. \7revradaKrvk6s re tov, rbv fxecov e^et ixeyi(rrov\. — ix. 40. The words m 
brackets are undoubtedly spurious. See Schneider on Aelian iii. 42 ; Schweig- 


of purple plumage, and has long legs ; and that its bill, commencing from 
its very head is bright red ; and that it is of the size of a domestic cock ; 
and has a narrow gullet ; on which account it divides its food into little 
bits and drinks by mouthfuls." The expression commencing from its very 
head does not mean merely, as Casaubon explains it, "non extremum 
tantum illi rostrum puniceum est, sed totum omnino." It refers to the 
fact that, like the coot and some other birds, the porphyrion has a frontal 
plate, and that this frontal plate, as well as the bill itself, is sealing-wax 
red : so that the bill appears to commence far up in the head. 

We are told by Athenaeus (ix. 40) that Callimachus, in his book upon 
Birds, distinguished the -n-opfyvpls from the 7rop<t>vpiiov. But 
the only distinction is that the latter is the male, and the 7rop<|>upl$ 
former the female bird. These are the regular terminations 
to distinguish the sexes, like d/x7reAiW, a/jbTreXls, and x^wpiW, x^ w p^s. 

The Kpk£ is our Corncrake or Landrail (Gallinula crex, Gould, 341), and if 
our name crake is not itself derived from *pe£, both names 
have been formed to imitate its harsh grating call "craik, Kpe£ 

craik ; craik, craik." " Its cry, resembling the syllables crek, 
crek, crek, may be heard at all times of the day, but more especially early in 
the morning, and late in the evening. " — Dresser vii. 295. " The well-known 
note of the corncrake, crake, crake ; crake, crake is begun to be heard when 
summer is at last fully established." — Morris vi. 70. It is a very singular 
fact that (in countries where quails abound at certain seasons), so soon as 
the note of the corncrake is heard in the long grass, the quails at once 
make their appearance. And we cannot wonder therefore 
that both in ancient and in modern times it has been 6pTUYojxt]Tpa 
popularly imagined to be the companion or guide of the 
quails. Hence the Greeks called it oprvyo^rpa x ; hence it is called in 

haeuser ad loc. The latter refers to Aristotle's statement, De Partibus Animalium 
iv. 12 ad fin. Terpa^dKrvkoi slat navre^ oi opvides. As to k&tttodv Trivet, cf. Aristotle 
viii. 8, 1 ; Pliny x. 63. 

1 Aristotle viii. 14. 5, 6. Aristotle's account is copied by Pliny x. 33. And 
Holland's translation of the latter passage will serve also as a translation of the 
former. "As touching Quailes, therefore, they alwaies come before the Cranes 
depart. A little bird it is, and while she is among us here, mounteth not aloft in 
the aire, but rather flieth below neere the ground. The manner of their flying 
is like the former [i.e. Swans and Geese] in troupes. When the south wind 
blowes, they never flie ; for why ? it is a moist heavy and cloggie wind, and that 


Italy, re di quaglie ; in France, roi des cailles ; in Germany, WachtelMnig ; 
in Spain, guion de las codornices ; and with ourselves, King of the Quails. 

" In Meadows, from the time the Grass is grown until cut, there issues from the 
thickest part of the Herbage a Sound, expressing the word crek, crek, crek, and 
which is a noise much like that made by stripping forcibly the teeth of a large 
Comb under the fingers ; as we approach, the Sound retires, and is heard fifty 
paces off ; it is the Land Bail that emits this Cry, and begins to be heard about 
the second week in May, at the same time with the Quails, which it seems ever to 
accompany, and from being less common and larger, has been deemed their Leader, 
and therefore called the King of the Qtiails" — Daniel's Rural Sports, iii. 134. 

Order V. Natatores (Swimmers). 

yf]v. KoXvfxfth. 

kvkvos. 7T€Xe/cay. 

Xrjva\o£>Trri£. ^eXe/c^Voy. 

TT7jpeXo\lr. KaTap&KTr]$. 

vfJTTa. eXaoras. 

PacrKas. Xdpos. 

By far the most common geese observed in the Hellenic regions are 

those with which we also are most familiar in England, viz. 

xV the large Grey Lag Goose (Anser palustris, Gould, 347) 

from which our domestic goose is supposed to be derived ; 

and the somewhat smaller, and very gregarious Bean Goose (Anser segetum, 

Gould, 348). The mighty flock of geese which Homer describes (Iliad ii, 

459-63) must have been composed of the latter species. The Achaeans, 

it is said, pour forth to the battle -muster, 

as the myriad tribes of the flying fowl of the air, 
The armies of geese, of the cranes, of the long-necked swans snow-fair, 

they know well ynough. And yet they willingly chuse a gale whensoever they 
file, by reason that their bodies are too weightie (in comparison of their wings) 
to beare them up ; and besides, their strength is but small. Commonly, there- 
fore, they chuse a Northerne wind to flie with ; and they have one mighty great 
Quaile called Ortygometra, to lead the way and conduct them as their captain." 
A " mighty great Quaile " is Philemon's own guess, and a mighty bad one ; 
though he may have been misled by Hesychius, dpTvyofirjTpa* oprvt- vjrepiieyidris. 
Pliny does not go on to explain the word, but Aristotle does : r] 8e opTvyojxrjTpa 
TrapcnrhTjcnos rrjv p,op(f>rjv rot? \ip,vmois iarL 


fly hither and thither over an Asian mead, around the streams of Cayster 
glorying in their wings, 

As with clangour and clashing they settle; the whole mead ringeth again. — Way. 

Their manner of flight is well described by Pliny x. 32. 

Tame geese are twice mentioned in the Odyssey: each time as 
representing the suitors, while Odysseus is represented by the eagle which 
kills them. In xv. 160-5 it is an omen. An eagle is seen carrying off 
a tame goose from the courtyard, xv va VMP 0V *£ avkrjs, and Helen at once 
interprets it of the near return of Odysseus, and the vengeance which he 
will wreak upon the suitors. In xix. 535-58 it is a dream, which 
Penelope asks the stranger to interpret, not knowing that she is speaking 
to Odysseus himself. 

I have twenty geese, and they come to the water-trough to feed 
On the wheat that I cast them. 

But she dreamed that a mighty eagle came and killed them all and 
soared away to the sky. 

And I wept and I shrieked in my dream for sorrow and sore dismay. 
And around me thronging came the fair-tressed daughters of Greece, 
At my piteous lamenting because that the eagle had slain my geese. 

But the eagle returned, and speaking with a man's voice declared that 
he was Odysseus, and the geese the suitors. And with that she awoke. 

And I looked, and lo, the geese in the courtyard full in view 

Pecking their wheat at the trough, as before they were wont to do. — Way. 

Aristotle mentions two sorts of geese, 6 xv v an( ^ ° /xt/cpos xw ° ayeXatos (viii. 
5. 8). And a little later, the xw o /xu<p6s is included in a list of the gregarious 
birds (viii. 14. 6). That the xw i s > ov includes, the grey lag goose is 
certain, but whether the bean goose is also included under that name, or 
is the xw o /xtK/oos, is extremely uncertain. On the one hand, it is strange 
that a goose, which is only a trifle less than the largest, should be called 
the " little" one. On the other hand, there is no smaller goose which 
could be called the u gregarious" goose in contradistinction to this. 
However this is a matter about which we need not trouble ourselves. 

The Greeks do not seem to have distinguished between 
the Cygnus olor, the Mute Swan (Cygnus mansuetus, Gould, kiWos 
354), of which kind are our domesticated swans, and the 
Wild Swan, or WJiooper (Cygnus ferus, Gould, 355). Nor is this surprising ; 


for there is little or no external difference between the two species, except 
as regards their bills, and except that the Whooper is the smaller bird. 

Nothing is more strange in ancient ornithology than the great value 
which the Greeks set upon the melody of the swan, and especially of the 
dying swan. They regarded the nightingale, the swan, and the swallow 
as a musical trio of incomparable excellence. Their poets are never tired 
of celebrating the holy minstrelsy of the swans who loved to chant the 
praises of Phoebus, as they sat on the mounds by the side of the swirling 
river 1 ; and who were, to Callimachus, Wovo-doiv opviOes, aotSorarot irereyjviov 
(Hymn, in Del. 252). Even Aristotle (ix. 13. 2) says that they are 
musical birds, and are especially given to sing when they are about to 
die. But Alexander the Myndian 2 , who was no mean naturalist, declared 
that he had been at the death of many swans, and never heard them sing. 
And Pliny observes that people tell of the mournful song of the dying 
swan ; but that, after sundry experiments, he thinks there is no truth in 
the story. And in Epistle 114 of St. Gregory Nazianzen the swans, 
rallied by the swallows for keeping their musical powers to themselves, 
reply with a proverbial saying, rore acrovrai kvkvoi, otolv koXoloI o-to)7r^cro)criy. 
In the same Epistle the writer seems to fall in with the opinion of those 
who attribute the swan's music to the whistling of the breeze through its 
wings. " Our music will be heard," say the swans, orav av&jjiev tw 
Ziecfavptt) ras Trrepuyas, kparvziv r)$v tl /cat ivapfiovcov. And the same notion IS 
found in one of his poems (ii. 7, lines 309, 310), and in the passage to be 
presently quoted from his twenty -eighth Oration. And possibly this is 
the meaning of the words v-trd 7rrepvyo)v just cited in a footnote from the 
Homeric Hymns, and of the 7rrepots KptKovres in line 772 of this play. 

" Much has been said in ancient times," observes Bewick, " of the 
singing of the Swan, and many beautiful and poetical descriptions have 
been given of its dying song. ' No fiction of natural history, no fable of 
antiquity, was ever more celebrated, oftener repeated, or better received : 
it occupied the soft and lively imagination of the Greeks ; poets, orators, 
and even philosophers, adopted it as a truth too pleasing to be doubted.' 
The truth however is very different from such amiable and affecting fables ; 

1 $ofj3e, ae fxev teal k-vkvos vnb Trrepvyow \iy aeiSet, 
oxOy kmOpojUKew iroTa/xbu trapa 8ivr]€7/Ta, 

Ilrjyeiov. — Shorter Homeric Hymn to Apollo, 1. Compare Birds 774. 

2 Athenaeus ix. 49. Olorum morte narratur flebilis cantus ; falso, ut arbitror 
aliquot experimentis. — x. 32. 


for the voice of the Swan, singly, is shrill, piercing, and harsh, not unlike 
the sound of a clarionet when blown by a novice in music. It is, however, 
asserted by those who have heard the united and varied voices of 
a numerous assemblage of them, that they produce a more harmonious 
effect, particularly when softened by the murmur of the waters." 

The fable of the Swan's dying song is too beautiful ever to die out of 
literature, but of course it is now treated merely as a poetic fancy and 
not as an actual fact. 

The name xv^^^V^ vulpanser, is given to the Common Sheldrake 
(Tadorna vulpanser, Gould, 357, to which must be added 
the Buddy Sheldrake, Tadorna rutila, Gould, 358) because x Y l |/a ^^ 7rY l^ 
whilst it swims in the water like the goose, it makes its 
nest in burrows like the fox. We learn nothing from Aristotle about the 
XW a ^ 7r n£> except that it lives in the neighbourhood of marshes and rivers 
(viii. 5. 8) ; but Aelian tells us that it is smaller than a goose (x^os 
fipaxvTepos, v. 30), and gives an interesting account of the art with which 
it seeks to divert the attention of an enemy from its young ones \ " The 
Xy)va\u>Trv)% too," he says, "is devoted to her brood, and plays the same 
trick as the partridge. For she too rolls down in front of her young ones, 
and inspires the assailant with hope that he will be able to catch her ; 
meanwhile the young ones scud away ; and when they have gone some 
distance off, then she too rises and flies away." 

Now this is a marked characteristic of the Sheldrake. " In Orkney," 
says Dr. Patrick Neill, " it has got the name of Sly Goose, from the arts 
which the natives find it employs to decoy them from the neighbourhood 
of its nest ; it frequently feigns lameness, and waddles away with one 
wing trailing on the ground, thus inducing a pursuit of itself, till, judging 
its young to be safe from discovery it suddenly takes flight, and leaves 
the outwitted Orcadian gaping with surprise." — Saunders's Yarrell iv. 353. 
And Mr. Morris (vi. 1 70) quotes the account of a brood living in a rabbit- 
burrow at Sandringham. "If the nest be approached by an unwelcome 
intruder, the young ones hide themselves ; the tender mother drops at no 
great distance from her helpless brood, trails herself along the ground, 

1 (fnXoreKVOv de apa £&ov r)v mi 6 xqvoLkdmrji;, ml ravrbv toTs Trephi^i bpa. /cat 
yap ovtos irpb tcov i/€Ottg>v iavrbv KOi/xtfct, kcu ivbibcocnv i\7rida <os OrjpdaovTi avrbu 
to5 imovTi. ol 8e airobibpaaKovcriv ol vcottoI iv r<£ recos' orav hk irpb odov ycvcovrai. 
kcu €K€?vos cavrbp rots 7TT€po1s i\a(j)pL(Ta9 a7raXka.TT6Tai. — xi. 38. 


flaps it with her wings, and appears to struggle as if she was wounded, in 
order to attract attention and tempt a pursuit after herself." Buff on 
(xx. 166) gives a precisely similar account, and begins his remarks on the 
Sheldrake by observing, "We are convinced that the Fox-goose of the 
ancients (the xw^^vi or vulpanser) is the same with the Sheldrake." 

Herodotus (ii. 72) after mentioning certain animals which the Egyptians 
considered tpovs rov NctAou, such as the otter and the eel, adds k<u twv 
opviOoiv tovs x 7 ) va ^ 7r€Ka<s * -ft * s generally considered that he means the 
Egyptian goose, to which ornithologists have consequently given the name 
X^vaXmrr}^ (Chenalopex Egyptiaca, Gould, 353), but this seems to me 
extremely improbable. He mentions the name casually, without any 
explanation, as a name familiar to himself, and one which he knows will 
be familiar to his audience. Now the Egyptian goose is never seen to the 
north of the Mediterranean, whereas both the Sheldrakes are exceedingly 
common in Egypt (Dresser vi. 407, 458, 463). And it seems to me that 
Herodotus, mentioning the xw a ^ 7rr }^ without any explanation or comment, 
must necessarily have meant the European bird which he and those for 
whom he was writing had always been accustomed to call by that name. 
I may add that the appearance of the Egyptian goose is very different from 
that of the Sheldrake. 

Aristotle (viii. 5. 8) merely mentions the TryjviXoxj/ 1 as an aquatic bird : 

and for any further details we have to rely on less trust- 
irY]^eXo\|/ worthy authorities. The Scholiasts on line 1302 of this 

play say that it is like a wild duck, but the size of a pigeon ; 
and again that it is bigger than a wild duck, but like one ; 6 7ty)v£Xo\1/ 
vrjrrrj /xei/ ioriv ojjloiov, 7repL<rT€pas 8e fjiiyeOos. "AAAoo?, 6 7r?;veXoi/r ja€l£q)v fxev rj 
Kara vrjrrav, o/aolos Se. Hesychius, s. v. c/yoiviKoXeyvov (red-fringed), says that 
Ion uses the word as an epithet of the irrjveXoil/, for, he adds, its throat is 
red all over : <f>oivLKoXeyvov' v Ia>i/ rov 7T7]veXo7ra, to opveov, tov yap TpaxrjXov 
hrlirov c/>olvlkovv. rj 8e Xiyvrj iraplXKu. Alcaeus, in the lines quoted in the 
Commentary on line 1410 of this play, says What be these birds of Ocean 
that have come from the ends of the earth, penelopes with variegated backs and 
long sweep of wing? TrouaXobeipoi, Tawo-'nrTepoi. The latter epithet is 
merely honorary, applicable to any bird. And according to Athenaeus 
(ix. 40) Ibycus appears (I say appears, for the reading is very uncertain) to 
speak of rufous painted penelopes, £av$al iroiKiXai 7raveXo7res. 

1 -o\^ is a common termination of a bird's name ; nrivekoty, eVo^, bpvoty, nepoty, &c. 


From these hints Linnaeus, with universal assent, decides that the 
TrrjviXoij/ is the well-known Widgeon (Mareca Penelope, Gould, 359) with its 
ruddy throat, and light vinous-red breast. 

It might have been supposed that the bird's name was somehow 
derived from that of the wife of Odysseus ; but both Eustathius (on Od. i. 
344) and Tzetzes (on Lycophron 792) assure us that the derivation was 
the other way, and that Penelope had originally another name ; but that 
having been cast into the sea, and rescued V7rb irrjveXoTrwv opvicov, she took 
from her preservers the name which Homer has made famous for all 

The vyjttol, swimmer, whence Athenaeus 1 derives the verb vrjxevOcu, though 
it would doubtless be more correct to say that the name is 
derived from the verb, is our Common Wild DucJc or yfjrra 
Mallard (Anas boschas, Gould, 361). The name Anas boschas 
is a most infelicitous one, for the only thing we know with absolute certainty 
about the /WkSs, or (as Aristophanes and indeed several of the Aristotelian 
MSS. call it) fiao-Kas, is that it was distinct from the vyjttol. The fioo-Kas, observes 
Aristotle 2 , resembles the vrJTTa, but is smaller. Athenaeus s 
makes the same remark, but fortunately adds, apparently Pao-K&s 
from Alexander the Myndian, two further characteristics, 
viz. that the male is /caray/oa^os, pencilled or scribbled over, and has a 
disproportionately short and stumpy bill. From this description we 
conclude that the /?acrKas is the Teal (Anas crecca, Gould, 362), than 
which no duck is more " finely chequered," which is considerably smaller 
than the Mallard, and is exceedingly plentiful in Greece. The bill of the 
teal is not really out of proportion, but the bird's small head makes it 
appear so. 

Aristotle does not describe, though he more than once mentions, the 
koXv/jl/31s or diver. Nor is the general description given by 
Dionysius (de Avibus ii. 12) of any assistance. But the KoXujjipls 
name itself is a sufficient description. The little KoXvpifils 

1 rrjs de vtjtttjs Kcti KokvfjLpibos, d(j> odv m\ to vr}X €0 ~® al Kc " KoXvfifidv, fivrj/jLovevei 
1 ApLcrTo^>dvr)s ev ' Axapvevcrt. — Ath. LX. 52. 

2 fioo-icds, Bfioios pep vrjTrrjy to de (xeyeBos ik&TTcov. — Aristotle viii. 5. 8. 

tg>v 8e (3oo~Kdda>v KaXovfJLevoav 6 pev apprjp KaTaypa(j)os. earn 8e tJttov V7]Tty]s 1 
exovari 8e ol appeves o~ipd re koa iXdrrova ttj a-vpperpia to. pvyxV' — Ath. ix. 52. He adds 
that there was another kind, larger than a duck, though less than a sheldrake. 


which Athenaeus describes x as the tiniest of waterfowl, of a dirty black 
colour, with a sharp bill, and constantly diving beneath the water, is 
unquestionably our familiar little dab-chicTc, more grandly and scientifically 
called the Little Grebe (Podiceps minor, Gould, 392). The larger koXvu- 
/3fc8es comprised, we may suppose, the larger Grebes (Podiceps cristatus, 
Gould, 388 ; and Podiceps auritus, Gould, 391) and the northern Diver 
(Colymbus glacialis, Gould, 393). 

ireXtKav and TreXeKas are two forms of the same word signifying our 
Pelican (Pelecanus Onocrotalus, Gould, 405; and Pele- 
ircXeicas canus crispus, Gould, 406) ; the former being employed by 
the Athenians in common with other Hellenic peoples, the 
latter being employed by no Ionian people except the Athenians them- 
selves. TreXeKav, 7reAe/<aVos, kolvios' 7re\eKas, ireXeKavros, 'ArTt/cws. /cat TreXtKas 
TreAcKa Acopt/cws. Suidas, s.v. 7re\€KavTi, Scholiast on Birds 883. As 
usual, however, Attic writers employed the " common " more frequently 
than they did the specially " Attic " form of the word. 

Aristotle thrice mentions the Pelican. In viii. 14. 2, after mentioning 
the migration of the cranes, he proceeds : " And the Pelicans (ol IleAe/caVes) 
also change their quarters, and fly from the Strymon to the Danube, 
where they breed : and they make their migrations in one body, those 
in front waiting for those behind ; because otherwise, when they fly 
over the mountain range, those behind would lose sight of those in 

The banks of the Strymon, says Buffon xix. 287, in summer, seen from 
the heights, appear whitened by the multitude of Pelicans which cover 
them. And their breeding-places on the banks of the Danube are described 
in some detail in Dresser vi. 196, 203. 

In ix. 11 he says that the Pelicans which dwell in the rivers swallow 
down large and smooth cockle shells ; and when they have softened them, 
iv no 7rpb Trjs KoiXtas to7tco [I presume that he means " in their pouch "], they 
vomit them up again, so that as the shells open they may pick out the 
cockles and eat them. He gives the same account in the Mirabilia 14, and 
it is repeated by Aelian iii. 20 ; v. 35. But this, as Buffon observes xix. 291, 

1 fj de [jLiKpa ko\v/x/3W, 7rdvT(ov eXa^t'or^ t5)V ivvdpav, pvirapopekaiva rrjv ^potaj/, Kal 
to pvyxos 6k£-v €X*h crenov re ra o/xfiara* tcl he rroWa Karabverai. — Ath. ix. 52. The 
meaning of the words o-k€7top re ra o/x/zara is doubtful : and indeed the reading is 
not certain. 


is a mistake; "for the pouch of the Pelican is not a stomach where 
digestion is begun; and Pliny inaccurately compared the manner 'in 
which the Onocrotalus swallows and brings up its food to the stomach of 
ruminating animals. ' There is nothing here/ M. Perrault very judiciously 
remarks, i but what enters into the general place of the organization of 
birds ; all of them have a crop in which their food is lodged : in the 
Pelican it lies without and under the bill instead of being concealed 
within, and placed at the bottom of the oesophagus. But this exterior 
crop has not the digestive heat of that of other birds, and in this bag the 
Pelican carries the fish entire to its young.' " 

The Pelicans were selected by Aristophanes to hew the woodwork of 
his fortification (lines 1154-7 of this play) not because of their habits, 
but because of their name, which fitted in admirably with ireXtKau, to hew, 
and TreAeicv?, an axe. t<5 61/0/xaT*. tov opvtOos 7ri#av<os 7t<xl£(ov e^p^craro, says the 
Scholiast, rightly. But the old grammarians were always at sea when 
they had to consider any matter relating to birds, and some of them — 
Hesychius and possibly Suidas also— not perceiving the poet's jest, actually 
thought that the birds which pecked the wood must of necessity have 
been woodpeckers. And even Schneider in his note on Aristotle ix. 11 
falls into the same trap. " Ex versu Avium 1155," he says, " clarissimum 
fit picos intelligi. Mirum unde possessione nominis antiqui pici exciderint 
recentiore aetate, et onocrotalorum genus id occupaverit." So difficult is 
it for some minds to enter into the humour of a comic poet. But a still 
more astonishing theory has been formulated in more recent times, and 
has even found its way (mirabile dictu) into the Oxford Lexicon, viz. 
that while the Hellenic form ireXeKav signified a Pelican, the Attic form 
7reA€/cas signified a Woodpecker. For this theory of a distinction between 
the two forms there is no foundation whatever. It is alleged to be 
supported by Hesychius and Suidas, but they give no countenance to such 
an absurdity. They merely mistake the Pelican for the Woodpecker. 
Hesychius says : irzXeKov' opvcov, to koXcltttov Kal TpvTrovv tcl SevSpa. Observe ; 
he says this not of 7reA€Kas but of ^reAc/cav,, which is admittedly an error. 
He has no idea of distinguishing between the two forms. In some MSS. 
of Suidas, immediately after his exposition of veXe/cav and ^cXe/cas already 
quoted, there follow the words eoTi Se eTSos opveov rpvirovv rot, SivSpa, acj> ov Kal 
8ev$poKoXd7TTY)s KaXeLTau. These words are omitted by Gaisford on the 
authority of the best MSS. ; but what if they stand ? They apply to both 



Xckolv and TreXtKas, and give no tinge of colour to the suggested distinction 
between the two forms. However strange the blunder these old gram- 
marians, or one of them, made, they are not guilty of such an absurdity 
as this. 

And if we are sure that the TrcAe/cas (and 7reXeKai/) was the Pelican we are 
no less sure that the 7reAc/cu/os is the Pelican. 

" The 7re\eKLvot" says the Paraphrase, " have very long necks, and are 
no less greedy of food [than the birds previously mentioned]. 

-rreXciai/os Unlike them, however, they do not plunge 1 with their whole 
body under water, but keep dipping down their necks, which 
are six feet 2 in length, showing their backs above water all the time. And 
they swallow every fish they come across, catching it with their enormous 
gape. And they have a sort of pouch before their breast, into which they 
pack all their food, not abstaining from even cockles and mussels, but 
taking in everything that comes, shells and all. Then, when the animals 
are dead, they throw them all up, and so eat the flesh and cast the shells 
away ; for the shells keep closed so long as their occupant is alive, but 
when it is dead they open and stand apart." — Dionysius, de Avibus, ii. 6. 

We have no means of distinguishing between the 7reXe/<as and rreXeKcvos. 
Yet there must have been a distinction, since they are both mentioned, 
obviously as different birds, in line 882 of this play. And as there are 
in fact two sorts of Pelican known in Greece, the Onocrotalus, commonly 
called the WJrite Pelican, since its plumage is generally " white, tinged 
more or less with salmon colour " ; and the Dalmatian Pelican, in which 
the salmon colour is exchanged for a "greyish or bluish-grey tinge," 
it seems reasonable to suppose that one name belongs to the white, and the 
other to the Dalmatian, bird (though we cannot tell which belongs to 
which) ; and I have therefore, in the translation, called them u the Pelican 
white, and the Pelican grey." 

Although the Gannet or Solan Goose (Sula bassana, Gould, 

KaTapdKTYjs 412) is seen no longer in Hellenic waters, and some even sup- 
pose (but this is certainly an error) that it does not visit the 

1 " The Pelicans never plunge ; but when they see a fish as they swim along, 
they dip their head and catch it." — Dresser vi. 202. 

2 prjKos opyvias. This is of course an exaggeration. The entire length of the 
bird is from four to five feet only : and from the point of the beak to the shoulder 
is about half its entire length. 


Mediterranean at all, yet I make bold to assert with the utmost confidence 
that the Karapd^r^ 1 of the ancient Greeks is none other than the bird 
which we call the gannet, and has no connexion with the Skua (Lestris 
catarractes, Gould, 439) to which modern naturalists with one accord have 
given the name of catarrhactes. 

The Skua is merely a bold piratical gull which scurries off from the 
cliffs to rob other gulls of their prey ; which rarely gets its living honestly ; 
and ivhich is never known to go under ivater. 

The manner in which the Gannet catches its prey is absolutely unique. 
It flies over the water, and when its keen eyes have detected a fish 
swimming underneath the surface, it soars to the requisite height, and then 
drops straight downwards, as if it were a falling plummet, through air and 
water, and after a submersion of about fifteen seconds, rises again to 
the surface with (if it has been successful) its booty in its mouth. 

" The Gannet," says Mr. Couch, "takes its prey in a different manner 
from any other of our aquatic birds ; for traversing the air in all 
directions, as soon as it discovers the fish, it rises to such a height as 
experience shows best calculated to carry it by a downward motion to the 
required depth ; and then partially closing its wings it falls perpendicularly 
on the prey, and rarely without success, the time between the plunge and 
emersion being about fifteen seconds." — Saunders's Yarrell iv. 159. It falls 
"like a thunderbolt," says Mr. Morris (viii 17). "Its velocity is so 
prodigious that the force with which it strikes the water is sufficient to 
stun a bird not prepared for such a blow," says Bishop Stanley. 

I cannot deny myself the pleasure of quoting a short passage from 
a tale by Charles Reade, a very shrewd and careful observer of nature. 

"Christie Johnstone" is a young Newhaven fishwife. Her little 
brother comes to bring her the earliest news of the unexpected arrival of 
the herring, about Inch Keith. 

" He opened his jacket, and showed a bright little fish. 

In a moment all Christie's nonchalance gave way to a fiery animation. She 
darted to Flucker's side. ' Ye hae na been sae daft as tell ? ' asked she. 

Flucker shook his head contemptuously. ' Ony birds at the island, Flucker ? ' 

' Sea-maws plenty, and a bird I dinna ken ; he mounted sae high, then down 
like thunder intil the sea, and gart the water flee as high as Haman ; and por- 
poises as big as my boat/ 

1 The name is derived from xarapacro-a), and should be spelt with a single p. See 
Appendix, line 887, of this play. 


' Porr — poises, fulish laddy, — ye hae seen the herrin whale at his wark, and the 
solant guse ye hae seen her at wark ; and beneath the sea, Flucker, every coed- 
fish, and doeg-fish, and fish that has teeth, is after them ; and half Scotland 
wad be at Inch Keith Island if they kenned what j4 hae tell't me— dinna speak 
to me. ' " 

And it is not merely that no other bird, as a matter of fact, drops 
through air and water in this peculiar fashion ; no other bird is endowed 
with the capacity of doing so. See Dresser vi. 187. 

So much for the gannet ; let us now see what the Greeks say of the 
KarapdKTTjs. Dionysius 1 (de Avibus ii. 2) writes as follows : — 

" There is a certain bird, like the lesser gulls, but strong, and white in colour, 
and much resembling the goshawk, which is called the KaTapaKTrjs. For 
having marked some of the fishes swimming about (its sight can reach even to 
the depths of the sea) it mounts up to a great height, and furling its wings, 
launches itself, as though falling, into the sea, cutting through the air quicker, one 
may say, than any arrow, and goes underneath the water to a depth of six feet or 
more ; and having caught the fish it comes up with it, and flying off eats it while 
yet palpitating." 

No words could more accurately depict the G-annet : none could more 
emphatically repudiate the claims of the Skua. The KarapdKrrjs is white, 
the Skua is dark brown. The Karapa/cn/s drops into the sea ; the Skua 
never does. The KarapdKTrjs gains its livelihood by catching its own fish ; 
the Skua gains its livelihood by robbing other gulls of theirs. 

Aristotle's account, though much less full, is in substantial agreement 
with that of the paraphrase 2 . " The KarapdKTrjs lives by the sea, and when 
it lets itself fall into the sea, it remains under the surface as long as it 
would take a man to walk a hundred feet. And it is not so large as a 

The objections to the identification of the Karapa/cr^s with the gannet 
are twofold : (1) the gannet is not now seen in or near Greek waters ; 

1 "Opvis be tls ecrnv, as ol tcov Xdpoav eXdao-oves, l&xvpbs be t kol ty}V xP 0lav XevKos, 
Kai tols ras (pdcrcras dvaipovaiv Upat-i irpoa-opoibs, os ovopdfcrai KaTapaKTrjs* tg>v 
vr)XOp>evo>v yap Tivas Trjprjwas lx@v<ov, Spa be kol pexpi tov tt)s OaXaTTqs fivOov, TTpos 
vy\ros eavTov a'lpei, Ka\ tcl jcrepa irdvTa (rtxrreiXa?, els tov ttovtov, 61a Tr'nrT&v, lerai, biaTep&v 
rov depa, iravTos av e'iiroi tls fieXovs of-vTepav, Kal KaTabveTaL p€XP ls opyviasy rj ical irXeov 
eo~0* ore' avXXaftodv re tov lx@vv dvao-irq, kcl\ iTTTapevos en 7rdXXopTa KaTecrBlet,. — ii. 2. 

2 6 be KaTapaKTrjs £jj pev 7rep\ BdXaTTav' OTav be Ka6r\ avrbv els to fiaOv, \xevei xP® V0V 
vk eXaTTOva rj oo~ov irXeBpov bieXOoi tls* effTi b* eXaTTOv lepaKos to opveov. — ix. 13. 1. 


and (2) it is much larger than a goshawk. Both these statements are 

But it is common off the coast of Portugal and Spain, and in winter 
great numbers are seen in the Straits of Gibraltar, and off the coast 
of Morocco (Dresser vi. 188). And even if, in ancient times, it did not 
actually visit Hellenic waters, it would certainly have been seen, and its 
strange modus operandi reported, by Hellenic sailors and travellers. And 
the very fact that it was not a familiar object sufficiently accounts for 
the mistake as to its actual size. Though indeed such mistakes are 
common even as to objects with which the Greeks were perfectly familiar. 
We have just seen the Pelican's neck described as six feet long ; nearly 
three times the actual length, even if the head and bill (as the writer 
probably intended) are considered as part of the neck. I may add that 
the first objection applies equally to the Skua. 

We may therefore conclude with confidence that the KarapaKr-qs of the 
Greeks was our gannet or solan goose, and not the skua. 
The latter is more likely to have been the iXao-as of eXacr&s 
Aristophanes, a name which signifies the chaser, the driver, 
and would be extremely appropriate to this piratical assailant of other 
gulls. "The Skua," says Mr. Dresser (viii. 460), " is amongst the Gulls 
what the true bird of prey is amongst the land birds. Bold and rapacious 
it seldom takes the trouble to fish for itself, but dispossesses its weaker 
and more industrious neighbours of their hard-won spoils. When it 
observes that a gull has been successful in catching a fish, it immediately 
gives chase, and the gull is compelled to drop the fish, which the Skua 
will frequently catch before it touches the surface of the water." 

The last bird on our list is the Xapos, the classical passage about which 
is to be found in the Paraphrase of Dionysius (ii. 4). " The 
Xapot," it is there said, "are very much attached to men, Xdpos 
and keep near them in the most familiar manner. And 
when they see fishers dragging out their nets from the sea, they swarm 
to the boats as if they were entitled to partake of the spoil, and clamour 
about the nets demanding their share. And the fishermen humour them, 
throwing out some of the fishes on the waves, and the Xdpoi dart upon the 
fishes as they are thrown out, and devour them ; and again, if any escape 
out through the meshes, they catch them up greedily. So that there is 
a common belief that they were once men themselves, and invented the 



art of fishing, and now being by the will of the Gods changed into birds, 
still remember their old business, and keep close to ports and cities. And 
there are many kinds of Xdpot ; some white and as small as pigeons ; 
others bigger and stronger, and covered with very thick feathers ; and 
others yet larger than these. And these latter have white feathers, except 
that they have black necks, and wings tipped with black. And for these, 
as for their Sovereigns, all other Xdpot make way, and yield to them 
place and pasturage. And when they grow old their feathers become 
dark blue. And they make their nests on the rocks, choosing places 
where there is a flow of fresh water, so that the young birds may have 
food from the sea and fresh water to drink, until they grow up and are 
able to fly off from the nests, after which they get both food and water 
from the sea. And for rapid swimming, no bird can compete with the 

It is obvious that the birds so described are our Gulls, to whom zoologists 
justly apply the name Laridae. 

Aristotle (viii. 5. 7) distinguishes between the \dpos to x/ow/m o-7roSo€t8^s 
and the Actios 6 Actios. Doubtless many species now reckoned as distinct 
are comprised under each name. The Common Gull (Larus canus, Gould, 
437) and the Herring Gull (Larus argentatus, Gould, 434) may be taken 
as representatives of the \dpos Acvkos ; and the Lesser Black-lacked Gull 
(Larus fuscus, Gould, 431) as falling under the title of \dpos oTroSoctS^s. 

The three kinds mentioned in the Paraphrase may be the Little Gull 
(Xemaminutus, Gould, 428) ; the Common Gull ; and the Great Black-headed 
Gull, a giant amongst the Black-headed Gulls, which Canon Tristram 
describes as the Moyal Gull (Dresser vi. 370). But here again no 
doubt many species, now distinguished from each other, are comprised 
under each name. 

In the Fifth Odyssey (51) Homer likens the movement of Hermes, 
skimming over the waves, to the flight of a sea-gull ; for Aapos is the word 
translated " sea-mew " in the lines which I quote from Mr. Way's 
translation : 

Swift to his feet he tied his beautiful sandal-shoes 

Ambrosial, golden-gleaming, that bore him over the main, . . . 

And over the sea swell darted, as onward a sea-mew slips 

Where the dread wave-bosoms are parted, and down the hollows it dips 

Fishing, with wings agleam with the dew of the salt sea-spray: 

So did the Guide-God seem, skimming wave after wave on his way. 



Many consider that under the name Xdpos was included the cormorant 
also : but although some weighty arguments may be adduced for coming 
to that conclusion, it does not altogether commend itself to my mind ; and 
in translating Xdpos cormorant I have simply been influenced by the fact 
that the cormorant is to us, as the gull was to the Greeks, the proverbial 
emblem of greediness and rapacity. When, for example, Aristophanes 
compares Cleon to a Xdpos, it would be strangely misleading if a translator 
compared him to a " gull." The Xdpos represented to the Athenians the 
precise qualities which the cormorant represents to ourselves. 

It may be useful to the reader to have before him in a tabulated form 
the results of the foregoing inquiry. The names which are mere guess- 
work are printed in italics : — 














kingfisher (female), 










little owl. 




| woodpecker. 




reed warbler. 








glossy ibis. 








fire-crested wren. 

Ke PX v Ii s 



kingfisher (male). 














crested lark. 



Kopoivr) TroXia 

hooded crow. 








eagle owl. 




marsh tit. 




wild duck. 






golden-crested wren. 







TreXoayos 1 

( pelican. The white, and 
\ the grey, or Dalma- 

^ tian. 




rock- dove. 




porphyrion (female). 


porphyrion (male). 
















arpovObs fxcyakr] 



spotted eagle. 



^ ^)OLVCK07TT€pOS 
























I will end this Introduction by quoting a passage from St. Gregory 
Nazianzen, to which reference has been made both in the foregoing 
remarks and also in the Additional Note on the rerrt^ or cicala. It 
comes from his twenty-eighth Oration, section 24. 

CTKeyjfai jjlol Ka\ opvicov dyeXas kcl\ 7roiKiXlas, clre (r^/xao-fc kcl\ xpa>/xao"i, tcdv re d\dX<ov 


Look, I pray you, at the flocks of birds, and their infinite variety both in form and 
colour, both mute and vocal ; and tell me ivhat their melody means, and from whom it 

tls 6 Bovs TeTTiyt rrjv irrl VTrjOovs fzaydba, Kal to. enl tqov ickdbcov qcrfxaTa re Kai T€pe- 
TiV/xara, otclv c H\ia> KivcovTai to. fjiccrrjpftpivd [lovcjovpyovvTes, Kal KaTacfycovaxn rd aXcrrj, 
Kai obonropov to.?s (fxovais irapcmiimovcn ; 

Who placed the lyre in the breast of the cicala, and taught it all those songs and 
chirpings on the boughs, when stirred by the Sun they sing their midday melody, and 
make the groves vocal, and cheer the passing traveller on his way ? 

TLS 6 KVKPCp (TVVV<f)a.LVG>V TTJP CpftrjV, OTCLV €K7T€Tdcjr) TO 7TT€pOV TOLS a\JpaiS f KOI TTOLrj fJLcXoS 

to crvpiyp.a ; 

Who wove the song for the swan, when it stretches out its iving to the breeze, and the 
whistling [of the wind through the feathers'] makes a melodious sound ? 

Then follows the passage, already mentioned, about that vainglorious 
Median bird, the Peacock, his consciousness of his own attractions, and 
his pride in showing them off, in a theatrical style, before his mates, or 
before any wayfarer who may happen to approach him. 

Eastwood, Strawberry Hill, 
March, 1906. 


My friend, Mr. Christopher Welch, than whom there is no higher 
authority on all matters connected with the flute, has been kind enough 
to write, and allows me to insert here, the following observations on the 
music of the flute as representing the nightingale's song : — 

March 2, 1906. 
My dear Rogers, 

If Aristophanes was the first, he was certainly not the last who is known 
to have made use of a musical instrument to represent the voice of a bird. The 
device has been resorted to again and again, not only for the trilling of unclassi- 
fied "birdies" and "birdlings," but for the utterance of members of the several 
families of the feathered choir, such as the carol of the skylark, the blackbird, and 
the thrush, the mimicry of the mocking-bird, and even the chirping of the 

Two of the greatest modern composers, Beethoven and Handel, have sought to 
simulate by this means the warbling of the nightingale. In the " Scene at the 
brook" of the Pastoral Symphony, Beethoven, after inserting notes said to be 
meant for those of the linnet and the yellow-hammer, brings the movement to 
a close with a trio for the nightingale, the quail, and the cuckoo. The nightin^ 
gale's lay is introduced by Handel in the instrumental part of two compositions of 
such interest that they are brought forward from time to time at the Triennial 
Handel Festival : the soprano solo in II Pensieroso, 

Sweet bird that shunn'st the noise of folly, 
Most musical, most melancholy, 

and the chorus in Solomon, 

May no rash intruder disturb their soft hours ; 

To form fragrant pillows arise O ye flowers ! 

Ye zephyrs, soft breathing, their slumbers prolong, 

While nightingales lull them to sleep with their song, 

a work familiarly known to musicians as "the Nightingale Chorus." 

For the chant of the nightingale the choice of Handel and Beethoven fell on 
the same instrument, the transverse flute. In the bird trio of the Pastoral 
Symphony, the part of the cuckoo is assigned to the clarionet, and that of the 
quail to the hautboy, the flute being reserved, as might be expected, for the 
sweetest of the three songsters. Here, and in " Sweet bird," only one nightingale 
is suggested and only one flute used, but in ''May no rash intruder" more than 
one philomel is alluded to, so Handel has written for two flutes, one of them 
chasing the other in their song. Handel, however, was not dependent on the 
transverse flute for the carol of a singing bird ; there was in his orchestra a still 
sweeter warbler, the flauto piccolo. Handel's flauto piccolo was not, like the 


flauto piccolo now in use, a miniature transverse flute, but a flageolet differing 
little from the modern flageolet except in the fingering. To this he had recourse 
on two occasions when birds were concerned, for the accompaniment to Galatea's 
song, " Hush ye pretty warbling choir," in Acis and Galatea, and for that to the 
Air, Augelleti che cantate, in the opera of Rinaldo. Whilst the latter was sung 
birds were let loose on the stage, a proceeding which Addison fastened on as a butt 
for the shafts of his satire ( Spectator, No. 5, see also No. 14 by Steele) ; he could 
not find a word of praise for the beauty of the music, although the accompani- 
ment has been pronounced by a competent judge to be " the loveliest imaginable." 
When the opera was performed, even though the birds were seen, the musicians 
were concealed, as we learn from Addison who writes, " the music proceeded from 
a concert of flagelets and bird-calls which were planted behind the scenes " ; the 
so called flagelets and bird-calls being a flauto piccolo, and twoflauti by which the 
florid warbling of the flauto piccolo was accompanied. The flauti were instru- 
ments of the same kind as the flauto piccolo, but of larger size. They are now 
disused, but in Handel's time were called in England Common flutes to distinguish 
them from German or transverse flutes, which were beginning to supplant them : 
the French termed them flutes douces, or sweet flutes. In the Birds, the nightin- 
gale was hidden in a thicket when the flute solo was played (207-8, 223-4) ; we 
may therefore take it for granted that the player by whom her song was feigned 
was out of sight. Had the music come from the chorus-player in view of the 
spectators the illusion would have been marred. 

Av\6s was used in a wider sense than our word flute. In the present day flute 
is restricted to such instruments as owe their sound to the impact of a jet of air 
on a cutting edge ; av\o\ were not limited to these, but included pipes sounded by 
the vibration of a reed : thus not only our flutes and flageolets, but our hautboys, 
clarionets, bassoons, and bagpipes would have been called av\oi. That instru- 
ments of the flageolet kind were known to the Greeks is not disputed, but doubts 
have been thrown on the antiquity of the transverse flute (TrXayiavXos, tibia dbliqua) 
— a straight flute held transversely and blown at the side — it having been 
confused with a horn-pipe known as the Phrygian flute which was a crooked flute 
held straight and blown at the end. The curvature was due to the circumstance 
that the heifer's (^6<rxov) horn (Kepas, cornu) attached to the pipe was not turned 
forwards but thrown back, or bent upwards (dvavevop, aduncum, inflexum). The Phry- 
gian flute was not a true flute, but was blown with a reed. So coarse was the tone of 
its ruder forms that they were said to blare (fivKa<rOai, mugire). The instrument is 
not yet extinct in the Aegean : there is a modern specimen from Tenos in the 
Oxford University Museum. A transverse flute (calamum obliquum) — conjectured 
to be a variety of the irkayiavkos termed the <pa>Tiy£ — put out towards the right 
ear (ad aurem porrectum dextram), as is the transverse flute of to-day, was played 
by flute-players consecrated to Serapis (Apuleius, Met. lib. xi. cap. 9) ; furthermore, 
the fragment of an avXb?, believed to be the head of a transverse flute with the 


mouth note at the side, was taken by Sir Charles Newton from a tomb at Hali- 
carnassus and deposited in the British Museum. 

A third .true flute has no mouth hole at the side, but is blown across the 
sharpened edge of one end of the tube. It is held downwards and only slightly 
sideways. Two such flutes, consisting of pipes of reed, were shown at Burlington 
House in 1903. So well were they preserved that a local musician played them 
as they came from the tomb at Beni Hasan where they were discovered by 
Mr. Garstang. Although they had lain undisturbed from about B. C. 2200, they 
are modern compared with the figure of an animal playing on a flute of this 
kind (it can be identified by the position in which it is held) to be seen in the 
Taylor Building at Oxford. In the opinion of Mr. Flinders Petrie the figure was 
drawn about six thousand seven hundred years ago. The flute thus blown still 
lingers in its old home, Egypt, where it is called the nay. The tone of the nay — 
it was heard in London not many years since — is very sweet and pleasing to the 
ear. The popavkos, which in the opinion of Protagorides was the sweetest of 
instruments, may well have belonged to this family. It was admitted to be of 
Egyptian origin, its invention being ascribed to Osiris ; there is evidence that it 
was in use in Egypt, Athenaeus stating that it was so popular at Alexandria in 
his time that the Alexandrians were twitted with it being their fashionable 
instrument (Deipnosophists iv. 77) ; again, it was not only called fiovavkos, but was 
known as the /caXa/xos-, or reed (iv. 78) ; thus it bore the same name as the nay, 
for nay means reed. 

As Aristophanes expressly refers to the mellifluous effect of the nightingale solo 
(223-4), to the dulcet quality of the bird's voice (681, 659), and to the purity of 
her song (215-16), we have a right to assume that he singled out an instrument 
remarkable for its sweetness. Now the sound set up by the fluttering of an air- 
jet impelled against a sharp edge is sweeter than that produced by the vibration 
of a reed ; it is therefore a fair presumption that the av\6s chosen by him belonged 
to the true flute family. Comparatively little force is needed in blowing the true 
flutes, so that a tfyopfieia would be unnecessary. In the allusion to the mask worn 
by the nightingale (672-4) there is nothing to indicate that it was furnished with 
a (froppeia ; whereas the raven representing Chaeris, who, it may be inferred 
(851-8, Peace 951-5), was best known as a musician officiating at religious 
services like the Church organist of our time (a branch of the art in which, under 
the Greek system of religion, a reed-blown flute was usually used), was e/x7re<£op/3iG>- 
fievos (861). 

Whether or not Aristophanes selected a transverse flute, as did Handel and 
Beethoven, for the nightingale we have no means of ascertaining. We know, 
however, that the resemblance between the notes of the 7r\ayiavXos and those of 
a bird attracted attention in*the old world, for Aelian (Uepi foW, vi. 19) states that 
the cry of the wryneck (ivyg) is suggestive of that instrument. Aristophanes says 
of the nightingale's flute that it was a Ka\\i$6as av\6s, or flute with a beautiful 


voice. Although it was a flute, the nightingale is said to strike it, as if with the 
plectrum (682). Simonides terms a KaXXipoas avXbs a flute with many strings 
(7ro\{>xop8o9 av\6s). We are not, however, to take the description literally. A 
passage in Plutarch (tov avXbv TjppLoaOai Xeyovcri, kcl\ Kpovfxara to. avXrjfiara kclXovctiv, 
airb tyjs Xvpas Xa^avovres ras tt polyopias, Symp. ii. 4) explains the expressions. 
They have been transferred from the lyre to the flute, so that striking stands 
for playing, and " many strings " means nothing more than many notes. 

Most Greek dramatists, like Wagner in modern times, wrote both the libretto, 
or text, and the music of their plays. In the scene in the Frogs where Aeschylus 
and Euripides indulge in mutual recriminations on the subject of their com- 
positions, the attack of Euripides on the music of Aeschylus (Frogs 1264) 
begins with a biavXiov, or flute interlude, here forming an instrumental intro- 
duction to the vocal music that comes after ; diavXia being played — so says the 
Scholiast— as the flute solo in the Birds appears to have been, behind the scenes 
(evdov). If not taken from the works of Aeschylus, the biavXiov in the Frogs was 
doubtless composed by Aristophanes in imitation of his style ; but did Aristophanes 
compose the nightingale solo in the Birds ? A satisfactory answer to the question 
cannot be given ; it seems, however, little less than certain that Aristophanes 
knew that the execution of the solo would be entrusted to a great artist. If he 
had not felt sure that the performer was capable of throwing the audience into 
a state of transport, he would never have allowed the enraptured Peisthetaerus to 
exclaim, as soon as the last strain of the silver tones had died away, 

cD Zev fiaaiXsv, rod <pO£yixa,TOS rovpnOiov 
olov KareixeXiTcoac ttjv Xox^v okrjv. 

And Aristophanes must have known in what style the solo was to be conceived, 
if the words of the song with which the hoopoe wakes the nightingale foreshadow 
the kind of music which is to follow. The expectations of the listeners are raised 
to a high pitch. It is no ordinary tune that the bird is bidden to pour forth from 
her mellow throat, but a divine strain (211) which will appeal to the religious 
sentiment as a sacred hymn (210), and touch the heart as a plaintive wail. 
Moreover, the nightingale is to trill her lament in liquid melodies (213), so that 
the solo was not only to be solemn, tender, and pathetic, but would embody 
a display of execution. If the flute was played alone, or was accompanied by an 
instrument with strings, it is impossible to say, but the union of flute and lyre 
was a common form of crwavXia. Apollo, we are told, responds to the elegies of 
the nightingale on an ivory-bound phorminx. 

The structure of the passages of which the solo was made up is shrouded in 
impenetrable darkness. The only glimmer we get is in the use by Aristophanes of 
the verb iXeXi&aOai (213), which may possibly be thought to give rise to the shadow 
of a suspicion, that, like Handel and Beethoven, the composer of the solo availed 
himself of the shake. A direct imitation of the nightingale's song on a musical 


instrument, even if it were desirable from an aesthetic point of view, is impossible ; 
for, with the exception of the cuckoo, there are few, if any birds whose notes can 
be reduced to a recognized scale. What the musician does is to produce a series 
of sounds which the imagination of the listener, who has been previously thrown 
into a state of expectant attention by prompting, converts into, or associates with, 
the warbling of a singing bird. It is therefore not surprising that the music 
assigned to the nightingale by Handel is quite different from that given to the 
songstress by Beethoven, and that the resemblance between the flute parts of 
" Sweet bird " and " May no rash intruder " is of the faintest. 

One more word. In the Parabasis, the nightingale, who takes part in the 
hymns of the birds (678-9), is told to lead off the anapaests on (presumably) her 
K.a\hifi6as av\6s (682-4). Further on, there are interspersed in two other move- 
ments of the Parabasis, the strophe and the antistrophe, ten Hnes made up of the 
meaningless combination of letters rto and toto. Now tlo and toto represent 
motions of the tongue which the modern flute-player is for ever making. To 
learn to repeat toto rapidly, or, technically speaking, to acquire the art of double- 
tonguing (an articulation impossible on reed-blown instruments), requires a long 
course of tedious practice. Toto is used in playing the flute part of " May no rash 
intruder " ; no is the articulation employed in Beethoven's nightingale passage, 
where the strokes of the tongue are repeated, slowly at first, but quicker and 
quicker by degrees, until becoming too rapid for the tongue they merge in a shake. 
On seeing in the text the syllables on which his tongue is so continually at work 
the flute-player naturally thinks that notes are to be played on the beautifully 
toned flute. Unfortunately, however, for the supposition, other speechless enun- 
ciations, all of which are not suggestive of the flute, are found in the song with 
flute accompaniment ohbligato, with which the hoopoe and the nightingale — the 
latter represented by the flute — call "the other birds (227 seqq.). The senseless 
words in the Parabasis, therefore, instead of being flute notes, may be vocal 
sounds. The expedient of portraying the notes of a bird with the singing voice is 
not unknown in modern music. The cuckoo, for example, has been mimicked by 
the syllables which make up its name ; the owl by tu-whit, to-ivho ; the hen by 
ha ha, ha ha, ne-ey. Even the varied and complex articulation of the nightingale 
has been attempted by more than one composer. In a part song for three voices, 
entitled Le chant des oiseaux (Commer's Collectio Operum Musicorum Batavorum 
saeculi xvi., torn. xii. p. 78), the singers conjure up the idea of the rossignol by 
reiterating the following utterances : tar tar, frian frian, tu tu, qui lara qui lara, 
ruit ruit, oyti oyti, coqui coqui, le vechi le vechi, ti ti cuti ti ciiti, quibi quibi, tu tu 
fouquet fouquet, fiti flti, huit huit, turri turri, velecy velecy. 

Ever Yours, 


( xc ) 




Aid tols 8lkcc$ (pevyovviv 'AOrjvas 8vo rives, 
ot npbs rov €7ro7ra } rbv Xeyojieuov Trjpea, 
kXOovres rjpcoTcoy dirpdyyiova tttoXiv. 

eh 8 CCV71K, 67T07TI O-VjlTTapcbv /i€TCt wXeiOVCOl/ 

7TTrjvcoy } SiSdcrKei ti 8vvar opvidcov yevos, 5 

Kal ttcos, kdvirep Kara [leo-ov rbv dipa 

ttoXiv KTicrcocri, rcov Oecov rd it pay par a 

avrol TrapaXrjyjroi/T '• e/c 8e rovSe ^ap/xaKco 

7TTepvya$ knoiovv rj£ico(rav 8* oi Oeol, 

eTTiOecLv ov piKpdv dpcoi/Tes yevojievr]v, 10 


Avo eialv 'ABqi/rjOev eKKe^coprjKores rrpeafivTai Sid ray Sikcls* 
Tropevovrai Se irpbs rbv Tijpea eiroira yevoiievov, Treuaofiei/oi irap amov 

These arguments appear in R. V. and of these is read by all editors except 

in Aldus and practically in all editions Brunck, who substitutes 7rp£o-fivs for £' 

which print any arguments. opvis. But the conjunction cannot be 

3. anpayixova R. V. Invernizzi, Bekker, omitted. 

recentiores, except Bothe. anpayiiovav 5. ttttjucop MSS. vulgo. Rutherford 

Aldus, vulgo. — 7tt6\w Meineke. 7r6\iv reads irrrjvov, joining it with yevos. But 

R. Y. vulgo, which is wrong with dirpd- 7rk€i6va>v requires the substantive. There 

ypova, but would be right with airpa- has been no previous mention of birds. 

ypovGDV. airpayiLovoav, however, is clearly 8. cpapp-aKcp irrepvyas Rutherford, 

wrong. See line 44 of the play. (jydpfiaKov 7TTipvyd? r MSS. vulgo. 

4. eh b y avriK. I have substituted 9. rj^iaxrav. If this word is correct it 
avTLK for opvis, which is nonsense, eh must mean assented, acquiesced. 

opvis R. eh & opvis V. and one or other 

( xci ) 

iroia karl rroXis eh KaTOLKiafibv fieXTio-Trj. -^p&vrai Se rfjs 6Sov 
KaOrjyefiocriv opveois, 6 fikv Kopdovjj, 6 Se KoXom. 6vofid£ovTca Se 6 fikv 
TlecorOeTaipos, 6 Se IZveXntSr}?, oy Kal irpoTepos ap)(eTai. rj crKrjvrj ev 
'AQ-qvais. to Spdfia tovto t£>v ayav 8vvarS>s TreiroL'qjxev(ov. 

Ta Se ovofiara t&v yepovTcov TreiroirjraL, &$ el 7T€7roi6oi7] erepos rS 
irepco Kal * eXm£oi eaeadai ev /SeAr/bcn. 

'Em *Ka(3p(ov to Spdfia KadfJKev eh olcttv Sia KaXXiaTpaTOV 2 * eh 
Se Arjvaia top 'Afifodpaov e8t8a£e Sia $iXa>vi8ov. Xdfioc 8' dv tis 
tov9 xpovovs etc tS>v wepvai yevofievcov em 'Api/jLvrjorov 3 tov wpb 
Xafiptov. 'AOrjvaToi yap Treimovai ttjv %aXap,iviav, tov 'AXKiBidSyv 
fjieTaaTeXXofievoi em Kpiaei ttj$ tgov pvorrjpmv e/c/Ji^creco?, 6 Se 
&Xpi fiev Qovpiov etrreTO to?$ fieOrjKovaiv, eiceidev Se Spav/ibv TTOi-qad- 
fievos eh YleXonovvrjaov enepatooOT]. Trj? Se fieTccKXrjcrem fMejivrjTai 
Kal 'ApicrTOipdv'rjSj aTroKpVTTTG&v fiev to ovo/ia, to Se irpayfia SrjXcbv 
ev oh ye (prjo-i, " fi7]8a/ico? irapa OdXacro-av rjpuv 4# iva dvaKvyjreTat 
KXrjTrjpa dyovaa e&Qev f] XaXafiivia" (lines 145-7). 

'ESiSdyQr] em Xafipiov Sia KaXXtcTpaTOv ev acrTei, os rjv Sefoepos 
Toh "Opviaf TT/ocoroy 'Afiecyfrias Ka^ao-Tair TpiTO? ^pyvt^ps Movo- 

TpSlTO* 5 . 

1 ercpos t<S ire pep Kal* So R. V. Aldus, later editions. 

vulgo. Dr. Rutherford, however, alters 3 This is an error. The events of 

the words into UeiTOiraipos r^eraipa> Kal which the writer speaks took place in 

EveXmbrjs. But this can hardly be right, the archonship of Chabrias. See Clinton's 

It was Euelpides who pinned his faith Fasti Hellenici anno 415 B. c. 

on Peisthetaerus, and not vice versa. 4 This is R.'s reading. V. and Aldus 

The meaning is "as if one (Euelpides) have napa 6d\acr<rav. 

trusted the other, and was sanguine of 6 These notices are arranged in the 

success." The attitude of Euelpides order in which R. gives them. V. and 

explains both names. Aldus arrange them differently. And 

2 KaWio-TpcLTov. KaXXiov R.V. Aldus and they are really only extracts, taken from 
the earlier editions. Bentley suggested a mass of tedious and irrelevant matter. 
KaXkicrrpaTov, and so Kuster and all the 


Dramatis personae. The name Krjpvg should be added to the list of characters. 
Page 34, note to line 266, for " Charadriadae " read "Charadriidae." 
Page 114, note to line 830 I ought in this note to have quoted the lines from 
the Meleager of Euripides, to which Kock has already referred : 

Et KepKidoju p.\v av8p&<riv pekoi irovosj 

ywat£i 8* oirKcov cfjuricroiw T)8ovai.-- Stobaeus lxxiii. 29. 

They are supposed to allude to Atalante, and to be addressed by Althaea to her son 
Meleager, who had fallen in love with the swift-footed and beautiful sportswoman. 

Page 142, line 1040 for rails avrois (xeTpouri kcu orraOfioiari kcu popio-uacri read, with 
the MSS., Tol(r8e rots fxeTpoiai kcu araBfiouri ml ylrrj(f)i(ruacri, I ought not to have 
followed recent editors in deserting the MS. reading. The speaker, we know, is 
carrying ^ly^tV/xara, and he was doubtless also carrying weights and measures, 
just as the Commissioner was carrying ballot-boxes. ^^^tVftao-t is probably intro- 
duced Trapa 7rpo<rdoidav f to caricature the fondness of the Athenians for passing 
resolutions. See, inter alia, Clouds, 1429, Lysistrata 703, 704. 

Page 206, note to line 1545, for " sentient n read " sentiment.** 


Introduction, p. xxxiv. The dissolution of the Council of 500 was even later than 
there mentioned. It took place on the fourteenth of Thargelion, that 
is, at the end of May. See the Polity of Athens, chap. 32. 

Id. p. xxxv. By some accident the performance of the "Birds" is placed opposite 
the name of Peisander. It should have been placed opposite the 
name of Chabrias. 

Page 154 (ninth line from top). For " a thing or too " read " a thing or two.** 


ta tot apamatos nposniiA 



TPOXIA02, Gepdinov "Ettottos. 






METON, ycaiieTprjs. 






KINH2IA2, 8i6vpafi&oiroi6s. 






0IKETH2 TlewBeTaipav. 

In R. the Dramatis Personae are given as — 

SfpaTTcvv "Ettottos. 

In V. they are given as — 
Bircupos. "Biroip bs Trjpevs. 
irifyqs, "Ayyckos. 

tr)$€VS. T€cop.krprjs, 

aXKos. *HpaKXrJ5, 

^rj(piapaToypd<f>os m 
noirjTqs. ' 
Xopbs bpvidow. 


'Itptvs. Harpakoias. ^(piffparoypd^s. TlotrfT^t. 

Xopds opviOajv. 'Ema/co-nos. Kivrjaias, 8t$vpa/ji$oiroi6s. 
IloaetSaiy. "I/k?. Tpox^os. OiiciTTjs. 


ET. 'OpOrjv K€\€V€i$, % to SivSpov (pawercu ; 
IIEI. Siappayeirjs' ijSe S> av icpcbfci tt&Xiv. 
ET. ri 3> irov-qp avco Kara* TrXavvTTOfiev ; 

diroXovfieff, aXXcos ttjv 68bv 7rpo(f)opovfiiv(o. 


68ov irepieXdelv o-TaSia ttX&v f\ \CXia. 
ET. to 8 kjxk koXolco 7T€i66fjL€voi/ tov Svajiopov 

dTroG7ro8fjorai tovs ovvyas t&v SclktvXcov. 
IIEI. dXX' ovS' O7rov yfj$ ecrfikv oTS iya>y in. 
ET. evTevOevl ttjv 7raTpt8 y av k^vpois ov irov ; 


A desolate scene. In the background 
we see a solitary tree, and a sheer rock 
rising like a wall. In front are two 
tired old Athenians, each carrying a 
bird in his hand. The one with a crow 
(Kopavrj) is Peisthetaerus : the other 
with a jackdaw (koXolos), Euelpides. 
The birds have guided them from 
Athens, but now seem lost ; pointing 
different ways, and sometimes gaping 
up into the air. In truth, they have 
reached their goal, but their masters do 
not know that ; and the dialogue is 
commenced by Euelpides, apostrophiz- 
ing his jackdaw ; Straight on do you bid 
me go, where the tree is visible ? tovto Xey« 

Srbv KoXoibif (j)€pcop, says the Scholiast, 
a>s iv airoTTTos bevbpGv tivgs ovros, koi tov 

KokoiOV (TTJpaiVOVTOS KCLT €K€lVO 7TOp€V€<rdaL. 

The notion that the two Athenians are 
accompanied by their slaves is an 
erroneous deduction from 656 infra. 
For Xanthias and Manodorus, there 
mentioned, are merely stage attendants 
(probably the same as those mentioned 
in 435 infra) summoned out from behind 
the scenes for the sole purpose of carry- 
ing in the luggage ; just as Manes, 
infra 1311, is summoned to bring out 
the feathers. It is plain that in the 
preliminary scenes with the birds, there 
are but two men on the stage. 


Euelpides. Straight on do you bid me go, where the tree stands ? 
Peisthetaerus. O hang it all ! miners croaking back again. 
Eu. Why are we wandering up and down, you rogue ? 

This endless spin will make an end of us. 
Pel To think that I, poor fool, at a crow's bidding, 

Should trudge about, an hundred miles and more \ 
Eu. To think that I, poor wretch, at a daw's bidding, 

Should wear the very nails from off my feet I 
Pel Why, where we are, IVe not the least idea. 
Eu. Could you from hence find out your fatherland ? 

2. SiappayeLrjs] This seems to be a mere 
expletive, intended to relieve the 
speaker's feelings, and not specifically 
addressed either to his comrade, or to 
one of the birds. On the latter part 
of the line the Scholiast says, tovto 6 
rrjv Kop&vrjv (fiepcov, cos els Tovvavrlov to3 
Ko\oi<ti7rapaKe\evofjL€pr]s Tropeveadai' to yap 
Trakiv avr\ rod els tovttio-q). 

4. 7rpo<$)opovp.€V(£>\ Threading our way 
to and fro. Aevpo KaKelae TropevojiepoL 
els TavavTia. Trpofyopeio-Qai yap \eyerai to 
irapafyepeiv top crTrjpova toIs Sia£op,epois. — 

Scholiast. The Oxford Lexicographers 
refer to a passage in Xenophon's treatise 
on hunting (vi. 1 5), where hounds, getting 

on the scent of the hare, are described 
as 7rpo(fiopovfjLevai, running to and fro, 
working out the trail ; and to a very 
similar line to the present, cited by 
Suidas (s. v. dpdx^s) from the Cyclopes 
of Callias (a comic poet contemporary 
with Aristophanes), SX\\ ozcnrep dpaxvys, 
ty]v Shbv TrpotfiopovpeOa. For so the line 
should be read, since Suidas is citing it 
to illustrate the use of the masculine 
dpax^qs. Observe the conjunction of 
the plural and the dual, airohovpeQa, 
Trpo(j)opovfievco ; as infra 43-5, 64, 120, 
641-4, 664, and frequently elsewhere. 
And see the Commentary on Frogs 605 : 
and add Plutus 441. 

B 2 


XIEI. ovS' av fxa &ia y ei/revdey 'E^/cecrr/S^y. 

ET. oL/bLOL II EI. crv fikv S> rap rr\v 68ov TavTrjv l6l 

ET. rj Stiva ^o) SeSpctKev qvk tcou opvtcov, 

6 TrivaKOTT<x)\r]$ $i\oKp&T7}$ fieXay^oXcov, 
09 rdoS €(f>acrK€ vcpv (ppdoreiv rov Trjpia 
rov eiro(f> } os opvis eyever €K rcov opvicov 
KaneSoro rov /xev ©appeXziSov tovtovX 


11. 'E£r)K€aTidT)s] Not even Execestides ; 
a man so clever in finding a fatherland, 
that, though a Cardan slave (infra 764), 
he managed to find one in Athens itself, 
and passed himself off as a genuine 
Athenian citizen. From the frequent 
allusions in this play to unqualified 
persons who had improperly got on the 
roll of citizens, we may surmise that a 

strict revision of the roll had recently 
been made, probably in connexion with 
some gratuitous distribution of grain : 
see Wasps 718, and the note there ; and 
the note on 580 infra. And for a further 
allusion to Execestides see infra 1527. 
The Scholiast cites some lines from the 
MovoTponos of Phrynichus, a play which 
competed with the Birds : 

(A) fxeydkovs m0r}fcovs of5' krepovs rivds Xeyetv, 
AvKeav, TeXeav, UeiffavSpov, "Egrjiceo'Tidriv. 

(B) avoupa\pvs eTiras mOrjKovs' . . . 

6 pkv ye SeiXos, 6 8e KoKag, 6 5* aS voOos. 

Lyceas is quite unknown, and possibly 
his name is corrupt, and we should read 

erepovs Kayca tlvcis | Xeyeu'. The three 

others, Peisander 6 beikos, Teleas 6 KoXatj, 
and Execestides 6 voBos^ are all satirized 
in the present play. 

12. TTjV 6d6v TaVTT)v\ 1lJ]V €lff TO o'lfAOl 

6d6v ftd&i£€. — Scholiast. The road to 

13. 8eiva vo> deSpaitev] Has shamefully 
entreated us. Throughout the opening 
scene Euelpides is the principal speaker. 
Peisthetaerus does not come to the fore, 
until he formulates his grand project 
for building a great bird-city. 

14. 6 7Tii/aK07ro)Xrj£] Philocrates of the 
bird-market (ovk roav opi'sav, see the 

note on Wasps 789) was a dealer in 
wild birds, which he exposed for sale 
on earthenware trays : iw\ ttlpcikodv Kepa- 
p,£<ov, Pollux vii. segm. 197. ra \17rapa 
tgou opvecov iir\ irivaKoav riOevres incdkovv. — 
Scholiast. And so Hesychius, Photius, 
and Suidas. Siskins he sold at the rate 
of seven an obol (infra 1079); but he 
charged an entire obol for a jackdaw, and 
thrice that amount for a crow. For his 
many offences against the birds, the 
Chorus, in the second Epirrhema, set 
a price upon his head. 

16. €k rcov oppecov] These words have 
of course precisely the same meaning 
here as they had three lines above. 
The actor, as in the Comedies of Aristo- 


Pel No, that would pose even — Execestides ! 

Eu. O, here's a nuisance ! Pel Go you there, then> friend, 

Eu. I call Philocrates a regular cheat, 

The fool that sells the bird^trays in the market* 
He swore these two would lead us straight to Tereus, 
The hoopoe, made a bird in that same market, 
So then this daw, this son of Tharreleides, 

phanes so frequently happens, is speak- 
ing in his own person, and not in the 
character he represents in the drama. 
The hoopoe, whom the adventurers 
are seeking, is really another actor, and 
how then has he become a bird? By 
means of plumage which, like the jack- 
daw and the crow themselves, was 
obtained from the bird-market. Those 
two birds might not unreasonably be 
expected to find out the person dis- 
guised in feathers which had come from 
the same stall as themselves. This 
seems to me the obvious sense of the 
passage, but all the Commentators in- 
terpret it differently. Thus Bergler, ex 
homine superbo, aut levi el inconstante, 
/actus est ales superbus, aut levis et in- 
constans ; Brunck, solas hasce inter 
omnes aves dixit nobis indices futuras 
esse Terei, Fritz sche (at Thesm. 910) 
qui Rex avium /actus est ah aviculis ; 
Kennedy, changed into a (winged) bird 
from being a {barbarian) bird. All these 
explanations are quite unsatisfactory, 
and several editors, frankly admitting 
that they cannot make head or tail of the 
passage, omit or rewrite the line. — The 
story of Tereus is told by Apollodorus 
iii. 14 ; how Pandion, king of Athens, 
had two daughters, Procne and Philo- 

mela ; how Tereus of Thrace married 
the one, and outraged the other; how 
the sisters, in revenge, killed his son 
Itys, and served him up for his father's 
dinner ; how he pursued them, and 
the three were ehanged into birds, 
Tereus into a hoopoe f Procne into 
a nightingale, and Philomela into 
a swallow ; Kai TipoKvr\ p.ev ylveral d?/da)i/, 
<&i\ojxr]\a. 8i ^eXe^coV airQpvtovtai d£ teal 
Trjpevs, kcu ylverai eTroxjs* Cf. Ovid, Met. 
vi. 667-74, Other writers relate the 
story of the metamorphosis differently : 
and, in particular, Philomela was often, 
as she is now universally, identified with 
the nightingale ; but Apollodorus pre- 
sents that form of the legend which 
is followed by Aristophanes. 

17. TopQappeXeldov] Son o/ Tharreleides. 
This is undoubtedly a skit on some 
person of diminutive stature ; but 
whether that person was Tharreleides 
himself, or his son Asopoclorus, the old 
grammarians themselves were unable to 
determine. There seems no reason for 
suggesting a pun on 6appa\£os ; and 
there are certainly no grounds for 
changing the well-authenticated name 
&appe\eldov into QappaXeidov, as some 
critics do, in order to lend plausibility 
to the supposed pun. 


koXolov 6/3oXov, TrjvSeSl TpicofioXov. • 

to) 5' ou/c dp fjornqv ov8\v dXXo wXrjv 8&Kveiv. 

Kal vvv ti Keyjivas ; ecr6' ottoc Kara tS>v nerpooi/ 20 

rj/ids er dgeis ; ov yap ecrr kvTavOd ti? 

686?. HE I. ovSe pa Ac kvravOd y drpairo? ov8apov. 
ET. 97 8 av Kopcoi/r] ttj? 68ov tc Xiyec irkpi ; 
HE I. ov ravrd Kpcofcc pa Aia vvv re Kal Tore, 
ET. ti 81] XiyeL nepl ttj? 68ov ; ITEI. rt ti* dXXo y 1j 25 

fipvKovor' d-rreSecrdai (prjcrt pov tov? SaKTvXov? ; 
ET. ov 8etvov ovv Srjr karlv fjpa?, Seopevov? 

e? KopcLKas eXOeiv Kol irapecrKevacrpevov?, 

eTretra prj gevpelv 8vvao-0ai ttjv 686v ; 

rjpeT? ydp f covSpe? ol irapovTe? kv X6y&> 3 30 

vocrov voo-odjiev ttjv kvavTiav ^aKa- 

6 [lev yap, cov ovk dcrros, elcrfiidfcTai, 

fjpeT? 8e y (pvXfj Kal ykvzi TtpcdpevoL, 

darot p,€T do-Tody, ov aofiovvTO? ovSevb?, 

dveTTTopeo-d* e/c ttj? naTpiSo? dpcpoiv ttoSoiv, 35 


to pj] ov peydXrjv elvat (pvcrei Kev8aipova 
Kal Traai kolvt]v kvairoTicraL XprjpaTa. 

19. baKveiv] Here, we may suppose, much they may desire to go to the 

the daw bites its owner's fingers ; and, ravens (that is, to the realm of the birds), 

seven lines below, the crow follows suit. are quite unable to find out the way. 

25. ri Srj \eyei] The observation of 31. £«*«] Here we light upon another 

Peisthetaerus in the preceding line person who had got upon the roll of 

was no answer to the question of Euel- citizens without possessing the neces- 

pides ; and the latter, nettled at this, re- sary qualification, see on 11 supra. This 

peats the question at the top of his voice. is Acestor, the tragic poet, already 

28. es KopaKas) The way to go to the mentioned in Wasps 1221, who was nick- 
ravens (in the sense of our English ex- named 2dKas y from the strain of Scythian 
pression " to go to the dogs ") was far blood he was supposed to have in his 
too easily found out by many a young veins ; ol yap Uepaa^ says Hdt. vii. 64, 
Athenian ; whilst these two elderly and ndvras tovs 2K.vda.s- Kakeovo-i 2aKas. 
highly respectable citizens, however 35. noSo'iv] 'Ai/rt tov irrcpoiv — Scho- 


We bought for an obol, and that crow for three. 

But what knew they ? Nothing, but how to — bite ! 

Where are you gaping now ? Do you want to lead us 

Against the rocks ? There's no road here, I tell you. 
Pel No, nor yet here ; not even the tiniest path. 
Eu. Well, but what says your crow about the road ? 
Pel By Zeus, she croaks quite differently now. 

Eu. (Shouting.) WlIAT DOES SHE SAY ABOUT THE ROAD ? PeT. She says 

She'll gnaw my fingers off : that's all she says. 
Eu. Now isn't it a shame that when we are here 
Ready and willing as two men can be 
To go to the ravens, we can't find the way. 
For we are sick, spectators, with a sickness 
Just the reverse of that which Sacas has. 
He, no true townsman, would perforce press in ; 
Whilst we, with rights of tribe and race unchallenged, 
Townsmen mid townsmen, no man scaring us, 
Spread both our — feet, and flew away from home. 
Not that we hate our city, as not being 
A prosperous mighty city, free for all 
To spend their wealth in, paying fines and fees. 

liast. He commences the line as if be peprjp, jjieyaXrjv kcl\ €vbaip.opa. . . . eh 

was speaking of birds ; but at its close Tapa-ovs, tt6\lp rrjs KikiKtas, fxeyakqp m\ 

substitutes " feet " for " wings." evSaip,ova. Cf. Sozomen. H. E. iv. 16. 9. 

37. fieydXrjp Kevbalpova] This was, or 38. iva7TOTi(rai\ Hap vttopoiov avri rod 

became, the normal description of a epfiia>pai koX ivoiKelv, elirep ivairoTlo-ai 

flourishing township. In the second x?W ara * € ^ LS T0 4>iX68lkop t&p 'A&ji/aiW, 

chapter of the Anabasis, Xenophon, who on o-vKoffiapTovpepoi zroXXoi airerivav XPV" 

may well have been present at the per- para. — Scholiast. With ivairoTio-ai, to pay 

formance of this comedy, employs it fines in, Bergler compares the use of 

four times. Cyrus, he says, marched iyKaOrjfiav, to grow up in, to spend one's 

eh Ko\ocro-as, ttoXlp olrovpeprjp, ev8ai- youth in, in Eur. Hipp. 1096. And with 

fxova Kal peydXijp . . . els KeXawas, rrjs regard to the words nacri kolptjp Beck 

QpvyLas irokiv olKovfieprjp, fieyaKrjv Kal refers to the eulogy pronounced upon 

evdaifjLOPa. . . . trpbs Adpap, ttqKlv oIkov- Athens by Pericles in his Funeral 

8 OPNI0E2 

oi fxep yap ovp TeTTiyes eva firjp fj Svo 

kirl tgop KpaS£>p aSova, 'Adrjpaioi 8 del 40 

eirl 7w Slkcop aSovai iravTCL top (Hop. 

Sia, ravTa Topde top (3d8op ^aSt^oftep, 


TrXapcojieOa grjrovPTe tottop air pay pop a, 

ottol KaOiSpvOevTe Siayepoijxeff av. 45 

6 8e vtoXos p£>p kern irapa top Trjpia 
top €7T07ra, irap eicelpov 7rv6i<r6ai Seojiepco, 
el' 7Tov ToiavTrjp e28e ttoXlp 77 'ireirTaTO. 
IIEL ovtos. ET. ti ivTip j IIEL fj Kopd>prj jxol ndXai 

apco ri (ppd£ei. ET. x<w koXolos ovtootI 50 

ap<£> K€^7]P€P oncrirepel 8eiKPV$ ri fxou 


elo-ofieda 8' avTiK , fjp TroLrjo-cofiep yfrocfrop. 
IIEI. dXX y 6l<rff b Spdcrop ; r<£> crKeXet, Oepe ttjp Trerpap. 
ET. av Se rfj K€<f>aXjj y\ ip fj SnrXdatos 6 yjrotyos* 55 

IIEI. Gi> 8 ovp XiOco Koyjrop Xa/3d>p. ET. irdpv y', el SoKei. 

iral Trai. IIEI. ri Xeyeis ovros ; top eno-jra ira? tcaXets ; 

OVK aPTL TOV TTaiSSs CT £)(pfjp klTOTTol KttXeLP ', 

Oration (Thuc. ii. 39) rrjv ttoXiv Koivrjv ifxpaivei. The "song" of the cicala from 

7rapexofJLei>, that is free and open to alt. the branches of trees is a favourite topic 

40. eVi tS>v Kpahav] Literally, upon the of the Greek poets. Homer (Iliad 

jig-trees, but doubtless, as the Scholiast iii. 151) makes it a simile for the thin 

says, a;r6 hos ra ciWa irdvra bhbpa voices of Priam and his aged counsellors, 

And the sound of their piping voices was like the Cicala's cry 
As it rings out shrill through the wood from the tree where she sitteth on high* 

Hesiod twice interweaves it into a description of midsummer, 

In the day when the thistle has bloomed, 

And the Chirruper, high on his seat, 
Pours from the branch of a tree 

In the rapture of midsummer heat, 
Pours to the beat of his wings 

A melody thrilling and sweet. — Works and Days, 582. 


Aye, the cicalas chirp upon the boughs 

One month, or two ; but our Athenians chirp 

Over their lawsuits all their whole life long. 

That's why we are journeying on this journey now, 

Trudging along with basket, pot, and myrtles, 

To find some quiet easy-going spot, 

Where we may settle down, and dwell in peace, 

Tereus, the hoopoe, is our journey's aim, 

To learn i£ he, in any place he has flown to, 

Has seen the sort of city that we want. 
Pel You there ! Eu. What now ? Pel My crow keeps croaking upwards 

Ever so long. Eu. And here's my jackdaw gaping 

Up in the air, as if to show me something* 

There must be birds about, I am sure of that. 

Let's make a noise and we shall soon find out. 
Pel Then harkye ; bang your leg against the rock. 
Eu. And you, your head ; and there'll be twice the noise. 
Pel Well, take a stone and knock. Eu. Yes, I'll do that. 

Boy ! Boy ! Pel Eh ! What ! do you call the hoopoe " Boy " ? 

You should call €C Whoop-ho there/' not <c Boy " of course. 

And again in the Shield of Heracles omitted is the fire\ and that may have 

393. C£ infra 1095. See the additional been carried in the x^ r P a > lysistrata 

note on the revnf; at the end of this 308, 315. cfrepovras irvp iv x^T-pats, Xen. 

Commentary. Hell. iv. 5. 4. That Athens was not, 

43. kclvovv k.tX] Ta Trpbs Overlap and could not safely become a tt6\is 

KOfML^ovcnVf ha olido-avTes em rrj Idpixrei anpayfidav, was, according to the historian, 

Qvaaxriv. — Scholiast. We know from an argument put forward by Alcibiades 

Peace 948 that the cane-basket (t<avovv) in advocating the Sicilian expedition, 

might contain the sacrificial knife, the Thuc. vi. 18. 

barley grains, and the myrtle-wreath ; 54. tg> o-KeXei k.t.\.] According to 

though here the myrtles are separately the Scholiast there was a boyish joke, 

named : see the note on Thesm. 37. strike the rock with your leg, and the 

The only sacrificial requirement men- birds will fall down ; dos to a-KeXos rfj 

tioned in the Peace which is here Trirpa, kol -neo-ovvTai ra opvea. 


ET. eTTonoL noirjcreis roi fie Koirretv avdcs av. 

kiroiroL. TPOX. rives ovroi ; rls 6 fiocov rbv Secnrorrjv ; 60 

ET. v A7roXXoj/ dirorpoiraie, rod yaafirjfiaros* 
TPOX. of/tot rdXas, opviOoQ-qpa rovrcoi. 
ET. ovrco art Seivbv, ovSe. k&XXlov Xeyew ; 

TPOX. diroXelaOov. ET. dXX' ovk ecrfxev dvOpcbrrco. TPOX. ri Sai ; 
ET. 'TrroSeSicos eycoye, Ai/3vkov opveov. 65 

TPOX. ovSev Xeyeis. ET. Kal fir]v epov rd irpbs ttoScov. 
TPOX. 681 Se 8f) ris ecrriv opvis ; ovk epei? ; 
ITEI. 'l^TTLKe^oScos eycoye, QacriaviKos. 
ET. drap crv ri Orjpiop nor el irpbs rcov Oecov ; 
TPOX. opvis eycoye SovXos. ET. r)rrrjdr)? nvbs 70 

dXeKrpvovos ; TPOX. ovk, dXX' ore irep 6 SecrTrorrjs 

e7Toyjr eyevero, rdre yevecrdai fi ev£aro 

opviv, iv ukoXovOov SiaKovov r eyr}. 
ET. Seircu yap opvis Kal SiaKovov twos ; 
TPOX. odros y , dr olfiai rrpbrepov avOpcoiros iror cov. 75 

Tore fxev epa cpayew dcpvas QaXrjpiKas* 

60. TPOXIAOS] The Dunlin or Plover- the panic of the men results in a dire 

page. A door suddenly opens in the disaster, which is its usual consequence 

rock, and an actor emerges, wearing on the comic stage ; see the note on 

a head-dress or mask representing a Frogs 307. However, as bird and men 

Dunlin's head with a long and wide- respectively recognize the alarm which 

gaping beak. This gaping beak is they themselves have created, their own 

regarded as a sign of hostility (see infra terror is replaced by self-confidence and 

308) ; and if the bird is terrified at the good humour. With the first exclama- 

unexpected appearance of two men, tion of Euelpides "AttoWov k.t.X. com- 

whom it naturally assumes to be bird- pare Wasps 161. 

catchers, in immediate proximity to its 63. ovrco Vn k.t.X.] Is it so formidable(to 

home, the men are still more terrified at look at), and not more pleasant to speak? 

the threatening and unwonted aspect He uses the neuter, because he is con- 

of the bird. They stagger back, and templating the Dunlin as a Qrjpiov (infra 

Peisthetaerus stumbles and falls ; the 69). This is the MS. reading, but it is 

jackdaw and crow make their escape ; very unsatisfactory, and its meaning 

and it is clear from what follows that very doubtful. Bentley suggested ovtos 


Eu. O, Whoop-ho there ! What, must I knock again ? 

Whoop-ho ! Plover-page. Whoever are these ? Who calls my master ? 
Eu. Apollo shield us, what a terrible gape ! 
P.-P. These" be two bird-catchers. O dear, O dear ! 
Eu. {Aside.) As nasty-speaking, as unpleasant-looking ! 
P.-P. Ye shall both die ! Eu. O, we're not men. P.-P. What then ? 
Eu. Well, I'm the Panic-struck, a Libyan bird. 
P.-P. Nonsense ! Eu. No nonsense : look for yourself and see. 
P.-P. And he — what bird is he ? come, won't you answer ? 
Pel I ? Fm a pheasant, and a yellow-tailed one. 
Eu. But O by all the Gods, whatever are you ? 
P.-P. A serving-bird. Eu. What, vanquished by some gamecock 

In fight ? P.-P. No, but my master, when he first 

Became a hoopoe, prayed that I might turn 

Into a bird, to be his servant still. 
Eu. What, does a bird require a serving-bird ? 
P.-P. He does, as having been a man, I fancy. 

So when he wants to taste Phaleric sardines, 

"rt del vu rovBe " KaWiov \eyeiv> Heus observes. 

tu, melius est ut dicas "quid nos eum 70. SoOXos], This epithet, applied 

velimus." And Brunck reads ovtos, ?l to a bird, may have recalled the well- 

btivov ; ovbe koXXlov Xeyciy, hone, quid known line of an unknown author cited 

conturbaris ? nam cur meliora non by Plutarch in the fourth chapter of his 

Joqueris ? Alcibiades, eVrr^ 1 , oke/crap 8ov\ov w? 

65. 'YTrodediais']. The Considerably- ickivas nrepop (to which Kuster has 

frightened. Aristophanes does not already referred), and so have given 

fashion the participle into the likeness occasion for the question which 

of a bird's name, and there is no reason immediately follows, 
why a translator should do so. The 76. a<pvas &akr)pucds] 'A$vai were little 

words ipov ra irpbs Trodcov, as well as the fish of the Clupeidae family (see the 

name which Peisthetaerus gives himself, note on Wasps 493), very probably 

point to the catastrophe to which allusion anchovies. None were thought so good 

has been made in the note on 60 supra. as those taken iv €vk6\ttokti QaXrjpov \ 

" Dicit hoc, quasi praetimore cacaverit" dyic&o-iv . . . Up6is. " Use all dfyvas for 

as Bergler, following the Scholiast, manure" says the poet Archestratus, 


Tpey® V dcfavas Xaficov eyco to Tp\)(S\iov* 

eruovs 8' eittOvpei, Set Topvvrjs kou xyTpas* 

Tpeyoa Vt Topvvrjv, ET. rpoyiXos 6pvi$ ovto&L 

otaO' ovv o 8pdvov, S> Tpo^cXe ; top SeaitoTrjv 80 

rjpiv KaXeaov. TPOX. dXX* dpTicos vrj tov Ata 

eiiSei, KaTacfiaycbv pvpTa Kal vep<f)ov$ Tivds. 
ET. opcos eiteyeipov clvtov. TPOX. otSa pev aac^m 

otl ayOeveTai, crfy&v 8' glvtov eiveK eireyepco* 
IIEI. kcck&s av y diroXoi y &$ p diteKTeivas SeeL 85 

ET. oifjioi KCLKoSai/jLGov, )((!) koXoiqs potyeTai 

vno tov 8eov$. IIEI. <S 8eiXoTaTov (tv Orjpicov, 

Setaas d(j>rjKas tov koXolov ; ET. elite pot, 

av 8e tt\v Kopoovrjv ovk d<pfJKa$ KaTaiteadov ; 
IIEI. pa AC ovk eyooye. ET. itov yap eaT ; IIEI. dneirraTO. 90 
ET. ovk dp d(f>r]Kas ; 3>ydff coy dvSpelos et 
EIT. avoiye ttjv vXtjv, tv e£eX0co itoTe. 
ET. S> 'HpaKXets, tovtI tl ttot eaTt to Orjpiov \ 

ti$ rj TtTepo&cris ; r/y 6 Tpoitos ttjs TpiXo<f)ia$ ; 
EII, Tives elai p ol grjTodvTes ; ET. ol 8<£8eKa 6eol 95 

ei'gacriv eitiTpcyjraL ae. EIT. p&v pe aK&ltTerov 

from whom the foregoing words are brought out would have been the in- 
quoted, "save those which are taken at terior of a chamber (see the notes on 
Athens.' 1 See the three chapters de- Thesm. 95, 277), but, being a bird's 
voted by Athenaeus to afyvai (vii. 22-4)> habitation, it consists of small trees 
in which the Phaleric a<j>vai are several and brushwood, which, with the brush- 
times noticed. wood still within the aperture, form 

84. eneyepG)] The Dunlin goes in to the copse, or \6xm, in which the Hoopoe 

awaken the Hoopoe. While he is with- has been roosting, and in which his 

in, the two men, left outside, discourse wife (Procne, the nightingale) is even 

of the fright they have received. now reposing. Into this \6xm the 

92. civoLye rr)v vXrjv] A turn of the Hoopoe disappears to sing his "Seren- 

€KKvK\r)fia brings out theHoopoe, together ade " and his " Bird-call " ; and from 

with a portion of his dwelling. Had it this X6xj"*7 the music of the flute, 

been a man's habitation, . the portion imitating the warbled response of the 


I run for the sardines, catching up a dish. 

Does he want soup ? then where's the pot and ladle ? 

I run for the ladle. Eu. A regular running-page. 

Now harkye, Plover-page, run in and call 

Your master out. P. -P. Great Zeus ! he has just been eating 

Myrtles and midges, and is gone to roost. 
Eu. But still, do wake him. P.-P. Well I know he won't 

Like to be waked, still for your sake I'll do it. 
Pel Confound the bird ! he frightened me to death. 
Eu. O dear ! O dear ! my heart went pit-a-pat, 

My daw's gone too. Pel (Severely.) Gone ! O you coward you, 

You let him go ! Eu. "Well, didn't you fall down, 

And let your crow go ? Pel No, I didn't. No ! 
Eu. Where is she then ? Pel She flew away herself. 
Eu. You didn't let her go, You're a brave boy ! 
Hoopoe. Throw wide the wood, that I may issue forth ! 
Eu. O Heracles, why what in the world is this ? 

What feathering's here ? What style of triple-cresting ? 
Hoop. Who be the folk that seek me ? Eu. The Twelve Gods 

Would seem to have wrought your ruin. Hoop. What, do you jeer me, 

nightingale, is* supposed to proceed, head and his wings he has got no 
See infra 202, 207, 224, 265. It is this feathers at all. Euelpides suggests 
copse, here called v\tj (possibly, as Dr. that all the Twelve Gods— the Twelve 
Merry observes, with a play on irvkr}), great Gods who composed the supreme 
which the Hoopoe requires to be parted Council of Olympus — must have com- 
asunder, that he may come out to bined to reduce him to this pitiful 
receive his visitors. plight. Some suppose that the words 
95. ol daidem Oeoi] The adventurers <=i£a<nv iirirpfyai ere are an afterthought 
had expected to see the Hoopoe in the introduced napa npoo-hoKiav into a sen- 
glory of his full plumage, and are taken tence which was originally intended to 
aback at finding him almost featherless. have a different termination ; but there 
His " enormous crest" and "very long, seem to be no sufficient grounds for this 
slightly arched beak" are indeed suffi- opinion. Asto the appeal to Heracles two 
ciently in evidence; but except on his lines above, see the note on Peace 180. 



Ell. dXXd rov ; 








6pa>vT€ rr]v 7TT€p(oatv ; r\v yap, (3 ££voi, 

avOpooTTos. ET. ov aov KarayeXcofiev. 

to pdfupos y)plv crov yiXoiov (jyatveTau 

roiavra fievTOt ^o(poKXer}$ Xvfiaiv^TaL 

kv rats r pay (pS tatcr lu efxe rov Trjpia. 

Trjpevs yap et crv ; iroTtpov opvis fj ra<h$ ; 

opvis eycoye. ET. Kara aoi ttov tcl Trrepd ; 

egeppvrjtce. ET. iroTtpov vnb vbcrov tivos ; 

ovk, dXXd rov yti[i<ova iravra T&pvea 

irrepoppvet re KavOiS erepa (jyvo/JLev. 

dXX' tirrarov jxol acpcb riv kcrjov ; ET. von ; fipord) 

7roSa7rcb to yevos ; ET. o8eu at Tpirjpeis at KaXaL 

pLOtw rjXiao-Ta ; ET. /xdXXd OaTepov Tpbirov, 

aTT-qXiaa-Ta. En. anetpeTai yap tovt e/ce? 

to airepix] ET. 6Xlyoi> (tjtcov dv <e£ dypov Ac^Soiy. 

npayovs Se Si) tov Seopevco Sevp" tjXQgtov ; 

aol £vyyei>£a6ai (3ovXofJLivod. En. tivos nepi ; 




100. 2o(£oK\eV] Sophocles had written 
a tragedy called the "Tereus, 1 ' of which 
the triple metamorphosis was doubtless 
the culminating incident. He was far 
too great an artist to have exhibited the 
transformation oh the stage (ne coram 
populo . . . in avem Procne vertatur, 
Horace, A. P. 185-7), or to have intro- 
duced Tereus afterwards, in the guise 
of a hoopoe. The metamorphosis must 
have been described by a Messenger, 
who very probably did not enter into 
the specific details of the change except 
so far as related to the head and wings ; 
so as to give occasion to the Athenian 
wits* to suggest that in all other respects 
he remained a man. The expression iv 
rals Tpayadiatoiv does not refer (as in the 

translation it does) to that particular 
play. It means generally " in the 
Tragedies," that is to say, in the Tragic, 
as opposed to the Comic, competitions. 
102. raws] The peacock had only 
recently been introduced into Athen? 
from the East, and was still the greatest 
possible rarity there. In a chapter on 
the peacock (ix. 56) Athenaeus brings 
together many references to the bird, 
and most of them allude to its original 
scarcity. Thus Antiphanes, a Comic' 
Poet of the transition period (who 
began to exhibit some time after the 
death of Aristophanes), says in his 
SrpaTLoorrjs, "A man used to bring in 
a pair of peacocks, as a very scarce 
article ; but now," he adds " they are 


Seeing the way I'm feathered ? Strangers, I 

Was once a man. Eu. It's not at you we're laughing. 
Hoop. What is it then ? Eu. Your beak looks rather funny. 
Hoop. This is the way that Sophocles disfigures 

The manly form of Tereus in his Play. 
Eu. What, are you Tereus ? Are you bird or peacock ? 
Hoop. I am a bird. Eu. Then, where are all your feathers ? 
Hoop. They've fallen off ! Eu. What ! from disease, or why ? 
Hoop. No, but in winter-time all birds are wont 

To moult their feathers, and then fresh ones grow. 

But tell me what ye are. Eu. We ? mortal men. 
Hoop. And of what race ? Eu. Whence the brave gallies come. 
Hoop. Not dicasts, are ye ? Eu. No, the other sort. 

We're anti-dicasts. Hoop. Grows that seedling there ? 
Eu. Aye in the country you can find a few, 

If you search closely. Hoop. But what brings you hither ? 
Eu. To talk with you a little. Hoop. What about ? 

more plentiful than quails." But 109. firj dWddaTepov rpoTrou] He seems 

Eubulus,a contemporary of Antiphanes, to be quoting from aline in the Medea 

speaks in his Phoenix as if they were of Euripides /Z77&' rjavxaiau dWa Baripov 

still very scarce, kcli yap 6 racos did to rponov (808), a line all the more likely 

andvLou Bavfid^Tai. And Antiphon, the to impress itself on the popular mind 

Orator, says that the public were because it is repeated, with a slight 

admitted to see them on the new-moons variation, from an earlier line (305) of 

only. Euelpides, at all events, seems the same play. 

to know nothing about them. Here he 111. eg dypov] That is to say "amongst 
distinguishes a peacock from a bird ; in the country folk," on ol aypoiKoi fiovoi 
the following line he implies that if eia\v ol /xj) <fie\obiKao-Ta\, a>s okiyoav ovroav 
Tereus had been a peacock, there would twp pLiaobiKwv, ko.\ tovtcop dypoUcov, as 
be nothing surprising in his having no the Scholiast observes. It must be re- 
feathers; whilst a little further on (269) membered that at this time the country- 
he inquires if the flamingo is a peacock, folk had returned to their farms agaiii, 
Possibly there is an allusion to some and were no longer cooped within the 
recent exhibition of ignorance on the city walls, 

16 OPNI0E2 

ET. ore irpcora fikv rjcrO* dvOpconos, &airep poo ttotI, 

KapyvpLov ai(f)€i\r]ora? 3 &o"irep poo wore, 115 

kovk a7ro8i8ov9 eyaipes, &cnrep poo irore- 

eir avdts oppiOoop fxeraXXd^as (f>vaiv 

Koi yrjv kireirerov kccl OdXarrap kv kvkXcd, 

kol irdvff ovairep dpOpooiros oca r oppi? typopels' 

tglvt ovp iKerat poo irpbs o*e Sevp' afylyiieQa, * 120 

el riva ttoXlp (frpdaeias rjfiTp, exiepop 

&omep encrvpap, kyKaTaKXiprjpai, fxaXdaKrjv. 
Ell. enetra [xeifa toov Kpapaoop (r}Tels ttoXlp ; 
ET. fxeifo pep ovSev, npoa^o poor e pap Se pepp. 
EEL dpicrroKpaTelaOat SrjXos et {rjrobp. ET. kyoo ; 125 

7]Kl(TTa' kccl top ^KeXXiov fiSeXvTTo/xaL. 


ET. ottov tol p.ey terra it pay par etrj rotaSe- 

knl ttjp Ovpav fiov irpoo ti$ kXOoop roop <p(Xoop 

Xeyoi raSr ee Trpbs rod Alos tovXvjittlov 130 

0770)? irapeaei jiol kou av kccl tol ivaiSia 

Xovcrdfxepa irpoo' fxeXXoo yap kvriav ydpovs- 

Kal firjSaficos dXXoo? TroLrjO-rjs* el Se fir], 

116. ovk a7rodi8ovs] These words must " Old England" has to our own. 

be taken together, not paying, that is 124. Trpocr(popcor€pap] 'E7riTr)d€ioT€pav. 

shirking the payment of, your debts. — Scholiast. More suited to our require- 

123. tcdv Kpavac£>v\ Tcov ^A.6r)voov. ments. 

— Scholiast. Kpavaal was the most 126. rov SkcXXiov] Ilapa to ovopa 7re- 

ancient name of Athens/ a name in iraixev, iirei 'ApKTTOKpdrrjs SfceXX/ov ?}p vlos. 

the plural form, like 'A^api/ai, UXaraiai, —Scholiast. The necessity of finding 

and (with a different accent) 'Adr/vat out a suitable town affords the poet an 

itself, MvKrjvat, Qrjfiai, and many others, opportunity of throwing out some little 

It was also called fj Kpavaa noXis, but sarcastic remarks upon sundry obnoxious 

there of course Kpavaa is an adjective ; citizens, presumably sitting among the 

Ach.75,Lys. 481. The name had the same spectators. We do not want an aristo- 

patriotic flavour to Athenian ears, that cracy, says Euelpides, for we loathe 


Eu. You were a man at first, as we are now, 

And had your creditors, as we have now, 

And loved to shirk your debts, as we do now ; 

And then you changed your nature, and became 

A bird, and flew round land and sea, and know 

All that men feel, and all that birds feel too. 

That's why we are come as suppliants here, to ask 

If you can tell us of some city, soft 

As a thick rug, to lay us down within. 
Hoop. Seek ye a mightier than the Cranaan town ? 
Eu. A mightier, no ; a more commodious, yes. 
Hoop. Aristocratic ? Eu. Anything but that ! 

I loathe the very name of Scellias' son. 
Hoop. What sort of city would ye like? Eu. Why, one 

Where my worst trouble would be such as this ; 

A friend at daybreak coming to my door 

And calling out by Olympian Zeus, 

Take your hath early : then come round to me, 

You and your children, to the wedding banquet 

Vm going to give, Now pray donH disappoint me, 

Aristocrates the son of Scellias ; we will Aristotle's Polity of Athens, chap, 

not go to Lepreus, because of the leper 33 ; Lysias against Eratosthenes 67. 

Melanthius ; we will not abide amongst Finally, he was one of the successful 

the Opuntians, for we cannot abide generals at Arginusae, and, together 

Opuntius. Aristocrates is selected be- with such of his colleagues as ven- 

cause of his name, and not because of tured to return to Athens, was put 

his opinions, but he did afterwards in to death by the Athenians. As the 

fact become one of the most prominent description 6 2/ceXX/ou is added to his 

leaders of the aristocratical party. He name by Thucydides (ubi supra), Plato 

took part in the oligarchic Revolution of (Gorgias, chap. 27, 472 A), and [Demo- 

the 400, was an influential member of sthenes] (against Theocrines 87, 1343), 

that body, and ultimately seceded from there were doubtless other well-known 

it with Theramenes, Thuc. viii. 89 ; citizens of the same name. 



prj fMOL tot€ y eX&rjs, orav eycb TrpaTTCo kcckm?* 
EII. V7] Ala Ta\cu7roop6ov ye it pay pdra>v epas. 135 

ri Sal <rv ; IIEI. toiovtwv epco K<xy&. EIT. rlvoav ; 
I1EI. 07rov £vvavT<£>v poi raSi tls pep^erai, 

Sairep ddiKtjdeh, 7rat.8b$ wpalov naTrjp' 

iC KaXoos ye pov rbv vlbv, a> ^TiXfiooviSr], 

evpoov diTLovT dirb yvpvaaiov XeXovpevov 140 

ovk eKvaas, ov TrpocreTiras, ov irpoar]ydyov, 

ovk cop^L7reSrja'a9 } cov epol 7rarpLK09 (f>(Xo$. 
EIT, co SeiXaKplcov ail rcov KaK&v oi'coi/ epas. 

drdp earl y oiroiav Xeyerov evSalpcov ttoXl? 

-rrapa ttjp epvQpdv OdXarrav. ET. oipoi, pr)8apS>$ 145 

rjpiy irapa rr\v OdXarrav, iv dvaKv^erai 

K.Xr}TY)p ayovfj ecodev f] ^aXapivla. 

'F.XXTjviKrji' Se iroXiv eyeis rjpTi/ typdaai ; 
ED[. rl ov tov 'HXeTov Aewpeov oIkI&tov 

134. nparrco kcikS>9] The Scholiast says 
that there was a proverb, applied to 
one who would not assist his friends in 
their adversity, p.r) fioi totc y eXdgs, orav 
iyoa TrpaTTCo kcl\g>s, and that Euelpides 
merely changes the koKS>s into micccs. 
But if there ever was a proverb in 
those words, which is very unlikely, 
we may be sure that, like so many 
other proverbs, it was itself derived from 
the words of Aristophanes. The phrase 
io-riav ydfjLovs, to make a marriage-feast, 
is used by Euripides in the "Madness 
of Heracles "483. 

139. 2rtXjSo)^t5?/] This is merely a 
fancy name in a fancy picture. That 
the Hoopoe so understood it, and did 
not suppose the speaker to be giving his 
own name is plain from 643 infra. The 

address & SeiXaK/uW, with which the 
Hoopoe commences his reply, is an 
expression of affectionate commiseration, 
Poor dear fellow. See Peace 193. 

145. tt)v ipvdpav 6a\aTTav\ This name 
was not, in ancient times, restricted to 
what we now term the Red Sea. It 
was used, as Beck observes, "de Indico 
Oceano, de sinu Persico, de Arabico 
sinu " ; in fact, generally of the seas 
which wash the south-western coasts of 

147. ?; SaXajHi^ta] Avo elcrl vrjts irapa 
tols 'Adrjvaiois V7rrjp€Tid€s, f} HapaXos Ka\ r) 
2aXa/x«//a. hv fj fiij/ ^akapuvla rovs eyicaXov- 
lizvovs els Kpio-LV rjyov, fjv eV 'AXKipLaSrjv 
<fir]<r\ 7T€p,(j)6rjvai QovKvdidrfs (vi. 61), 17 de 
Uapakos ras Beapias airrjyev. — Scholiast. 
See infra 1204. The "Salaminia" was 



Else, keep your distance, when my money's — gone. 
Hoop. Upon my word, you are quite in love with troubles ! 

And you ? Pel I love the like. Hoop. But tell me what. 
Pel To have the father of some handsome lad 

Come up and chide me with complaints like these, 

Fine things I hear of you, Stilbonides, 

You met my son returning from the laths, 

And never kissed, or hugged, or fondled him, 

You, his paternal friend ! You re a nice fellow. 
Hoop. Poor Poppet, you are in love with ills indeed. 

Well, there's the sort of city that ye want 

By the Bed Sea. Eu. Not by the sea ! Not where 

The Salaminian, with a process-server 

On board, may heave in sight some early morn. 

But can't you mention some Hellenic town ? 
Hoop. "Why don't ye go and settle down in Elis, 

despatched in the autumn of 415 B.C. 
(some five or six months before the 
exhibition of the " Birds ") to bring back 
Alcibiades, just as he was approaching 
the Sicilian coasts at the head of the 
great Athenian armament. And the 
observation of Euelpides was doubtless 
intended to remind the spectators of that 
dramatic and most momentous event. — 
It seems like a fragment of ancient 
history to read in the English news- 
papers, as I am penning this note 
(May 7, 1886), that the Greek Govern- 
ment has sent the Salaminia to Con- 
stantinople, to bring back the Greek 
Minister. — As to KXrjTrjpa, see the note on 
Wasps 1408. 

149. top 'UXelop A€7rpcov] There was 
but one Lepreus, or (as it is usually 

called) Lepreum, known to the Athen- 
ians ; why then does Aristophanes go 
out of his way to call it the Eleian ? 
No one has taken the trouble to ask 
the question, yet the answer is not with- 
out interest. The Lepreates had, at 
some remote period, ceded half their 
land to Elis, but were allowed to remain 
in possession, on rendering a talent 
yearly to the treasury of Olympian 
Zeus. This payment was regularly 
made until the outbreak of the Pelo- 
ponnesian War : but subsequently they 
declined to continue it §m irpo^aa-tv tov 
7roXeftou, which apparently means "on 
the score of the expenses caused them 
by the War." And on Elis attempting 
to enforce payment, they appealed to 
Sparta. At first both parties agreed to 

C 2 



kX66pff ; ET. OTitj prj tov9 Oeovs, &<r ovk I8a>v, 150 

fiSeXvTTOfiai top Aenpeop dirb MeXapOiov. 
EII. dXX elalv erepot rfjs AoKpiSos 'Ottovptloc, 

cpa xpv KaroiKeip. ET. dXX' eycoy 'Ottovptios 

ovk dv yevoi[ir)v km tolX&vtco ^pvcrlov. 

ovtos Se Srj tIs ecrO' 6 [izt oppidcop (3lo$ ; 155 

cry yap otaO' aKpifim. Ell. ovk adapts e? ttjp TpL^V' 

ov irpcoTa [xkp Set gfjp avev (HaXXavrtov. 
ET. TroXX-qv y dcfreiXes rod (3iov KifiSrjXiav. 
EII. pe/iofxeo-Oa 8 kp kt\ttois toc XevKa arjo-a/za 


ET. I/pecs fiep dpa grjre pvpabccop {Slop. 
ITEI. <pev 0€i5* 

rj fxiy kpopoo ftovXev/i kp opptdcop yepet, 

Kal Svpa/XLP t) yipoir qp, et mOoiaOi jjloi. 

abide by the award of Sparta ; but 
before any award was given, Elis, 
suspecting that she would not receive 
fair play, withdrew from the submission 
and invaded Lepreum. Thereupon 
Sparta gave the award against her, and 
excluded her from the disputed territory, 
first by placing a temporary garrison 
of Spartan hoplites there, and after- 
wards by giving the land to the en- 
franchised Helots who had fought under 
Brasidas. Lepreum, therefore, virtually 
became a part of Messenia. The Eleians, 
indignant at the action of Sparta, looked 
about for other alliances. And in the 
year 420 B.C. a formal alliance for 100 
years was contracted between the 
Athenians, the Argives, the Eleians, 
and the Mantineians. The story is told 
in the Fifth Book of Thucydides, chaps. 

31, 34, 47. Aristophanes, therefore, 
having selected Lepreum for the pur- 
pose of a gird at Melanthius (the 
obnoxious tragic poet already assailed 
in Peace 804, 1009, who was said to 
be afflicted with leprosy), applies to it 
the distinctive epithet "Eleian" as 
a compliment to these new allies, who 
were doubtless represented by envoys at 
this celebration of the great Dionysia. 

153. '07TOVVTlOs] OUTOS CTVKO<fidvTr}S nopr)- 

pos kol fjLov6(j)da\iJLos-~ Scholiast. From 
other expressions in the Scholia here, 
and from line 1294 infra, we may infer 
that this Common Informer had lost 
one eye, and could not see very well 
with the other. It was merely for the 
purpose of having a gibe at his expense 
that the Hoopoe recommended the 
adventurers to find a home with the 



At Lepreus ? Eu. Leprous ! I was never there^ 

But for MelanthraV sake I loathe the name* 
Hoojp. Well then,, the Opuntians up in Locris, there's 

The place to dwell in ! Eu. I become Opuntius ! 

No thank you, no, not for a talent of gold. 

But this, this bird-life here > you know it well, 

What is this like ? Hoop. A pleasant life enough. 

Foremost and first you don't require a purse. 
Eu. There goes a grand corrupter of our life ! 
Hoop. Then in the gardens we enjoy the myrtles, 

The cress, the poppy, the white sesame. 

Why, then, ye live a bridegroom's jolly life. 

Oh ! Oh ! 

O the grand scheme I see in the birds' reach, 

And power to grasp it, if ye'd trust to me ! 


Opuntian Locrians ; the people who 
occupied the coast above Boeotia* facing 
the northerly portion of Euboea. 

159. o-rio-ajjia k.tX.] These things, Euel- 
pides says two lines below, remind him 
of a bridegroom's life. We have already 
seen in the Peace that the sesame-cake 
(owing to the prolific qualities of the 
sesame, evidenced by the multiplicity 
of its seeds) was the recognized wedding- 
cake at Athens. The same multi- 
plicity exists in the seeds of the poppy 
and the aLcrvji^piov, cress. o-Mrvfifipiov 
is by some thought to be " watermint," 
but here at all events it cannot bear 
that signification, since watermint is 
not a garden herb, and has only four 
small seeds. Linnaeus, and (I believe) 
modern botanists generally, identify it 
with cress, fivpra are again in line 1100 

infra spoken of as the favourite food of 
the birds. The myrtle of course was 
specially sacred to Aphrodite ; and so 
apparently were <ri<rvnfipia. Bothe 
refers to Ovid's Fasti iv. 869 " Cumque 
sua dominae " (that is, Veneri) " date 
grata sisymbria myrto." 

162. <fiev fav] Peisthetaerus breaks 
into the conversation with the announce- 
ment of his grand conception of one 
great city of the Birds between Heaven 
and Earth, a conception the develop- 
ment and realization of which occupy 
the entire remainder of the play. And 
henceforth he is the ruling spirit of 
everything that takes place ; Euelpides 
falls more and more into the back- 
ground, and at last, before the play is 
half over, Peisthetaerus dispenses with 
him altogether. 



EE[. ri aoi nidoopeaO' ; I1EL o re nidrjo-Oe ; npoora pev 

prj TrepnrerecrOe Travrayjj Ke^rjvores' 165 

cty rovr drcpov rovpyov kcrriv. aurcKa 

eKei Trap* rjpiv rov$ neropevovs ffv eprj 

" ri$ icrriv ovtos ; " 6 TeAea? kpei raSi* 

Ci avdpooTTOS opvts, dcrrdOprjros, ireropevos, 

dreKpapros, ovSev ovSeiror kv ravrco pevoov. 170 

EE[. vrj rov Aiovvcrov ev ye pcopa ravrayL 

ri av ovv iroiolpev ; IIEL oiKiaare piav ttoXlv. 
EE[. iroiav 8' av oiKicrcupev opvides ttoXlv ; 
nEI. dXrjBes ; <5 crKaiorarov elprjKcbs tiros, 

fi\e>\rov Karoo. EU. Kal Srj fiXtTroo. nEI. /3AeVe *>£*> dvco. 175 
En. /SAeVcB. nEI. irepiaye rov rpdyrjXov. En. vrj Aia 

diroXavaopai ri y, el Siao-rpatyrjaopai. 
nEI. elSis ri ; En. rds vecfrkXas ye Kal rov ovpavov. 
nEI. ovy^ ovros ovv 8rJ7rov arlv opvidcov ttoXos ; 

166. avTLKa] For instance. The word 
is used in this sense six times in this 
very comedy; here, and in lines 378, 
483, 574, 786, and 1000. See the note on 
Thesm. 151. 

167. tovs 7rero/ueyous] If you ash the 
flighty people at Athens " Who is that 
person ? " Teleas (as their leader and 
spokesman) will reply " The man is 
a bird, unstable, flighty, unaccountable, 
never still for a moment.^ The very 
flightiest people at Athens, Peisthetaerus 
means, despise the birds for their exces- 
sive flightiness. As to Teleas, see infra 
1025 and the lines of Phrynichus cited 
in the note to line 11 supra. It was 
doubtless as "grand" to hear him de- 
claiming against flightiness, as it was, 
in King James's opinion, i( to hear Baby 

Charles laying down the guilt of dis- 
simulation, or Steenie lecturing on the 
turpitude of incontinence." However, 
the Scholiast (who is followed by 
all the Commentators) will not allow 
that Teleas is reckoned among the 7rero- 
jievovs. He considers the words tovs 

Trero/Jievovg r]V eprj equivalent to rjv tls 
ip(OT7]crrj wcpl tg>v ireTOp-ivcov, citing, by 
way of confirmation, Iliad vi. 239 where 
the women throng round Hector as 
he re-enters Troy, clpo^vai iraibds re 
KacnyvrjTovs re. But such a construction 
is impossible in Aristophanes. The 
lines which Dr. Blaydes adduces from 
the Clouds (144, 145) dvrjper apn Xai/>e- 
cfycopTa ^2coKpoLTT]s | yj/vWav onocrovs aXXoiTO 
tovs avTTJs nodas are altogether beside 
the mark. yjrvXXav is not there governed 



Hoop. Trust you in what ? Pel What ? First don'? fly about 

In all directions, with your mouths wide open. 

That makes you quite despised. With us, for instance, 

If you should ask the nighty people there, 

Who is that fellow ? Teleas would reply, 

The man's a bird, a flighty feckless bird, 

Inconsequential, always on the move. 
Hoop. Well blamed, i'faith ; but what we ought to do, 

Tell us. Pel Live all together : found one State. 
Hoop. What sort of State are birds to found, I wonder. 
Pel Aye, say you so ? You who have made the most 

Idiotic speech, look down. Hoop. I do. Pel Look up. 
Hoop. I do. Pel Twirl round your head. Hoop. Zeus ! I shall be 

A marvellous gainer, if I twist my neck ! 
Pel What did you see ? Hoop. I saw the clouds and sky. 
Pel And is not that the Station of the Birds ? 

by dvrjpero, any more than in the corre- 
sponding lines infra 1269, 1270, 8eip6p ye 
top KrjpvKa top irapa tovs ftpoTovs I olxopevov, 
ci fir}b€7roT€ voarrjcreiTraKiv, the accusatives 
rbv KrjpvKa are governed by detpop. In 
each case the subject of the succeeding 
verb is, by a common Attic idiom, 
placed before the conjunction as an in- 
dependent accusative. See Eccl. 583 and 
the note there, and the notes on 483 and 
652 infra. Aristophanes could not have 
said avr}p€T apri Xaipe(j>S>VTa Sco/cpcm?? 
yjtvXkav, as a complete sentence, Socrates 
was asking Chaerephon about the flea. 
And here the vulgar construction, 
besides being impossible in itself, 
renders the whole speech unconnected 
and pointless. I have adopted Dobree's 
emendation tis co-tip ovros ; for tis oppis 

ovros; and have given an aspirate to 
ap0pa>7ro9. In the last line of the speech 
areicfiapTos means uncertain, one on whose 
actions you cannot reckon. And with the 
concluding words cf. Wasps 969. 

177. diacrrpa(f)r}(TOfxaL] Top rpd\rjkop 
KkdcrcD. — Scholiast. The line is, in sub- 
stance, repeated from Knights 175. 

179. 7r6Xoy] To 7T€pi€X 0P farav* — <°* 
avrov re 7repL7r6Xovfi€Pov Kai di avrov ttclp- 
tcov ipxofJ>€p<op. — 7r6Xos, irapa to TTo\zio-6ai 
ip avT<S ndvTa. — Scholiasts. The Greeks, 
says Mr. Grrote (Part I. chap. 20), " ac- 
cording to Herodotus, acquired from 
the Babylonians the conception of 
' the Pole,' or of the heavens as a com- 
plete hollow sphere, revolving round 
and enclosing the earth." Herodotus, 
however (ii. 109), refers not so much to 



EII. 7r6Xoy; tiva Tponov ; IIEL &cnrep el Xiyoi9, totto$. ISO 

otl 8k TroXeiTCU tovto teal SiipytTai 
diravra Sia tovtov, KaXeiTai vvv ttoXos. 
fjv 8 olkl(ttjt€ tovto Kcu QpagrjO' aTrag, 


Sctt «p|er dvOpcoircov ll\v &o"irep Trapvonoov, 185 

Toif$ S' ad Oeovs d-rroXeiTe Xijico M77X/00. 
EIT. irm ; IIEL kv Liecrco SfjnovOev dfjp kcrTL 7*79. 

tiff &a-7T€p fjixeTs, fjv iivai fiovXwLieda 

YIvQooSe, 'Bolodtovs SioSov ahovLieOa^ 

ovTm, orav dvacoo-Lv avOpcorroi Oeohi 190 

fjv firj obopov (j)6pcdcriv vlup 01 Oeol, 

Sea 7779 7roXeco$ ttjs aXXoTptas Kal tov yd ov $ 

tcov fMrjpioov ttjv KvTcrav ov Siafyp-qazTe* 
EII. iov iov* 

fxa yfjv, jia nayiSas, fia vefykXas, fxa SiKTva, 

the conception, as to a contrivance, like 
our globes, for illustrating the concep- 
tion. It is impossible to keep up the 
play of words between 7rd\os-, irokelTai, 
7roXiTat, and ttoKis. Warned by the 
disasters of my predecessors, I have 
ventured to give a slightly different 
turn to the passage. 

186. MrjXm] About ten or eleven 
months before the production of this 
play, the Melians had been reduced by 
famine, and that treachery which is 
a natural result of famine, to surrender 
at discretion to their Athenian besiegers. 
They had wronged nobody, but the 
Athenians slew every adult male they 
captured, and enslaved all the women 
and children. That the expression 
°Kifi6s Mr}\co£ passed into a proverb is 

probably due to its occurrence here. 

187. iv /xeVo) yrjs] Meaning, as Beck 
observed, iv pio-co y^? kcu ovpavov, between 
Heaven and Earth. " So, in Aesch. 
Choeph. 61, iv peraixpico o~kotov is iv 
/xerat^/xicp o~kot ov kcu (pdovs, i in the 
twilight,' the debateable space for which 
light and darkness contend. *' Green. 
So, in the Apocalypse iv. 6, the words iv 
fieo-co rod 6p6vov should be translated, 
not "in the midst of the throne," but 
" in the mid-space between the throne 
and the glassy sea," which had just been 

189. Boicotovs SLoSov] As Boeotia ex- 
tended from sea to sea to the north of 
Attica, the Athenians could hold no 
communication by land with Pytho 
(Delphi) or any other part of Northern 



Hoop. Station ? Pel As one should say, their habitation. 
Here while the heavens revolve, and yon great dome 
Is moving round, ye keep your Station still. 
Make this your city, fence it round with walls, 
And from your Station is evolved your State. 
So ye'll be lords of men, as now of locusts, 
And Melian famine shall destroy the Gods* 

Hoop. Eh ! how ? Pel The Air's betwixt the Earth and Sky. 
And just as we, if we would go to Pytho, 
Must crave a grant of passage from Boeotia* 
Even so, when men slay victims to the Gods, 
Unless the Gods pay tribute, ye in turn 
Will grant no passage for the savoury steam 
To rise through Chaos, and a realm not their's* 

Hoop. Hurrah ! 

O Earth ! ods traps, and nets, and gins^ and snares, 

Greece, except through Boeotia. Thus 
in the war between Athens and Philip 
of Macedon, each of the combatants 
applied, or talked of applying for a 
passage through Boeotia. According to 
Aeschines (adv. Ctes. 151, p. 75) Demo- 
sthenes proposed that the Athenians 
should send ambassadors to Thebes 
alrr](TovTas diobov em &iknnrov. Whilst 
the friends of Philip, according to 
Demosthenes (De Corona 270, p. 299), 
urged the Thebans to requite the many 
wrongs they had suffered from Athens, 
either by giving his troops a passage 
through their territory into Attica, or 
by themselves joining in the invasion, 
rj buevTas avrovs e(£' rjfias, § o-vvefiftak- 
Xovras els rr)V 'Attiktjv. Cf. Id. 186, 

p. 276. 

193. Kviaav] The savoury steam, arising 
from the sacrificial meats. Kvla-q d' ov- 
pavbv Xk€v ekiaaoyiivr} ire pi Kcnrva (And 
the savour enwreathed with the smoke 
streamed up to the heavens afar. Way), 
11. i. 317. And similar expressions are 
of course very common in Homer. 
Lucian in Icaromenippus 27, speaking 
of the banquets of the Gods, says fxaXiora 
fjdovTai airovfjievoL rbv £k tcop Svcloop kuttvov 
avrjj Kvlcrrj avrjveyfJLWOv, Kai ro aifia t5>v 
tepeiW, 6 rols /3o>/a(H9 ol Bvovres irepixeovcri. 
The preceding line Sia rrjs 7roXeo)s k.t.X. 
occurs again infra 1218, and is by many 
thought, with some probability, to be a 
mere interpolation here. 

194. ve<pe\as] These were very fine 
nets, used for entrapping small birds, 
see the note infra 527. to. 7rpoa-Tvx6vra 


prj 'yob vbr\\jLa Kop^brepov r\Kovcrd ttcd* 195 


el £vi/8okol7] Toicriv dXXoi? bpveois. 
IIEI. tls av ovv to itpayp avrols 8ir\yr\aairo ; EII. crv. 

eyob yap avrovs fiapfidpovs ovras rrpb rod 

e8i8a£a rr\v cpoovrji', £vvcbv woXvi/ ypbvov. 200 

IIEI. noos Sfjr av avroij? ^vyKaXeaeias ; EII. paSioos* 

Sevpl yap ep(3d$ avrcKa pdX' e? tv\v Xbxpyv, 

eireir dveyelpas ttjp eprjv drjSova, 

KaXovpev avrov$ % ol 8e vZv rod (pdeyparos 

edvirep inaKovo-oao-L, devcroprai Spbpcp. 205 

IIEI. <» (p(\Tar opviQcov crv pr\ pvp ecrraQr 

dXX' dvTif!So\(o cr ay <x>$ rdyjiVT es ttjp Xb)(prjp 

ecr(3acpe Kapeyeipe rr\p drjSbpa. 

EII. dye crvvvope pot iravcrac pep vttvov, 


ovs Sid Beiov CTTopaTOS Oprjpeh, 
top kpbp Kal crop 7roXv8aKpvp"Irvp 
kXeXigopeprj 8iepoT$ peXecrtp 

yevvos £ov6rj$. 
KaOapd -^copei Sid cpvXXoKopov 215 

a>jAvvov f says the Scholiast, fxa yrjv, fia wife, his own nightingale (rqv i^v 

Kprjvas, fia irorafiovs, [fia raftara]. See drjbova) is supposed to be still slumber- 

Plutarch (Lives of the Ten Orators), ing there. So partial is the nightingale 

Demosthenes 19. to copses and thickets that it has been 

202 Xoxjutj*/] This is the little copse, proposed to give the name of " thicfet 

which, as we have seen in the note on warblers " to this and some foreign 

92 supra, was partly outside, and partly species of similar habits, to distinguish 

within, the aperture through which them from the garden or fruit-eating 

the Hoopoe, had made his entrance on warblers. Harting's " Our Summer Mi- 

the stage. He had previously been grants," p. 32. . 
sleeping in the copse, and Procne his 209. aye a-vwofie fxoi] The Hoopoe 


This is the nattiest scheme that e'er I heard of ! 

So with your aid I'm quite resolved to found 

The city, if the other birds concur. 
Pel And who shall tell them of our plan ? Hoop. Yourself. 

O they're not mere barbarians, as they were 

Before I came. I've taught them language now. 
Pel But how to call them hither ? Hoop. That's soon done, 

I've but to step within the coppice here, 

And wake my sleeping nightingale, and then 

We'll call them, both together. Bless the birds, 

When once they hear our voices, they'll come running. 
Pel You darling bird, now don't delay one instant. 

O I beseech you get at once within 

Your little copse, and wake the nightingale ! 

(The Hoopoe's Serenade.) 

Hoop. Awake, my mate ! 

Shake off thy slumbers, and clear and strong 
Let loose the floods of thy glorious song, 
The sacred dirge of thy mouth divine 
For sore- wept Itys, thy child and mine ; 
Thy tender trillings his name prolong 
With the liquid note of thy tawny throat ; 

now commences his serenade ; though infra 312, 330, 678, 1756. 

possibly the very reason why he dis- 212. "irw eXeXtfo/xeV?;] The ancients 

appeared into the wood before he discerned in the nightingale's song 

commenced it, was that, as in the some notes which seemed to syllable 

Cambridge representation of the Greek the name of Itys, just as our Elizabethan 

play, the song might really be sung by poets fancied that they could detect in 

a more specially qualified singer. If it the cry of "Tereu! Tereu!" 

we were speaking of human beings Tereus ! Tereus ! With the general 

crvwofie would mean simply my partner, language of the passage compare 744 

my mate; but in this play it involves infra, and Eur. Helen. 1111. 
the idea of one who feeds with me ; see 



<r/xi\aKos r)X.Q) 7rpbs Aib? eSpas, 
iv 6 Xpvo-OKOfias $oi/3o$ dfCOVCDlt 
T0T9 vols eXeyois dvTi^rdXXcov 
k\e(pavT68erov (f>6pp,iyya decoy 
icrrrjari ^opovs' Sua S' aOavdrcov 
(TTOfidTGov xc°P e i £v/i<Ixx>po? 6/xov 
Beta fiaKapcov oXoXvyrj. 
E¥. co Zev fiao-iXtv tov (pdiy/jLaros Tovpvidiow 
otov KCLTefieXiTCDcre 7r\v \oyjir\v oXrjv. 


IIEI. oviro^r p.eXcoSeii' av TrapaaKevdgtTai. 


ET. TiSac; 

216. o-fiikaKos] The honeysuckle, pro- 
bably not our common honeysuckle or 
Woodbine, but the so-called Italian honey- 
suckle. Its flower is white and fragrant 
like a lily ; avOos XevKov Kal cvabes, 
XeLpivov, Theophrastus, iii. 18. (11) ; 
"flore candido, olente lilium," Pliny, 
N. H. xvi. 63; "the flowers are white 
and have a very fragrant odour" (of 
the Italian honeysuckle), Miller and 
Martyn. Its berries are like those of 
the nightshade. Theoph. ubi supra. 
It is irepiaXkoKavkos, i.e. it twines itself 
about other stems, Theoph. vii. 8. (1), 
and is by Pliny compared to the ivy 
and clematis, " similitudinem hederae 
habet, tenuioribus foliis," xvi. 63 and 
xxiv. 49. Euripides, too, couples it with 
ivy in Bacchae 108 and 702. And 
Aristophanes speaks of its fragrance in 
Clouds 1007. The nightingale here, 
like Beatrice in the play, " is couched 
in the woodbine coverture." Of course 

the name fukag or cr/uAa£ is applied 
also to other trees. 

217. IV 6 xP V(T0K ^ as ] Aristophanes 
would seem to be imitating (not cari- 
caturing, though perhaps in the first 
Parabatic Antistrophe 769-83 infra he 
may be caricaturing) some Lyrical con- 
ceit as to the music of earth ascending 
to and commingling with the melodies 
of heaven. The golden hair was so 
distinguishing an attribute of Apollo, 
that 6 Xpva-oKofjiTjs (or rather 6 XpvaroKo- 
/xa?, for the poets love the Doric form) 
is used by Pindar and others almost as 
if it were the proper name of the God. 
Francis Phoebus, the young King of 
Navarre in the fifteenth century of our 
era, was supposed, though apparently 
by mistake, to have "derived his cog- 
nomen of Phoebus from the golden 
lustre of his hair," Motley's Ferdinand 
and Isabella, i. 10. It was Phoebus who 
responded in heaven to the nightingale's 



Through the leafy curls of the woodbine sweet 
The pure sound mounts to the heavenly seat, 
And Phoebus, lord of the golden hair, 
As he lists to thy wild plaint echoing there. 
Draws answering strains from his ivoried lyre, 
Till he stirs the dance of the heavenly choir, 
And calls from the blessed lips on high 
Of immortal Gods, a divine reply 
To the tones of thy witching melody. 

(The sound of a flute is heard within, imitating the nightingale's song.) 

Eu. O Zeus and King, the little birdie's voice ! 

O how its sweetness honied all the copse ! 
Pel Hi ! Eu. Well ? Pel Keep quiet. Eu, Why ? Pel The Hoopoe here 

Is going to favour us with another song. 

song upon earth, because to him the 
whole race of birds was specially sacred, 
Tcav to tcov opviOav <j)v\ov dvelrat r<» 0ec5 
rude. Aelian, H. A. vii. 9. Cf. Aesch. 
Agamemnon 55. 

219, iXecfravToferov] " Ivory-clasped," 
Caiy . The setting was of ivory, but the 
instrument was of gold. For this is 
the great xP vcr ^ a fyopwy^ of the Gods, 
of which Hesiod sings in the Shield of 
Heracles 203, Pindar in the First Pythian, 
and Aristophanes again in Thesm. 327. 
It was one of the chief joys of the 
heavenly banquets, when Apollo struck 
upon the lyre, and the Muses chimed in 
with their lovely voices, and the Gods 
wove the holy dance. Iliad i. 603 ; 
Hesiod ubi supra. That the conjunc- 
tion of gold and ivory was deemed 
appropriate for the highest and most 
divine purposes is shown by the use of 

these materials in the great master- 
pieces of Pheidias, such as the Athene 
of the Parthenon and the Zeus of 

After 222. auXei] Tovro TrapemyeypanTai 
(is a TrapemypcKfir) or, stage-direction), 
8rj\ovv otl (jLLfxelTai ris ttjv dr)86va as en 
evbov ovo-av iv rfj \6xp>y* — Scholiast. The 
nightingale's song is throughout repre- 
sented by the flute, for so av\6s must 
be translated, widely as it differs from 
the modern flute. Here it is heard 
alone, and fills the whole copse with 
sweetness ; KarefiekLraxre' fjftvTrjTos eVX^- 
paxre.— Scholiast. Five lines below, it 
accompanies the voice of the Hoopoe, 
or his substitute, as he sings the joint 
Bird-call. And, later again, it accom- 
panies the recitative of the Coryphaeus 
in the Parabasis proper. See infra 

30 O P N I E £ 

EII. €7ro7ro7roTro7ro7ro7ro7ro7ro? 3 

LCO, tO), ITCD, LT(0, LTGd, ITCO, 

ltoo Tis 3>8e tg>i> efjLcov d/jL07rrepct)w 

oaoi r evcnropovs aypoiKoov yvas 230 

ve/jLeaOe, <f>vXa jivpia KpiOoTp&yo&v 

aTrepjioXoycov re yivr) 
rayy 7rer6fji€i/a y fiaXOaKrjv ikvra yr\pvv 

Sera r kv dXoKi daficc 
fiobXov aiupiTiTTvfiifcff a><$€ X^tttov 235 

fjSofjLeva (fxDva* 
rib Tib Tib Tib Tib Tib Tib tio. 
Sera & v[ia>v Kara K-qnovs km kktctov 

KXdSea-i vopibv eyei y 
rd re /car opea tol re KOTivorpdya Ta re Ko/jiapocftdya, 240 

aiware weTofieva npbs kphv avSdv 

TpiOTO TpiOTO T0T0/3pi£' 

oi & iXeias Trap avXS>va$ dgvo'To/jiovs 

kjiTriSas KaiTTeff , ocra t evSpoaovs yfj$ T07rov$ 245 

%X €T€ ^tytovu T> kpoevTa M-apaOcovos, op- 

227. eVo- k.t.X.] Here follows the the purpose for which the assembly is 

Bird-call, which, after the general convened. 

exclamations of the first two lines, 229. tcqp efiav bp.oirrkp(av\ That is 

divides itself naturally into three sections, hoopoes. The line itself may possibly 

They summon, first, land-birds from the be borrowed from some tragic play, 

farm, the hill, the garden, and the where, however, o/xon-repooi/ would mean 

shrubbery, lines 229 to 242. Then, with simply " comrades." 

a sudden change to creties and paeonics 232. (nr^p/jLoXoycov] 27rep/xo\oyos is the 

(which include one Fourth Paeon w w ^ — specific name of the rook, cf. infra 

cx^re Xei-) they call on the birds which 579 ; but here the expression o-Trepfiokoyaiv 

haunt the marshes and swamps, 243 to ykvt] shows that the name is not to be 

249. And finally, with another change restricted to one particular species, but 

to dactylics, they summon the sea-birds, extends to all birds that gather up the 
winding up with an announcement of 


{The Bird-call by the Hoopoe and Nightingale conjointly ; the Nightingale 1 s song being imitated, 

as before , by the flute.) 

Hoop. Whoop-ho ! Whoop-ho ! Whoop-hoop-hoop-hoop-hoop-ho ! 
Hoi ! Hoi ! Hoi ! Come, come, come, come, come ! 

(The land-birds.) 
Come hither any bird with plumage like my own ; 
Come hither ye that batten on the acres newly sown, 

On the acres by the farmer neatly sown ; 
And the myriad tribes that feed on the barley and the seed, 
The tribes that lightly fly, giving out a gentle cry; 
And ye who round the clod, in the furrow-riven sod, 
"With voices sweet and low, twitter flitter to and fro, 

Singing, tw, tio, tio, tiotinx ; 
And ye who in the gardens a pleasant harvest glean, 
Lurking in the branches of the ivy ever green ; 
And ye who top the mountains with gay and airy flight ; 
And ye who in the olive and the arbutus delight ; 
Come hither one and all, come flying to our call, 

TriotOy trioto, totobrinx. 

** (The marsh-birds.) 

Ye that snap up the gnats, shrilly voiced, 

Mid the deep water-glens of the fens, 
Or on Marathon's expanse haunt the lea, fair to see, 

Or career o'er the swamps, dewy-moist, 

235. &6V] Thus, as I am going to show had these notes after the Hoopoe's 
you, referring to the no, ri6,rt6 which im- serenade, instead of the mere stage- 
mediately follows. It has often occurred direction avXet. 

to me, and I see that the same idea has 244. dgvcrrofiovs] Tas 6£v aSovaras. — 

occurred to Wieseler also, that, both Scholiast. And so I have translated it. 

here and elsewhere, when the birdnotes But it probably means sharply-biting ; as 

are reached the singer suddenly pauses, it must do in the two lines of the 

and the flute alone is heard, mimicking Prometheus in which it occurs, 692 and 

the warble of the nightingale. But if 822. 

this were so, we should probably have 247. Mapa02>vos] The marshes of 

32 OPNI0E2 

Vl$ 7rT€pvy07TOlKl\6s T 

CLTTayas drrayas, 

&V T kirl TTovTiov ocS/xa daXdcro-r]? 250 

<pvXa fier akKvovevcri iroTarai^ 
Sevp lt€ 7T€V(r6/jiepoL rd veoorepa, 
irdvra yap kvOdSe (frvX* dOpotgofxev 
oI<jhvS>v ravaoSeiptov. 

rjKei ydp tl$ Spirit? 7rp£(r(3v9 255 

Kaivbs yvobfjirji/, 
Kaiv&v epyoav r ey)(€ip7]TrJ9i 
aAX* it €9 Xoyovs airavTa, 
Sevpo, Sevpo, Sevpo, Sevpo, Sevpo, 


KiKKafiav KiKKafiav, 


IIEI. opa$ tlv opviv ; ET. p,d tov 'AttoXXco 'yob jiev oi! % 

KaiTOi K€\r]i/d y is top ovpavov (iXeTro&v. 
IIEI. aXXm dp ovrroyfr, m ioiK , ey Trjv X6)(fir]v ^65 

Marathon are famous in history, as fevyovres elaiv ol ftdpftapoi, kcu is to 

having played a conspicuous part in the e\os aOovvres aWrjXovs. Id. xv. 4. 

traditions of the great battle. Near one Modern travellers, such as Bp. Words- 

of them the chief slaughter of the Medes worth of Lincoln and Col. Mure, notice 

took place ; %vti de iv ra> Mapa6a>vi Xifivrj two principal morasses, one on the 

to. 7roXXa eXafys' is Tamrjv aneipia tg>v northerly, and the other on the 

6§<ov favyovres ia-irmTovcriv ol fidpfiapoi, Kal southerly, district of -'the lovely mead 

o-(fnai tov (fiovov tov 7ro\vv im tovtg) arvp.- of Marathon." 

(3rjvai \eyovo-iv. Pausanias, Attica xxxii. 251. jjlct akKvovecro-i] This is taken, as 
6. And in one of the battle-paintings the Scholiast points out, from the well- 
on the Poecile, the Medes were repre- known Wish of Alcman (No. 26 in 
sented, in the hurry of their flight, Bergk's collection of the fragments of 
pushing one another into the morass ; that poet), 


And the bird with the gay mottled plumes, come away, 
Francolm ! Francolm ! come away ! 

{The sea-birds.) 

Ye with the halcyons flitting delightedly 
Over the surge of the infinite Sea, 
Come to the great Revolution awaiting us. 
Hither, come hither, come hither to me. 
Hither, to listen to wonderful words, 
Hither we summon the taper-necked birds, 

For hither has come a shrewd old file, 
Such a deep old file, such a sharp old file, 
His thoughts are new, new deeds he'll do, 
Come here, and confer with this shrewd old file. 
Come hither ! Come hither ! Come hither ! 
Toro-toro-toro-torotinx ! 
Kikkabau, Kikkabau ! 
Toro-toro^-toro-toro-lililinx ! 

Pel See any bird ? Eu. By Apollo no, not I, 

Though up I gaze with mouth and eyes wide open. 
Pel Methinks the Hoopoe played the lapwing's trick, 

Fain, fain would I be 
A Cerylus, flitting for ever 

With halcyons over the sea ; 
The bird with a vesture of purple, 

And a heart unimpassioned and free. 

os r eVi Kvfiaros avOos afi d\Kv6v€(rai no- Greek ear sounded eVot, to the Latin, 

Tarai. upu, andto the English, hoop, iira&iv is 

265. outto^ irrctCe] The hoopoe whooped. derived from eVot, as olfi&fciv from otyoi, 

The Greek name e^oi//-, the Latin upupa, and the expression eno^ eVwfe is there- 

and the English hoopoe, are all derived fore similar to the kokkv£ kokkv&i of 

from the note of the bird, which to the Hesiod (Works and Days 486). 



e/i^ds €7rcb£€ xapaSpibv pipov/Jieuos. 
EII. ropoTig Toporig. 
IIEI. 3>yd6* dXX* ovv ovrocrl teal 8fj ris opvis tpytrai. 

ET. VT) At* OpVIS SiJTGL. TL$ 7T0T kvTlV \ 0\) SrjTTOV Td£>S J 

IIEI. ovros avros va>v (fypdaei* ris lariv opvis ovtoctl; 270 

En. ovros ov rcov rjddScov tcovS' 3>v opaff v/ieis del, 

dXXd XijivaTos. ET. (3a/3al KaXos ye kclI <j>oivikiovs. 
En. eiKorcos* Kol yap ovoji avT<£> y eo-rl ^oiviKoirrepos. 


nEI. vrj AC erepos Sfjra xovtos e£e8pov y&pav ex® 1 *- 275 

ris ttot eaO* 6 povo~6fiavTis droiros opvis opifidrrjs ; 


266. x a P a $P L ° p pipovpevos] The Bird- 
call has met with no response, and 
Peisthetaerus suggests that just as the 
plover, to divert attention from her 
nest, flies to some distant spot, and calls 
as if to her young, where her young are 
not; so the Hoopoe has gone into the 
copse, and whooped for birds where 
no birds are. This artifice, though 
most commonly attributed to the lap- 
wing (" Far from her nest the lapwing 
cries Away "), is not confined to her, 
but is employed also by others of the 
Charadriadae, such as the Ringed 
Plover and the Golden Plover. It is 
in the absence of response, and not in 
its tone, that the Bird-call is said to 
resemble the cry of the lapwing. The 
Commentators have missed the sense of 
the words. We may be sure that the 
Bird-call, associated as it was with the 
nightingale's song, was intended to be 
the perfection of melody, and could not 
be likened, as they suggest, to the 

" harsh screaming of the curlew." 

26 1 ?. Toporlg ropoTig] Some think that 

these notes are uttered by the approach ■ 

ing flamingo, but almost all the MSS. 

and the older editions assign them to 

the Hoopoe, associated, of course, with 

the nightingale's song. And, in my 

opinion, this is quite right. Nowhere 

throughout the play are these bird-notes 

given without the accompaniment of 

the flute. It may be that the flute does 

not play them without the assistance of 

the singer's voice, see the note on 235 

supra ; but it is certain that the 

vocalists (whether the Hoopoe or the 

Chorus) do not sing them without the 

assistance of the flute. In the Bird-call, 

the Hoopoe, who has taught the birds 

human language, first addresses them 

with the human voice; but finally he 

calls them in their own notes ; KiKKafiav 

for example, imitates the cry of the owl, 

from which the bird derives its modern 

name KovKovfiayia, Dodwell, ii. 43. ras 



Went in the copse, and whooped, and whooped for nothing. 

Hoop. Torotinx ! Torotinx. 

Pel Comrade here's a bird approaching, coming to receive our visit. 
Eu. Aye by Zeus, what bird do you call it ? Surely not a peacock, is it ? 
Pel That the Hoopoe here will teach us. Prithee, friend, what bird is he ? 
Hoop. That is not a common object, such as you can always see ; 

That's a marsh-bird. Eu. Lovely creature ! nice and red like flaming" flame. 
Hoop. So he should be, for Flamingo is the lovely creature's name. 

Eu. Hi there ! Pel What ? The row you're making ! Eu. Here's another, full in view. 
Pel Aye by Zeus, another truly, with a foreign aspect too. 

Who is he, the summit-ascending, Muse-prophetical, wondrous bird ? 

yXavKas ovtg> (pave'iv Xeyovtri, says the 
Scholiast. As the birds do not immedi- 
ately answer, the Hoopoe and Nightin- 
gale again give a little warble in the 
bird's language. 

268. opvis] The twenty-four members 
of the Chorus do not commence their 
entrance until line 294 infra. But 
before they come, four birds enter 
singly, pass before the audience, and 
disappear on the other side. They 
are described as the (fioiviKonTepos, the 
MjjSo?, the younger eVo^, and the kcltm- 
(fiayas. The (poiviKoirTepos, the <j)oivi- 
KOTTTepos NeiX«o? of Heliodorus (vi. 3), 
the phoenicopterus ingens of Juvenal 
(xi. 139), is of course the "Common 
Flamingo.' 1 

274. & ore rot] The <re is governed by 
Ka\S> understood. Cf. infra 406, 657. 
cIkotods in the preceding line may be 
translated naturally. 

275. Z£ehpov x^P av ^X 05 *'] These are, 
strictly, words of augury, and are used 
by Sophocles in the Tyro in exactly the 


same sense as the opvis ovk iv alaiois 
edpais of Euripides (Madness of Heracles 
596), the sight of which convinced 
Heracles that some trouble had befallen 
his house ; " a bird appearing in an 
inauspicious quarter." "Egedpov* tov 
ovk aiaiov olcovov, ovk zvQztqv opviv, ovk iv 
beovri rr\v ehpav %x ovTa * Hesychius. The 
Scholiast says, ck rrjs "2o(f)OK\eovs bevrepas 
Tvpovs apxiy " Tts Qpv 1 * ovtos,' ef-ehpov 
X&pav exw," Aristophanes, however, 
appears to use the words in a different 
signification, " occupying an out-of-the- 
way place," that is "belonging to a 
foreign land." 

276. piovo-ofJLavTis] Bard -prophetical. 
The description in the preceding line 
was borrowed from Sophocles ; the 
present line, the Scholiast informs us, 
is taken from a line in the Edonians 
of Aeschylus, which he gives as tis nor 
%o~ff 6 fiovcrofiavTis, aXahos, aftpciTcvs ov 
<rdevu; but which should probably be 
written ris ttot %.o~& 6 povaronavTis, a\a\os, 
appopdrrjs avr\p ; Who is He, the delicate- 









6vop.a tovtco MfjSo? kern. nEI. MfjSos ; aW£ 'HpdicXeis* 
elra ncos avtv KafirjXov M.fj8o$ aV kcrerrraTO \ 
erepo9 av X6<pov Kar€t\tj(j)do9 tis opvis ovroxri. 
ri rb re pas tovti ttot korriv ; ov av p'ovo? dp' rjcrff €7ro\}f , 
dXXd x o vtos (-T€pQ9 ; En. ovroal p.iv kari QiXoicXiovs 
e£ eTTOiros, ey& Se tovtov Trd-mro?, cScnre/3 el Xiyo&s 
'Ittttovlkos KaXXiov Ka£ ^ttttovlkov KaXXiay. 
KaXX/ay dp o5ro? ovpvis kariv a>? iTTepoppvti. 
are yap aV yevua?09 V7rb tcov avKocfyavTcov riXXerai, 
at T€ drjXeiat irpoaeKriXXovaiv avrov rd nrepd. 
. c5 YlooreiSov %repo$ av ri$ fiaTrrbs opvis ovroaL 
TL9 6vofid£eTai iroff o5ro? ; En. ovroal Kara>(f)aya$. 



treading, Muse-prophetical, wordless man? 
We know that the " Edonians " con- 
tained a scene in which Dionysus is 
brought before, and cross-examined by 
Lycurgas, the Edonian king (see the 
note on Thesm. 135), and doubtless the 
line cited above referred to the same 
newly-arrived divinity. Aristophanes 
changes aXaXos into aronos to show that 
the cock (the Ilepo-iKos- opvis, here called 
MrJSosOis not oneof the ordinary domestic 
sort, but a foreign outlandish bird. 
afipofidrr}? again is changed into dpt- 
fiarr]s, possibly because the cock was 
considered eViriJSfto? oIkciv eVi nerpav, 
infra 836. 

278. avev KafirjXov'] That there were 
camels in the great army of invasion 
which Xerxes led into Europe is well- 
known; Hdt. vii. 86. And probably 
that was the first time that these animals 
had been seen in Hellas. 

282. Tramros] We must imagine three 
generations of hoopoes ; (1) the speaker, 

who considers himself the Tereus of 
Sophocles, supra 101 ; (2) the Tereus or 
hoopoe of Philocles. (The Scholiast tells 
us that Philocles, as to whom see the 
note on Wasps 462, exhibited a tetra- 
logy known as the HavbwvXs, one of the 
four plays being the Trjpevs or v Etto^) 
(3) the dilapidated creature now before 
them. The object of this little fictitious 
pedigree is to show that the grandfather 
and grandson both bore the same name, 
and so to afford an opportunity for 
a fling at Callias. The intermediate 
name, the name of the father, is for this 
purpose unimportant. 

283. KaXXi'ns] The custom of naming 
the eldest boy after his grandfather, 
and so creating an alternation of family 
names, was common enough amongst the 
Athenians, and was especially conspicu- 
ous in this illustrious House, the head of 
which was the hereditary npogcvos of 
Sparta, and the hereditary dadovxos at 
the Eleusinian mysteries. f The present 



Hoop. He's a Median. Pel He a Median ! Heracles, the thing's absurd. 
How on earth without a camel could a Median hither fly ? 
Here they're coming ; here/ s another, with his crest erected high. 
Goodness gracious, that's a hoopoe ; yes, by Zeus, another one ! 
Are not you the only Hoopoe ? Hoop. Fm his grandsire ; he's the son 
Of the Philoclean hoopoe : as with you a name will pass, 
Callias siring Hipponicus, Hipponicus CalliaSi- 
O then that is Callias is it ? How his feathers moult away ! 

Hoop. Aye, the simple generous creature, he's to parasites a prey. 

And the females flock around him 5 plucking out his feathers too. 

Pei. O Poseidon > here's another ; here's a bird of brilliant hue ! 

What's the name of this, I wonder. Hoop. That's a Glutton styled by us. 



representative was the profligate and 
prodigal Callias here mentioned, who 
dissipated its wealth and terminated its 
glory. He was a familiar figure in 
Athenian literature. In his house Plato 
laid the scene of his " Protagoras," and 
Xenophon the scene of his " Symposium." 
He was one of the accusers of Andocides 
"in the matter of the Mysteries " ; and 
that orator, in his Defence (130, 131), 
alleges that when his father Hipponicus 
(who fell at the battle of Delium b. c. 
424) was at the height of his fame and 
fortune, there was a nursery legend 
that the House was haunted by an 
avenging Curse which would bring it 
to absolute ruin. That legend, says 
Andocides, has come true ; that Curse is 
this dissolute Callias, who has over- 
turned the wealth, the honour, and the 
substance of his father's house. He 
dissipated his colossal fortune amongst 
parasites and women. Both are here 
mentioned. The parasites were lashed 

in the KoXctKts of Eupolis ; see the 
Introduction to the Peace. Callias is 
satirized again in Frogs 432 ; Eecl. 810 
where see the notes; 

288. KctToxfiayas] This is a fictitious 
bird, invented to throw ridicule upon 
Cleonymus. In the Knights he is de- 
rided as a glutton. In the Clouds, and 
ever afterwards, as a ptyacnris ; cf. infra 
1475. What occasioned this change ? 
In the interval between the composition 
of the two plays, about the time of the 
exhibition of the Knights, the battle of 
Delium occurred, whence the Athenians 
TrpoTpoirddrju e(pvyov (Strabo ix. 2. 7) ; 
and doubtless, in that headlong flight* 
Cleonymus, like many others, cast away 
his shield. Here the two charges are 
combined ; his voracity and his cowar- 
dice. There is a play in the following 
lines on the triple meaning of \6(f)or, 
the crest of a bird, the crest of a helmet, 
and the crest of a hill. 

28 OPNI0E2 

IIEL tern yap Karcocfrayds ri$ dXXos fj KXeoovvpLOS ; 

ET. Trots dp ovv KXeodWfJio? y ot>i> ovk drre^aXe rov X6(pov ; 290 

HE I. dXXa fievToi ris tto6' r) X6(pcocri$ r) rcov opvecov ; 

rj V2 rbv BtavXov rjXOov ; EIL Scnrep ol Kape? jxkv ovv 

€7rl X6(f)cou oIkovctlv 3>ydff dcrcfraXeias ovveKa. 
IIEL <» TI6(T€i8oi> ov% Spa? ocrov crvveiXeicrai kukop 

opveoav ; ET. 3>va£ "ArroXXov rod ve(pov$. ioii lov, 295 

ovS* ISetu er tcrff vtt avroZv 7T€T0/M€v(op rt)v ei'croSov. 
IIEL ovToal 7T€p8i£, kKeivocri ye vr) AC drrayd?, 

outoctl <$€ Trrjve.Xo'ty, €K€iurjl Si y o\Xkv&v, 
ET. ris yap kcrO' ovmcrOev avrr)$ ) IIEI. orris ewe; KetpvXo?. 
ET. KtipvXos yap kcrriv opvis ; IIEL ov yap eari ^TropyiXos; 300 

yavrr\i ye yXav£. ET. ri (fry 9 ; ris yXavK ' h6f)vag r\yaytv ; 
IIEL Kirra, rpvycbv, KopvSbs, eXeds, viroOvfih, 7T€pi(rrepd 9 

vepros, lepag, (f>drra, kokkv£, kpvOporrovs, KeftXrJTrvpis, 

292. SiovXov] In the 5/avXo? the com- 
petitors had not to run merely from 
point to point. They had to run to 
the further end of the course, round the 
turning-post there, and back to the line 
from whence they had started. — The 
birds, we were told before (supra 205), 
would "come running "; and as they 
run in with crests on their heads, they 
remind Peisthetaerus of the race run by 
armed men, which was well known at 
Athens, and was called the ottXitt}? 
dpo/Lto?, the runner being called SttXito- 
Spo/ios, Pollux iii. segm. 151. The 
Scholiast here says ol diavXobpofiovvres 
p,ed o7tX(ov rpt^ovcnv €X°vt€s Xotpov iiii 
rrjs K€(f>a\rJ9. biavXos Xeyerat 6 biTTov 
?X&>j/ rov bpopov ev rrj 7rop6ia, to 7r\r)pa>orai 
to o-rddiJi/ kcu V7roo-rp€^ai. The fleet 
Phayllus, to whom the old Acharnian 

charcoal-burner, according to his own 
account, ran a good second, was an 
67r\tTo8p6fjL09, see Acharnians 214 and 
the Scholiast there. 

293. eVi Xocjxov] It seems probable, 
as Beck suggests, that when the Greek 
colonists built their cities on the coasts, 
and beside the rivers, the native Carians 
retreated into the mountainous country, 
and erected forts on the hill-tops 
ao-(fia\elas ovveKa. It is a curious co- 
incidence, as ihe same commentator 
observes, that the Carians were the 
first to invent X6<j)ovs, crests on helmets. 
For this he refers to Strabo xiv. 2. 27, 
a passage founded on Hdt. i. 171. 

294. oaov kokov dpvecdv] What a plague 
of birds! These are the twenty* four 
members of the Chorus, all crowding in 
together. The term vtyos is employed 



Pel Is there then another Glutton than our own Cleonymus ? 
Eu. Our Cleonymus, I fancy, would have thrown his erest away. 
Pel But what means the crest-equipment of so many birds, I pray ? 

Are they going to race in armour ? Hoop. No, my worthy friend, they make 

Make their dwellings, like the Carians, on the crests for safety's sake. 
Pei, O Poseidon, what the mischief ! see the birds are everywhere 

Fluttering onward. Eu. King Apollo, what a cloud ! O ! O I look there, 

Now we cannot see the entrance for the numbers crowding in. 
Pei. Here you see a partridge coming, there by Zeus a f rancolin, 

Here a widgeon onward hurries, there's a halcyon, sure as fate. 
Eu. Who's behind her? Pet. That's a clipper; he's the lady halcyon's mate. 
Eu. Can a clipper be a bird then ? Pei. Sporgilus is surely so. 

Here's an owl. Eu. And who to Athens brought an owl, I'd like to know. 
Pei. Jay and turtle, lark and sedgebird, thyme-finch, ring-dove first, and then 

Bock-dove, stock-dove, cuckoo, falcon, fiery-crest, and willow wren, 

by Homer (Iliad xvii. 755) to describe 
a flock of birds, yj/apciv vc(j)os rje koXoigov. 
Cf. infra 578. Its use in the present 
passage is perhaps an indication that, in 
the following line, the words ttjv dcrobov 
are substituted napa. TrpovboKiav for rbv 
ovpavov, see Wasps 1084. The elaodos 
was the entrance by which the Chorus 
made their way into the orchestra. 
Aristophanes refers to it again, Clouds 
326, and in a fragment of the N^o-qi 
preserved by the Scholiast here. 

299. KtipvXos] The name KrjpvXos is 
changed into KeipvXos (as if from Kelpciv, 
to cut the hair) to raise a laugh against 
Sporgilus, who was a barber (icovpevs 
rjVy Scholiast), and doubtless also an 
opvis within the definition of Teleas 
supra 169, 170. As to the KrjpvXos, see 
the lines of Alcman in the note on 251 

supra. Divested of their mythical 
surroundings, the Cerylus and halcyon 
would be the male and female kingfisher. 
But as to all the bird-names, the reader 
is referred to the Introduction to the 

301. y\avK 'A&jvaf*] These little 
birds of Athene were so numerous at 
Athens, that " to carry owls to Athens " 
became a common saying, the equiva- 
lent, as has often been observed, of our 
" carrying coals to Newcastle." The 
first words of the letter which Lucian 
prefixed to his dialogue entitled 
"Nigrinus" are *H fiev irapoifiia ^r/crt, 
TXavKa els 'A#?)j>ay, as yeXolov op el tis efeel 
Kopifci yXavKas, on ttoXXcu nap avrols elcriv. 
And Hemsterhuys in his note on that 
passage collects several instances of the 
use of the proverb. 

40 O P N I E S 

nopobvph, KepX^TlSy KoXvfifth, dfiweXh, </>rjvri, Spvo^ 
ET. lov lov t&v opvecov, 305 

lov lov rcov Koyjrixtov 

ota inTnri£ov<Ti Kal rptyovcri SiaKtKpayoTes. 

ap direiXovoriit ye v£>v ; oipoi, Keyr\vaviv yi tol 

Kal fiXeTrovaiv eh ae Ka/xe. YIEI. tovto pev Kapol SoKeT. 
XO. 7ro7ro7ro7roTT07ro7T07roTToiroTTov p ap oy 310 

eKaXecre ; riva totvov dpa ttotI vepeTai ; 
EII. ovtoo-1 TrdXai irdpeipi kovk afroo-rarco fyiXav* 


TTpbs epe obiXov e-^wv ; 315 

EE[. Koivbv darobaXfj StKatov rjSiiv totyeXrjo'ipop. 

dvSpe yap XeiTTcb XoyiaTa Sevp' d([>L^6op d>$ epL 
XO. ttov ; ira ; was <prj$ ; 

EFT. </>rjjjL air dvOp&nodv d(pl\6aL Sevpo TTpecrfivTa Svo* 320 

rjKtTov &' %yovT€ rrpepvov irpdypaTOS TreXcoplov. 
XO. S> peyiaTOV e£apapTobv e£ otov Wpd^v kyoa, 

7ra>s Xeyeis; EEt. prJTrco (po$r)6jj$ tov Xoyov. XO. ti p elpydato; 
En. dvSp eSegdprjv epaaTd TrjorSe Ttjs £vvovcria$> 

XO. Kal SiSpaKas tovto Toijpyov\ En. Kal 8e8paKcb$y ijSopai. 325 
XO. Kao-Tou rj8r) ttov itap f rjpiv ; En. el nap vpiv eip 4yoS. 

XO. ea ea, [crTp. 

irpoBeSopeO* dvbvid r eirddopev' 
09 yap (pcXos r\v opoTpocjyd ff fjplv 

307. SiaKCKpayores] Shrieking one diopxqo-dfJLevos, Hdt. ix. 16 jbi(miv6vTa>Vy 

against the other, all trying which can and other passages. And see the notes 

scream the loudest. This is a common on Wasps 1248, 1481. 
meaning of Sm in compounds. Sm/ce/cpa- 308. /ce^ao-tv] The word, though 

yeVat is used in the same sense in specially appropriate to the open-beaked 

Knights 1403, where Mitchell refers to birds, would not be altogether unsuit- 

the present passage, and to Wasps 1481, able to aiiy excited and threatening 


Lammergeyer, porphyrion, kestrel, waxwing > nuthatch, water-hen. 
Eu. (Singing.) Oho for the birds, Oho ! Oho ! 

Oho for the blackbirds, ho ! 

How they twitter^ how they go, shrieking and screaming to and fro. 

Goodness ! are they going to charge lis ? They are gazing here, and see 

All their beaks they open widely. Pel That is what occurs to me. 
Chorus. Wh-wh-wh-wh-wh-wh-wh-wh-where may he be that was calling 

for me ? In what locality pastureth he ? 
Hoop. I am ready, waiting here ; never from my friends I stir. 
Chor. Te-te-te-te-te-te-te-te-teach me, I pray, in an amicable way, what 

is the news you have gotten to say. 
Hoop. News amazing ! News auspicious ! News delightful, safe, and free 1 

Birds ! Two men of subtlest genius hither have arrived to me. 
Chor. Who ! What ! When ! say that again. 

Hoop. Here, I say, have come two elders, travelling to the birds from man, 

And the stem they are bringing with them of a most stupendous plan. 
Chor. You who have made the greatest error since my callow life began, 

What do you say ? Hoop. Now don't be nervous. Chor. What is the thing 
you have done to me ? 
Hoop. I've received two men, enamoured of your sweet society. 
Chor. You have really dared to do it ? Hoop. Gladly I the deed avow. 
Chor. And the pair are now amongst us ? Hoop. Aye, if I'm amongst you now. 

Chor. O ! O ! Out upon you ! 

We are cheated and betrayed, we have suffered shame and wrong ! 
For our comrade and our friend who has fed with us so long, 

crowd, " Look at the populace below! blink the fact. His very first word 

how they murmur and gape, — and how discloses that the visitors he has enter- 

their eyes sparkle,— and what looks tained are men. Xenroi Xoyiora, subtle 

they bend at us/' says an alarmed reasoners, Xe7rrol els to Xoyio-aaBai. — 

noble in Lytton s Rienzi, Book II. Scholiast. Cf. Clouds 320, 1496 ; Frogs 

Chap. 3, 876, 1111. 
318* av8p€ ydp] The Hoopoe does not 

42 OPNI0E2 

€i>£fi€TO ireSia trap fjp?i>, 330 

Trapefiri pev Qeapovs dp^aiov?, 

irapkfii) 8 opKovs opviOmv 
h 8e 86Xov elareicdXevev, irap'efiaXev r ep\ napa 
yevos dvofftov, oirep e£6r eyever err e/xot 

iroXepiov €Tpd<pT], 335 

dXXa 7rpb$ tovtov ji\v fjpiv ecrriv vo-repos \6yo$* 

to) 8e jr pea f3vra 8oKel pot rmSe Sovvai ttjv 8ikt)v 

8ia<poprj6r}vai 6' v<p* rjpoov. IIEI. <*>? dnonXopecrff apa. 
ET. airios \ikvTOi (tv v&v el tg>v fcd/coof tovtcov p.6vo$. 

em ri yap ft eKeWev rjyes ; IIEI. tv dKoXovdotrjs efioi, 340 

ET. tva p.ev ovv Kkdoijii pieydXa. IIEI. tovto pev XrjpeTs eycov 

Kapra' rrcos KXavaei yap, f\v atra^ ye TQ>(f)6aXpa> 'kkott^s ; 

XO. im ia>, [dvr. 

eiray em& eirfyepe iroXep,iov 

opfiav qboviav, rrrepvyd re travra 345 

irepcfiaXe wept re KVKXaxrar 

coy 8ei Tootf olp,d>£eiv dpcjxo 

Kal Sovvai fivyyei <f>opfidv. 
ovre yap opos crKiepbv ovre veobos aiOepiov 
cvre iToXibv neXayos eariv o ti 8e£erai 350 

rd>8 diro<f>vy6vTe pe, 

dXXa p,rj peXXoap.ev tJSt] rd>8e rtXXeiv Kal SaKveiv. 
nod 'crff 6 Ta£(apyp$ ; eiray erco to 8e£ibv icepas. 

331. deo-povs dpxalovs] The old social customs upon which the fabric of 

customs of the Birds, the unwritten laws human society is based. See the Intro- 

by which the bird-communities have duction to the Thesmophoriazusae. 

from time immemorial been governed. 340. aKoXovdolrjs] That you might follow 

So the Goddesses Demeter and Per- me, second my designs, be my fidus 

sephone were worshipped under the Achates. There does not seem to be 

name of Occr/xo^opoe because it was any special allusion to the body-servant 

they who instituted the unwritten called clk6\ov6os, see Eccl. 593 and the 


He has broken every oath, and his holy plighted troth, 

And the old social customs of our clan. 
He has led us unawares into wiles, and into snares, 
He has given us a prey, all helpless and forlorn, 
To those who were our foes from the time that they were born, 

To vile and abominable Man ! 

But for him, our bird-companion, comes a reckoning by and by; 

As for these two old deceivers, they shall suffer instantly, 

Bit by bit we'll tear and rend them. Pel Here's a very horrid mess. 
Eu. Wretched man, "'twas you that caused it, you and all your cleverness ! 

Why you brought me I can't see. Pel Just that you might follow me. 
Eu. Just that I might die of weeping. Pel What a foolish thing to say ! 

Weeping will be quite beyond you, when your eyes are pecked away. 

Chob. On ! On ! In upon them ! 

Make a very bloody onset, spread your wings about your foes, 
Assail them and attack them, and surround them and enclose. 
Both, both of them shall die, and their bodies shall supply 

A rare dainty pasture for my beak. 
For never shall be found any distant spot of ground, 
Or shadowy mountain covert, or foamy Ocean wave, 
Or cloud in Ether floating, which these reprobates shall save 

From the doom that upon them I will wreak. 

On then, on, my flying squadrons, now is the time to tear and bite, 
Tarry ye not an instant longer. Brigadier, advance our right. 

note there. ciceWev means "from my Birds. See the Introduction to the 

home in Athens." Thesmophoriazusae. Asclepiades is de- 

348. bovvai pvyx*i (fropfidv] Uapa r6 scribed in the Scholia to Clouds 37 as 

Evptnldov e£- 'Ai/dpoficdas " itcOeivai KT)T€i 'A(TKXr]7riddT]g 6 'AXe^ai/Speu?, but we know 

(faopfiav" o>s 'A(TK\r)7riddr)s, to. firj^eirco nothing further about him. 
ftibaxGeicms Tpaynbia? TrapariQe^vos, — 353. ra^lapxpi] The ra£iapxoi were 

Scholiast. The Andromeda was not (under the crrpaTrjyol) the chief officers 

exhibited until three years after the in the Athenian infantry. They were 



ET. TOVT €K€lVO' 7T01 <pvy(0 Sv(TTr}V05 \ IIEI. OVTOS OV /A€V€IS ] 

ET. lv vtto rovTtov Sia<popr]6co ; IIEI. nm yap av tovtovs SoKeis 355 
€K<pvy€ty ; ET. qvk 0I8' onm av. IIEI. dXX' eya> tol <roi Xeyco, 
oti fiivovre Set pdyecrOai Xa/xftdveiv te t&p -^yrpcop. 

ET. ti Se xyrpa vd> y GKfreXrjcrei ; IIEI. yXav£ fiev ov Trpoaeicn vS>v. 

ET. tols Se yafiylra>vv£i toloSi; IIEI. rov SfieXiaKov apirdcra? 

€?ra KaTairrj^ov rrpb aavTod. ET. rotarc 5' dcpdaXfioL&t ri-, 360 

IIEI. d£v/3a<pov evTevOevl TrpoaOov Xafioov ?} TpvfiXiov. 

ET. <£ aocfH&TaT , ev y dvevpes avrb Kal a-TpaTrjyiKcos' 
virepaKovTigeis av y tjStj Nuciav rah fxrj^avai?. 

ten in number, one from each tribe, 
and each taxiarch was in command of 
the hoplites of his tribe, ol de <f>v\ap- 
^ot de/ca, ciy ano (^uAt)? eKaarrjs, to>v 
Imreoav irpoia-TavTaiy Kaddnep ol ra^iapxoi 
r&v SttXlt&v, Pollux viii. segm. 94. Cf. 
Id. segm. 87, and Aristotle's Polity of 
Athens, chap. 61. They have already 
been mentioned, Ach. 569, Peace 1172. 
6e£i6x> icepas, the right wing of an army, 
Knights 243. 

357. tu>v x VT P<»A They had brought 
but one x^ T P a with them (supra 43), 
and they employ but one x^ r P a for their 
defence (infra 386, 391). The plural 
tcov x VT P^ v seems to indicate that the 
latter x^ T P a was borrowed, as the spit 
and the platters were undoubtedly bor- 
rowed, from the culinary stores of the 
Hoopoe. For these articles constitute 
the " panoply " which is directed (infra 
435) to be carried back to the kitchen 
from whence it was taken. Probably 
the €KKVK\T)na (see the note on 92 supra) 
had thrown open not merely the Xo^»?, 
but also the kitchen, in which we shall 
find Peisthetaerus cooking during the 

visit of the Divine Envoys. In the 
present crisis the x^ T P a * s ne ^ hefore 
them as a defence against the enemy, 
until line 386, when it is set on the 
ground, and forms a rampart or breast- 
work over which the defenders may 
peer ; the spit is fixed in the ground 
with its point slanting outwards, as 
a sort of cheval defrise, if the expression 
is allowable ; whilst each of the adven- 
turers holds a platter close to his eyes, 
to protect them from the beaks and the 
claws of the assailants. 

358. y\av£ fiev ov Trpdcrcio-i] Why should 
the owl, in particular, be kept at bay by 
the xv T P a ? This is a question which 
cannot be answered with confidence : 
but perhaps the most probable explana- 
tion is that of Dobree, that the pot 
contained lighted fire which the bird of 
night would shun. See, as to the pot 
which the travellers brought with them 
from Athens, the note on 43 supra. Suidas, 
S. w. xyrpav Tpe(f)€ii/ f says eVi to>p reycop 
€Ti$€o~ay i oircos fj.rj Trpocrepx<*>VTai al yXavtccs. 
But an empty pot, without fire in it, 
would not scare the owls from the roof ; 



Eu. Here it comes ! I'm off, confound them. Pel Fool, why can't you remain with me ? 
Eu. What ! that these may tear and rend me ? Pel How can you hope from birds to flee ? 
Eu. Truly, I haven't the least idea. Pel Then it is I the affair must guide. 

Seize we a pot and, the charge awaiting, here we will combat side by side. 
Eu. Pot ! and how can a pot avail us ? Pel Never an owl will then come near. 
Eu. What of these birds of prey with talons ? Pel Snatch up a spit, like a hoplite's spear, 

Planting it firmly there before you. Eu. What shall I do about my eyes ? 
Pel Take a platter, or take a saucer, holding it over them buckler- wise, 
Eu. What a skilful neat contrivance ! O you clever fellow you, 

In your military science Nicias you far outdo ! 

and the verb rpefeiv may possibly point 
to the existence of fire in the x^rpa. 
The remark of one of the Scholiasts here, 
(fyofirirciL yap ttjv x^ T P av r ^ opvca dia to juc- 
\ap av-rw, is incomprehensible. Nor is 
the other more felicitous when he says 
ov dia rqv ^vrpay ov irpoceicnv' tovto yap 
Kotva>$ iravra tcl opvca (£ojSei* ak\a bia to 
'Attikov clvai to fo>oz/* 'Attikoi 8e Ka\ avroL 
For this would make the speech an 
independent observation, and not, as it 
evidently is, a reply to the question of 
Euelpides. And the explanations offered 
by the editors, that an owl perched on 
a pot was engraved on Athenian coins, 
or that these particular pots were 
stamped with an owl, seem very un- 
satisfactory. "Videtur mihi respicere 
ad ludum ilium qui dicitur xt/rpiV&z; 
quia Chorus paulo ante dicebat, se velle 
istos duos riWav vellicare, et mox v. 365 
dicit cXkc, Ti'XXe, TraU, delpe, kotttc irpwrrjv 
tt)v xvTpav, quod etiam ii\ illo ludo fieri 
solebat, Pollux ix. 113.- rj be xurpivSa' 
6 fi€V iv fieaco Kadr]Tai, ko\ KaXeirat x vT P a ' 
ol Se TiXXovtriv, rj TT€piKvi£ovcriv, r) kol 7rai- 
ova"tv avrov ircpiOtovTcs* 6 Se vn avrov tr*pi- 

crTpeqbofieuov TujqbQc)?, clvt avrov Ka0r)TaiJ' 
Bergler. This is ingenious, but there 
seems hardly room for an allusion of 
this kind. We shall find, presently, that 
the very first attack is made on the 


361. 6£vfia(f)ov] A small saucer, properly 
for holding vinegar (ogovs Scktucov 
o~k€vos, Athenaeus xi. chap. 87), fre- 
quently mentioned in the Comic Frag- 
ments. It was smaller, the Scholiast 
tells us, than the TpvfiXiov. See Pollux 
x. segm. 86. 

363. Nadav] Nicias, who about this 
time was commencing the campaign in 
Sicily, was famous for his tactical and 
engineering skill. Suidas (s.v. vnepa- 
Kovrifris) preserves two lines from the 
MovaTpo7ro£ of Phrynichus which, as 
corrected by Dr. Blaydes in his note on 
this passage, run 

a\\' vrr€pp€$\t]Ke woXv rbv NtKiav 
(TTpaT-qyia irXrjOet re twv tvprjuaTOiV. 

The Moporponos competed with the Birds 
(see on 11 supra) ; and doubtless the 
military skill of Nicias was a stirring 


XO. eXeXtXev \d>pu K<i ^ T ° fivX 0S ' oi /*&*«*' *XPW- 

eX/ce TiXXe 7raU Stipe, /coVre irp&rr]v ttjv \vTpav. 365 

EII. eiire pot ri piXXtT <5 navTcov KccKtaTa Orjpicov 
diroXiaai 7ra66vT€$ ovSev dvSpe Kal Siaariraacu 
rr\s i/ifj? yvvaiKos 6vt€ gvyyevie Kal (pvXera ; 

XO. (bzLcrofJLecrda yap tl T&>v8e pdXXov fjpeTs rj Xvkcov ; 

f} Tivas TL<jaipe& aXXovs tgqvS* av kydiovs <=tl; 370 

Ell. el Se ttjv <f)vcriv pev k\6pol tov Se vovv el<JLv (pLXoi, 
Kal 8i8d£ovTes tl Sevp' fjKOVO-LV V/JLCC9 xprjO-Ljiov. 

XO. ncos S y av 018 1 fj/ias tl ^prjcnpov SLSdgeidv 7rore ; 
fj (ppdaeLav, ovTes e^dpol toigl TrdjnroLS toIs epoTs ; 

EII. aXX' air kyQp&v SfJTa 7roXXoc pavOdvovcrLv ol <ro(f>OL. 375 

fj yap evXdfieia <roo£eL ndvTa' rrapa pev ovv tyiXov 
ov pdOoLS av tov6\ 6 8' e^8po9 evdvs egrjvdyKaaev. 
avTLV at noXeLS nap' dvSpcov y epaOov e^Opcov kov (jyiXcov 
eKirovelv & v^r-qXa Teiyj) vavs re KeKTrjcrOaL paKpdr 
to Se pdOrjpa tovto aoogeL iralSas olkov ^p-qpaTa. 380 

topic at this particular moment, in Ml speed upon the ranks of the enemy, 
view of the prospects of the Sicilian The Scholiast and Suidas describe it as 
expedition, and the projected siege of an imQBeypa tto\^lk6w Kalyapoiirpovi- 
Syracuse. It is most improbable that ovres els iroX^ov t6 e'XeXeX™ i^bvow fiera 
he had taken any part, as the Scholiast twos i^fUKovs Kirfcrem (rhythmical move- 
suggests, in the recent siege of Melos. ment). Plutarch (Theseus chap. 22) says 
Bergler refers to the account given in it was a cry which <nrcfoovres avaQwtip 
Thuc. iii. 51 of his seizing the island of km irauovLCovres el&Bao-iv. Suidas, s. v. 
Minoa off the coast of Megara, after cites some iambics from the " Philo- 
capturingthe two projecting towers ctetes in Troyland" of the tragedian 
MXavalsiKdakdao-rjs. AstxybircpaKovTiteiv, Achaeus (as to whom see the notes 
to outshoot, that is, toow^o,cf. Knights on Frogs 184; Thesm. 161) in which 
659 * Plutus 666. Agamemnon is exhorting the Achaeans 

364. eAeXeXeO] This is no mere inven- to hurl themselves against the foe. 

tion of the bird-chorus ; it was the wpa ^orjOeTv ear- kyot 8' fjyrjaotiai. 

recognized war-cry with which Hellenic irpovpawira} ns x^P a <p^ydvov Aa^J, 

troops were encouraged, and encouraged adXmyyi V a\\os wj rd X os orjpxuvi™' 

each other, to precipitate themselves at &pa Ta X wctv, k\e\*\ev. 


Chor. Eleleleu ! advance ! no loitering ; level your beaks and charge away. 

Shatter the pot at once to pieces ; worry, and scratch, and tear, and flay ! 
Hoop. O, whatever is your purpose ? is your villainy so great, 

You would slay two worthy persons, kinsmen, clansmen, of my mate ? 

Men who never sought to harm you, would you tear and lacerate ? 
Chor. Why, I wonder, should we spare them, more than ravening beasts of prey ? 

Shall we ever find, for vengeance, enemies more rank than they ? 
Hoop. Enemies, I grant, by nature, very friends in heart and will ; 

Here they come with kindly purpose, useful lessons to instil. 
Chor. "What, they come with words of friendship? What, you really then suppose 

They will teach us useful lessons, they our fathers' fathers' foes ? 
Hoop. Yet to clever folk a foeman very useful hints may show ; 

Thus, that foresight brings us safety, from a friend we ne'er should know, 

But the truth is forced upon us, very quickly, by a foe. 

Hence it is that all the Cities, taught by foe, and not by friend, 

Learn to build them ships of battle, and their lofty walls extend ; 

So by this, a foeman's, teaching children, home, and wealth defend. 

Xenophon uses the word eXeX/few in r)\aka(ov, kol apa to. dopara KaBUaav. 

the special sense of "to raise the cry 368. ^vyyevee] 2u/x7rarpto>Ta, on kol rj 

eXeXeXei)." Thus, in describing the UpoKvt) 'Arn/c^ rjv, ILavdiovos Ovydrrjp. — 

commencement of the battle of Cunaxa, Scholiast. 

he says that a part of the Hellenic 369. Xvkcov] There was in olden times, 

phalanx finding itself being left behind the Scholiast tells us, a law passed for 

fjpi-aro dpofico 0€iv m Kai apa €(j)6ey£avTo killing wolves in Attica ; and whoever 

iravres, olov nep r<p 'Epvakito ekeXiCovai, killed a wolf's cub received 1 talent, 

Kai nacres Se Weov. Anabasis i. 8. 18 ; and whoever killed a full grown wolf, 

where Schneider quotes from Demetrius, 2 talents. If this were so, the value of 

de Elocutione, cap. 98 Sevocjiav fe rjXeXige a talent in those days must have been 

cj)Tj(nv 6 o-rpaTrjybs, rrjv rov eXcXeu dva- far less than its value in later times. 

(aorjcriv, fy aveftoacrT parrjy os avvex&s, irapa- 375. ol crocpoi] This indirect flattery was 

TToirjaas ovopaTi. — k6.0€s to pvyxos, level or intended to conciliate the Birds. And 

couch your beak ; speaking as though it does indeed seem to have blinded 

it were a spear. Dr. Blaydes refers them to the exceeding sophistry of the 

to the Anabasis vi. 3. 27 f) cra\iriy£ argument which follows. 
€(j>d€y£aTOj Kai iiraidvi^oVj kcl\ pera ravra 

48 QPNI0E2 

XO. earl fx\v Xoyoav aKovarai irp5>rov 9 coy r\[uv Sokci, 

Xprjtrifiov' /JidOoi yap av ti$ koltto t&v kyOp&v crocpov. 
IIEI. otSe ttJ9 opyrjs yaXav ti^aaiv. ay ay knl cKeXos^ 
Ell. Kal SiKaiov y earl Kafiol Set ye/ieiy vfids yapiv* 
XO. aXXa \ir\v ovS aXXo <roi rrco npayfi kvr\vrm\i^Qa, 385 

ITEI. jidXXov elprjvrjv ayovcriv tffiiv, &<tt€ ttjv yyrpav 
too T€ TpvfiXico KaOiei* 

Kal TO S6pV \P*I> T ° V 6$*Xl<TKOV, 

~ if /-' " ' < <--> 

irtpnrarziv €)(6i>Ta$ rjfias 

tg>v orrXecv evrbs, nap' avTtjv 390 

ttjv yyrpav aKpav Qp&vras 

|yyyy <2>y OV <f)€VKT€OV V&V. 

ET. erebv rjv 5* ap d7ro6di>Q)fi€v } 

KaTOpvyj](r6p.€a6a ttov yfjs ; 
ITEI. 6 KepafieLKos Sigerai. v&. 395 

STjfiocria yap tva Tatycofiev, 

<Prj(TOfl€V 7rpo? tovs (TTpaTTjyovs 

382. * airo rStv ixQp<*v\ Mr. Green cites oTpeyjsavTa ra vara, dXX' avTurpoo-awov tg>p 
the familiar words of Ovid (Met. iv. avrnrdXav viroxvpeiv els Toviricrot), xiv. 6 ; 
428), which have become proverbial and again, x ai P €LV 67ri o-KeXos' to oV/tr© 
among ourselves, Fas est et ab hoste dvaxa>p€?v,fjbrjd6vTaTo7sv7r€PapTLOiSTapa>Ta 9 
doceri, to which I may add Synesius, lxxii. 31. 

Ep. XCV *o-6i to 7rd\cu Xeyofievov " wf 395. 6 KepafieiKos] For there were 

ex0pa>v <ds €<ttip axpeXeio-Oai'* vvv Zpya buried, at the public cost, all those who 

(fraivopevov. had fallen in battle for Athens. All, 

383. avay in\ vkZKos] ''Kvayeiv iiri antel os with one notable exception. The men 
or eVi iroba means to draw back step by who fell at Marathon were, for their 
step with your face to the foe. The meaning pre-eminent valour, buried on the battle- 
is illustrated by the passages to which field which they had made for ever 
Bergler and Kock refer, Eur. Phoen. memorable. The proceedings in these 
1400; Xen. Cyropaedia vii. 5. 6; public funerals are fully recorded by 
Anabasis v. 2. 32 ; but is more clearly Thucydides (ii. 34), though instead of 
shown by two explanations cited by mentioning Cerameicus by name, he 
the latter commentator from Bekker's describes it as " the loveliest suburb of 
Anecdota ; dvaxopew iiti (tkcXos* to pr} Athens,'* to KaXXiorov irpodo-Teiop ttjs 



Chor. Well, I really think 'tis better that their errand we should know ; 

I admit that something useful may be taught us by a foe. 
Pel {To Eu.) Now their anger grows more slack ; now we had better just draw back. 
Hoop. (To Chor.) This is right and friendly conduct, such as I deserve from you. 
Chor. Well, I am sure that we have never gone against you hitherto. 
Pel Now they are growing a deal more peaceful, now is the time the pot to ground, 

Now we may lower the platters twain. 

Nay, but the spit we had best retain, 

Walking within the encampment's bound, 

Letting our watchful glances skim 

Over the edge of the pot's top rim ; 

Never a thought of flight must strike us. 
Eu. Well, but tell me, suppose we die, 

Where in the world will our bodies lie ? 
Pel They shall be buried in Cerameicus, 

That will be done at the public cost, 

For we will say that our lives we lost 

Gallantly fighting the public foe, 

TToXe©?. Harpocration, quoting from 
a speech of the orator Antiphon, 
observes that there was one Cerameicus 
within, and another without, the city 
walls ; and that in the outer Cerameicus 
tovs iv TToKifMO Te\evTJ](TavTas Wairrov 
drjfjLoo-La, ncti tovs iniTa^lovs (funeral 
Orations) eXeyov, cos drjXoi KaXXio-Tparos fj 
MeveKkrjs iv to irepi 'Adqvcov. And the 
Scholiast here gives the passage from 
the last-mentioned work; which says 
that, as you walk in the Cerameicus, 
€V0€v KCU evdev elori o~rr]XaL errl rois brjfioo'La 
TeOafXfievois. elal de ovtol oi vtto rod 

drjflOV da(j)6€VT€S (vulgO 7T€fJiC[)BeVT€s), ot iv 
aVTTJ TJj X^P? V7T€p T7JS 7r6\€Gi)S TtTcXtVTrj- 

Kao-iv, €Xovo~l 8c at (TTrjXai iiriypcxfras 
7rov eKaaros airidavev. One of these 

o-rrjXai, found in the outer Cerameicus, 
is now in the British Museum, being 
one of the " Elgin marbles." It con- 
tains a list of the soldiers who fell in 
the battle of Potidaea (Thuc. i. 62, 
63), together with their epitaph in 
sixteen elegiac lines. The Scholiast 
also suggests that in the word Kepa^eiKos 
there is a covert allusion to the K^papuKa, 
the pot and the platters, with which 
they are defending themselves, but such 
an allusion would be altogether out of 

397. <j)r)<T0fiev] The communication 
was necessarily to be a posthumous one. 
The dead men themselves were to tell 
the crrpaTT]yo\ where and how they were 



fiayofievoi) toc? TroXepLLotatv 
aTToOavelv kv Opveais. 

XO. avay ey rd^iv tt&Xlv ey ravrbv, 

teal tov Ovfibv Kccrddov Kv\jra$ 
Trapa rrjv opyrjv &o"irep birXirris* 
Kdva7rv6<£>[JLe6a rovcrSe rive? ttotc, 
teal iroQev tfioXov, tlvl t hmvoia. 
la> e7ro\^ ere tol KaXa>. 

EIT. KaXzis Se rod kXvzlv diXw ; 

XO. rives ttoO* otSe Kal nodeis ; 

EH. gewco cro(j)rj$ d(f> c EXXa6W. 

XO. vvyjl ^* Troia KOJJIL- 

gei 7T0T avTcb npbs op- 
viOas eXOdv ; EIT. epcos 
fiiov ScatTr]9 re Kal 


Kal £vvtivai to irav. 
XO. ri^rjs) 




399. h 'Opveais] Orneae was a town 
in Argolis. It is selected here because 
its name was similar to that of the birds, 
opvta. But it was doubtless much in 
the mind of Athenians at this moment, 
because, less than a year before, a joint 
expedition of Athenians and Argives 
had commenced to besiege it. The 
siege, however, lasted only- one day. On 
the ensuing night the besieging forces 
bivouacked at some distance from the 
walls, and the defenders took the oppor- 
tunity of evacuating the place ; which 
was thereupon destroyed by the Argives. 

401. Karddov] Generally speaking, the 
common military phrase rWea-Qai ra 

o7r\a does not mean (as Dr. Arnold on 
Thuc. ii. 2 understood it) "to pile their 
arms in a heap," nor yet (as Mr. Grote, 
History of Greece, chap, xlviii, supposed) 
" armati consistere, to ground arms, to 
maintain rank, resting the spear and 
shield upon the ground." It means 
that each hoplite was to divest himself 
of his heavy armour, and place it on 
the ground before or beside him. Take 
for example the preliminaries to the 
battle of Mantinea, Xen. Hell. vii. 5. 22. 
The Theban and the Spartan armies (to 
describe each army by its most impor- 
tant contingent) were face to face, when 
Epaminondas directed his troops rlSea-dai 







(Yea, we will tell tlie commanders so,) 
Gallantly fighting at Orneae. 
Fall back, fall back to your ranks once more, 
And stand at ease as ye stood before, 
And lay your wrath on the ground, in line 
With your angry mood, as a warrior should ; 
We'll ask the while who the men may be, 
And whence they come, and with what design. 
Hey, Hoopoe, hey ! to you I speak. 
What is it that to learn you seek ? 
Whence are these visitors and who ? 
From clever Hellas strangers two. 
What's their aim ? Canst thou tell 

Why they came 
Love of you, 
Life and ways 
Here they fain 
Comrades true 

Here to dwell ? 
Love of your 
Was the lure. 
Would remain 
All their days. 

Hey, hey, what do you say ? 

ra 07r\a. Had they piled all their arms 
in a heap, they would have stood 
defenceless before the hostile array. 
Had they merely grounded arms, they 
would never have succeeded in lulling 
the enemy into a false security- So here. 
Each bird-warrior, coanep Str^iTis, was 
to lay his dpyrj on the ground, and 
place his dvfios by its side. In line 449 
he is ordered to take them up again. 

403. rives irodev] These were the 
ordinary inquiries addressed to stran- 
gers ; elpcora drj eireira^ ris eir], kcu iroBep 
?X0oi, Odyssey xv. 422, xvii. 368. In the 
third question I have substituted tlvl t 

emvoiq for the unmetrical eVi rlva t 
imvoiav of the MSS. The metre is ana- 
paestic, in which the proceleusmatic foot 
tlvl t €ttl- is quite admissible. See Thesm 
667 and the note there. To avcnraio-TiKov 
Kara iracrav x<°P av o^X erat O"7rovdelov 9 avd- 
7Tai(jTOV) (nravicos t)e kcu TrpOKekevorfxarLKov' 
irapa t)e rots hpapLaroTtoiois, koll 8aKTv\ov. 
Hephaest. chap. viii. It is of course 
especially suitable for the speech of the 

410. Tvxnl Here follow two ere tic 
triplets, each triplet commencing with 
a base which consists of one short 
syllable, tv/x*), j3//ov. 

E 2 


Aeyej Se 8fj rivas Xoyovs ; 415 

EII. aTTKTTOL KCLl TTepa, k\v€LV. 

XO. Spa Tt'KepSos kvUS d- 

£iov fxovrjs, otco neTTOid* 

i/jiol £vvcbv 

Kparelv dv rj rbv eyOpbv r) 

obiXoLcnu dxpeXetu 'iyje.iv ; . 420 

EII. A eye* peyav tiv okftov ov 


act, iravra Kal 

to rrjSe Kal to Ke?<re Kal 

to Sevpo TTpoorftifia Xeycov. 425 

XO. 7roT€pa paivopevos ; 

En. dfyaTov coy (ppovipos. 

XO. evi cro<p6v tl obpevi; 

En. irvKvoTaTov KivaSos, 

crocpio-pa Kvpfia Tpippa TranrdXy]p, oXov. 430 

XO. Xiyeiv Xeyeiv KeXevi pot. 

kXvccp yap 3>v crv pot Xeyeis 
En. dye Srj crv Kal en) tt)v iravoTrXiav pev irdXiv 

416. arrivTa koll nepa] Incredible and irapa ra e< tcov ^heira bi^ax^KTcov Qoiviar- 

more than incredible, as the Oxford crav (265). He further says that the 

Lexicographers rightly explain it. irepa words era yap ravra iravra ko.\ eKeTae Sevpo 

k\v€iv, " too great to hear," is neither are found in the Andromeda, also not 

good Greek nor good sense, and bears yet published. And see Eccl. 487 and 

no analogy to iripa Xoyov, with which the note there. 

Beck compares it. A thought may be 430. SXov] This word applies to the 

too big for utterance, but if utter- whole line ; he is all craft, invention, 

able cannot be too big to be heard, wiliness, subtlety, he is one entire and 

And see Thesm. 705 and the note perfect o-dc^tcr/xa k.t.A. The question 

there. was "Is there anything vofybv in his 

424. to Kela-e k.tX] The Scholiast on mind?" And the answer is "He is all 

348 supra says that these expressions are Go^ia-pa" As to rpZ/x/xa, iranra\r)p.a see 


"What is the tale they tell ? Hoop. In brief, 

'Tis something more than past belief. 
Choe. But wherefore is he come ? What is it 

He seeks to compass by his visit ? 

Think you he's got some cunning plan 

Whereby, allied with us, he can 

Assist a friend, or harm a foe ? 

What brings him here, I'd like to know. 
Hoop. Too great, too great, for thought or words. 

The bliss he promises the birds. 

All things are yours, he says, whatever 

Exists in space, both here and there, 

And to and fro, and everywhere. 
Choe. Mad a little, eh ? 

Hoop. More sane than words can say. 

Choe. Wide awake ? Hoop. Wide as day. 

The subtlest cunningest fox, 
All scheme, invention, craft; wit, wisdom, paradox. 
Choe. His speech, his speech, bid him begin it. 

The things you show excite me so, 
Fm fit to fly this very minute. 
Hoop. Now you and you, take back this panoply, 

Clouds 260 ; Lucian, Pseudologista 32. two of the theatrical attendants, doubt- 

Hesychius and Photius define TvamaK^yLa less those to whom, infra 656, the names 

by ttolklKos iv KdKiq. Literally, it means of Xanthias and Manodorus are given, 

" fine flour " of wheat or barley, rplfifia and directs them to carry back the spit, 

is " an old hand," the Latin veterator. the platters, and (probably) the pot, 

433. dp€7TT€pa)fiai] This is the first into the kitchen from which they had 
hint of the doctrine on which Pei- originally been taken. See the note on 
sthetaerus dilates at some length infra 357 supra. He is here dealing only 
1437-50, that "minds are winged by with the arms of the Men. With the 
words." armature of the Birds he will deal 

434. o-v Kai a-v] Matters having thus infra 448. 
taken a pacific turn, the Hoopoe calls 



ravrrjv Xafiovre Kpefxdaarov Tv^dyaOfj 435 

€9 rov lirvbv eiG-co ttXt](tlov TovmcrTarow 

av 8e rovorS ecf> olairep rots Xoyois arvveXe^ kycb 

tppdaov, SiSagov. I1EL fia rov 'AnoXXco 'yoo jikv ov, 

rjv fir] StdOcovTai y oiSe 8ia6rjK7}v efjcol 

7]V7T€p 6 TTlOtjKOS TTj yVVOLlKl 8iid€T0, 440 

6 iiaxaipoiroibs, firjre Sdweiv tovtovs e/xe 

firjT opyintft (=Xk€lv jjltJt opvrreiv — XO. ovtl ttov 

tSv — ; ovSafxm. ITEI. oi>K, dXXd rdxpdaXfJicb Xeyco. 

XO. StaTiOe/jiai 'yd). IIEI. Karojioorov vvv ravrd jxou 

XO. ofjivvfjL krrl tovtols, Traari vikolv toT$ KptraT? 445 

Kal toTs OearaTs uacriv. IIEI. earai ravrayL 

XO. el Se Trapa(3atrjv y ivl Kpirfj vikolv fiovov. 

EE[. aKovere Xecp- tovs oTrXhas vvv/xevl 

436. 7 0v7n(jTdrov] The reader must 
select for himself which of the three 
interpretations of this word given by 
the Scholiasts here, by Eustathius on 
Odyssey xvii. 455, and by other gram- 
marians, he thinks most probable. 
(1) The eVia-rarr/ff (or Ittlo-tcitov Or eVi- 
(ttcltos, for even this is doubtful) was 
a bronze stool with three legs, per- 
forated at the top. A fire was kindled 
underneath, and water in a x^ T P a or 
Kparrjp was set upon it to boil. It was 
also called a VTroKpaTrjpiov, U7roo-raroz/, 
and v7Too-rarr]9. This interpretation is 
favoured by Bentley and others, and is 
thought to be corroboratedby theSigeian 
inscription. But see the Additional 
Note on that inscription at the end of 
the Commentary. (2) It was a little 
clay figure of Hephaestus, placed by 
the hearth, and called 6 ima-Tarr)?, as 
the president or overseer of the fire. 

This interpretation is strongly upheld 
by Kuster. (3) It was a stand full of pro- 
jecting pegs or hooks on which the 
cook was accustomed to hang his meat 
and culinary utensils. This seems to be, 
at present, the popular interpretation. 
440. 6 7ri6r}Kos] He is said to have 
been an ugly little cutler named 
Panaetius, who had a virago for his 
wife. After incessant quarrels, they 
came to a compact /xjjre rv7rreiv, firjTe 
TVTTTeo-Qai) p>f)T€ SaKveiv avrbv (friXovpTa, 
fjtrjTe baKvecrQai, and SO on. 

443. TOV ] TOV TTpOJKTOV 8eiKVVS (JlrjO'lV, 

ovtl ttov rov. — Scholiast. 

445. oyLVvpL em tovtois~] It was not 
left to the Gods to determine what 
should be the reward for keeping, or 
what the penalty for breaking, the oath. 
The person who took the oath was 
careful to specify, and indeed to in- 
corporate in the oath itself, alike the 


And hang it up, God bless it, out of sight 

Within the kitchen there, beside the Jack. 

But you (to Pel) the things we summoned them to hear 

Expound, declare. Pel By Apollo no, not I, 

Unless they pledge me such a treaty-pledge 

As that small jackanapes who makes the swords 

Pledged with his wife, to wit that they'll not bite me 

Nor pull me about, nor scratch my — Chor. Fie, for shame ! 

Not this ? no, no ! Pel My eyes, I was going to say. 

Choe. I pledge it. Pel Swear ! Chor. I swear on these conditions; 
So may I win by every judge's vote, 
And the whole Theatre's. Pel And so you shall. 

Choe. But if Pm false, then by one vote alone. 

Hoop. O yes ! O yes ! Hoplites, take up your arms 

reward and the penalty. Thus in ing the oath on which the whole plot 

Lysistrata 233 the woman, after repeat- hinges, declares — 

If I keep faith, my cup be filled with wine, 
But if I fail, a water- draught be mine. 

In the present compact the penalty for tended to predict the ultimate victory 

breaking the oath is to be no punish- of the play. 

ment at all, but a success only less decisive 448. rovs on-Mms] The arms of the Men 

than that which is the reward of good — spit, platters and pot — have already 

faith. Ifl keep the oath, say the Chorus, been taken away to the kitchen; and 

then may I win the prize by acclama- now the bird-hoplites (supra 402) are 

tion, that is, by the acclamation of the to be disbanded with the accustomed 

audience, ratified by the unanimous formula. They are directed to pick up 

vote of the judges ; while if I break it, their arms and depart ; but of course 

may I — still win, but only by a bare they are not really to do either the one 

majority, three to two, of the votes. For thing or the other. For their arms 

eKpLvav irevre Kpirai tovs kv/mkovs, as the were represented by their dvpov and 

Scholiast says ; see the note on Eccl. 1 154. opyrjv, and their presence is still required 

446. eVratrauTay/] These words are not as the Chorus of the play. The MSS. 

a mere acceptance of the conditions attribute the proclamation to a Kfjpvg, 

proposed ; which, indeed, are not yet but the part of the Kr)pv£ was no doubt 

completely formulated. They are in- undertaken by the Hoopoe, to whom the 



dveXofxkvovs O&ttX* amikvai ir&Xiv oiKaSe, 

cKoireTv S' o ri av wpoypdcpcjopev iv rots TTLvaidois. 450 

XO. SoXepbv pev del Kara wdvra Srj rponov [ <TT P* 

7T€(pVKeU avOpMTTOS' (TV 8* OfLCO$ Xiye jXOU 

rdya yap rvyots av 
Xprjcrrbv igenroov o re poi irapopar } rj 

Svvapcv riva petfo 455 

rrapaXemopevr\v vtt kprjs <f>pevbs d£vverow 
av Se rovd' ovpas Xey els kolvov. 
o yap av crir rvyrjs pot 
dyaObv iropicras, rovro kolvov earau 

dXX' k(j> oropnep irpdypari rr)v arjv fjKeis yvcoprjv dvaTreio-as, 460 
Xiye Bapprjcras' d>9 roc? (tttovSols ou pr) irporepoi napa^copev. 
IIEI. Kal prjv opyco vr) rbv Ala Kal tt pon e<f>v pai at Xdyo? ef? pot, 
bv Siapdrreiv KcoXvet ovSev (pipe na? arecpavov Kara^eTaOat 

lines are given by Kock and Kennedy. 
The Scholiast says Krjpv^ fj nzio-Beraipos, 
but of course Peisthetaerus could have 
nothing to do with disbanding the troops 
of the Birds. And the Hoopoe would 
naturally be the spokesman here, as he 
was supra 434. 

454. irapopar] For Trapoparai, is over- 
looked, is Bentley's emendation, very 
generally accepted, for napopqs. Three 
lines lower down ovpas is Bothe's cor- 
rection for Spas, "ovpas pro 6 Spas" 
he says "ut ovvos pro 6 6W, Ran. 27, 
ovdvacrevsipvo6 9 0bvo-o-€vsj ap. Soph. &e.;" 
cf. infra 1561. 

461. 7rpoT€poi\ He is recalling the 
impressive language with which Homer 
describes the infraction by the Trojans 
of the truce made between themselves 
and the Achaeans, pending the single 

combat of Menelaus and Paris. At the 
making of the truce a solemn curse is 
denounced against those omrortpoi IIPO 

TEPOI vnep opKia Trrjprjveiav (Iliad iii. 299), 

and twice in the succeeding book we 
are told that it was arranged in the 
counsels of Heaven that the Trojans 
ap£cocri TIPOTEPOI virep opKia dr)\r]o~acr6ai 
(iv. 67, 72), and twice, that they were 
doomed to misfortune iireX IIPOTEPOI 

vnep opKia 8t]\r)cravro (iv. 236, 271). It 

is plain, therefore, that Hermann's altera- 
tion of 7rpoT€pov into irpoTtpoi is abun- 
dantly justified. The word Trpayiian in 
the preceding line refers back to line 321, 
where Peisthetaerus and his comrade 
are described as bringing with them the 
stem 7rpa.yp.aros TreXcopiov. 

462. opyco] The words opyco, 7rp07re- 
(fivparai, and biaparreiv all are borrowed 



And march back homewards ; there await the orders 
We're going to publish on the notice-boards. 

Chor. Full of wiles, full of guiles, at all times, in all ways, 

Are the children of Men ; still we'll hear what he says. 

Thou hast haply detected 
Something good for the Birds which we never suspected; 

Some power of achievement, too high 
For my own shallow wit by itself to descry. 

But if aught you espy, 
Tell it out ; for whatever of advantage shall fall 
To ourselves by your aid, shall be common to all. 

So expound us the plan you have brought us, my man, not doubting, it seems, of success. 
And don't be afraid, for the treaty we made we won't be the first to transgress. 
Pel I am hot to begin, and my spirit within is fermenting the tale to declare. 

And my dough I will knead, for there's nought to impede. Boy, bring me a wreath for my hair, 

from the process of baking; 6pya> refer- 
ring to the fermentation, by which the 
bulk is largely increased, through the 
formation of air-bubbles within ; irpoire- 
(pvpaTcii to the various processes of mix- 
ing, first, the yeast with boiling water 
and salt ; then, a part of the liquid so 
produced with a portion of the flour, 
so as to form what is now called the 
" sponge " ; and then the sponge with 
the rest of the liquid and flour ; and 
SictfjidTTctp to the final kneading. He 
speaks of his \6yos, as if it were an apros. 
One portion of the dough has already 
been mixed and fermented, and is now 
fit to be kneaded, and served up as a loaf. 
463. o-re(f>avov] A myrtle wreath was 
always worn by an orator ; see Thesm. 
380 ; Eccl. 131, and the notes there. Its 
assumption by Peisthetaerus here makes 

the spectators understand that he is 
delivering a continuous oration, merely 
punctuated by the remarks, mostly 
comic, of Euelpides. This was very 
effectively shown in the first representa- 
tion of the play at Cambridge (a.d. 
1883) ; in the second representation, 
twenty years later, the arrangements 
of the New Theatre necessitated the 
presence of the Chorus on the stage 
itself, which of course reduced the 
oration to a sort of conversational 
dialogue. Peisthetaerus delivers two 
orations, each (with the interruptions) 
of sixty-one lines. In the first he dilates 
on the lost glory of the Birds ; in the 
second he points out the way to recover it. 
The first, which is to crush them with 
grief and indignation, he has already 
worked up, and will at once produce. 

58 O P N I E 2 

Kara yeipbs vScop fepeTCo rayv ns. ET. Senrvrjaeiv piXXopev ; rj tl; 
riEI. pa Al dXXa XeyeLv {rjTco tl ndXai peya Kal Xapivbv tiros tl, 465 

o tl rr)v tovtcov Opavaei tyvyjiv ovrcos vpoov vnepaXyco, 

oltives ovres rrporepov (3a<TiXfj$ — XO. fjpeLS (3acnXrj9 ; tlvos ; IIEI. vpels 

navroov dirocr €cttlv } epov ttjicdtov, tovSl, Kal tov Alos avrov. 

dpyatoTepoi Trporepoi re Kpovov Kal Tirdvcov eyevecrOe, 

Kal yrjs. XO. Kal yrjs ; IIEI. vr) rbv ' AttoXXoo. XO. rovrl pa At ovk in en v crprj v. 
IIEI. dpadr)s yap ecpvs kov iroXvirpdypcov, ov8* Alctcottov TreirdrrjKas, 471 

bs e(f>ao-K€ Xiycov KopvSbv irdvTcov TrpcoTrjv opviQa yeviaOai, 

irporkpav ttjs yrjs, K&weLTa vocrcp tov irarep aurrjs a7ro6vrjcrK€Lv 

yrjv S' ovk ztvai, tov Se TrpoKelcrOai TrepTTTaTov ttjv S drropovaav 

vtt dpr\yavias tov iraTep avrrjs ev Tjj KefyaXrj KaTopv^ai. , 475 

464. Kara xeipos vdcop] This was the a note in Schomann, De Comitiis, i. 10. 
ordinary expression for the wash before 465. \apiv6v] Lusty, stout, orawny : 
dinner (see note on Wasps 1216), and - strictly of oxen, fat, stall-fed. See Peace 
had no application to an oratorical 925, and the note there. The Scholiast 
display. It would seem that Peisthe- on the present passage says, dvr\ tov 
taerus is designedly representing his \map6v' ck fieracfiopas tgov ftooov. 
speech as a feast for the delectation of 469. Kpovov ml Tirdvcov] Not only 
the audience ; and Euelpides had more were they older than the Olympian 
reason for being deceived, or pretend- Gods, they were also older than those 
ing to be deceived, than had the Woman primeval powers whom Zeus after a 
in Eccl. 132. The arecpavos was common protracted conflict overthrew and super- 
to both orators and revellers ; but the seded. In Hesiod's description of the 
bakery, the pre-prandial wash, and the conflict, the older Gods are all comprised 
epithet Xapivbv in the following verse, under the name of Titans, 
all belong to the banquet alone. See 

There on the summit of Othrys the masterful Titans stood, 

Here from Olympus warred the Gods, the givers of good ; 

Thence and hence they clashed in combat anguished and sore, 

Never a pause in the battle for ten long years and more, 

Never an ending dawned to the conflict's agony -throes, 

Never the victory- scale inclined to these or to those. — Theog. 631, &c. 

But the antiquity of the Birds goes even than the Earth itself. At this 

further than this. These old-world final announcement the Chorus are 

deities were themselves yrjyeveh, children fairly taken aback, and can only repeat, 

of the Earth ; and the Birds were older in awed amazement, the words <a\ yrjs I 



And a wash for my hands. Eu. Why, what mean these commands ? Is a dinner in near 
contemplation ? 

Pel No dinner, I ween ; 'tis a speech that I mean, a stalwart and brawny oration, 

Their spirit to batter, and shiver and shatter. {To the Birds.) So sorely I grieve for your lot 
Who once in the prime and beginning of time were Sovereigns — Choe. We Sovereigns ! 
of what ? 

Pet. Of all that you see ; of him and of me ; of Zeus up above on his throne ; 
A lineage older and nobler by far than the Titans and Cronos ye own, 
And than Earth. Chor. And than Earth ! Pel By Apollo 'tis true. Choe. And 
I never had heard it before ! 

Pet. Because you've a blind uninquisitive mind, unaccustomed on Aesop to pore. 

The lark had her birth, so he says, before Earth ; then her father fell sick and he died. 
She laid out his body with dutiful care, but a grave she could nowhere provide ; 
Por the Earth was not yet in existence ; at last, by urgent necessity led, 
When the fifth day arrived, the poor creature contrived to bury her sire in her head. 

471. KtacoTTOV TTETTaTr]Kas\ Worn out 
\r Aesop with diligent study j deeply 
studied your Aesop. Kock refers to Plato's 
Phaedrus, chap. 57 (273 A), top ye 
Ticriav avrbv TreTrdrrjKas ciKpificos (ipsam 
Tisiae artem trivisti, Stallbaum). The 
fable which follows has not come down 
to us in any collection of Aesop's fables : 
for though De Furia includes it in his 
edition as the 415th fable, he only takes 
it from the Paroemiographers, who 
transcribe it verbatim from Aristophanes, 
merely writing his verses as if they were 
prose. It is repeated by Aelian (N. A. 
xvi. 5) and Galen (De Simplicium 
Medicamentorum facultatibus xl. 37) 
who refer it, not to Aesop, but to 
Aristophanes ; the former alleging that 
the Greeks derived it from India, where 
a somewhat similar legend was associated 
with the hoopoe. It is in reference to 

this story that the crested lark is, as 
Kuster observes, called eVtrv/xjSt^io? by 
Theocritus, Idyll vii. 23. 

472. Kopvdov] The Kopvdbs is the crested 
lark. Or/kvKcos, says the Scholiast, 
eiprjKe rr)v KOpvbov, nXdrcov Se (Euthy- 
demus, chap. 18. 291 B) apo-evtKccs. Both 
the male and the female lark have 
crests, though the male's is perhaps 
slightly the larger. Possibly these pro- 
truding feathers may have been fabled 
to belong to another bird inclosed in the 
head of the lark. 

474. jrpoKficrOai] To be laid out as a 
corpse for the burial, see Eccl. 537 and 
the note there. In this case, it would 
seem, three whole days intervened be- 
tween the day of the laying out and 
the day of the burial; whereas in 
ordinary cases the burial took place on 
the following day. 



ET. 6 Trarrjp dpa rrj9 KopvSov vvvl Keirai Te6v€Q)$ KecpaXfjcny. 
LTEI. ovkovv Srjr el TTporepoi [ikv yfjs rrpoTepoi Se Oea>v kykvovTO, 

a>$ irpecrfivTaTO&v avToov ovtodv opBoos ea6 rj fiaaiXeia ; 
ET. V7) tqv , A7^6XAco• irdvv roivvv xprj pvyyos fSoaKtiv ae to Xolttov* 

ovk diroScoo-eL Tafias 6 Zevs to cncrjirTpov r<3 SpuKoXaTTTrj. 480 
IIEI. a>? 8 ov)(l 6eol tolvvv r\p)(o v ™ v dvOpconcov to iraXcubv, 

dXX 9 opviOes, KafSaaiXevov, noXX' eo~TL T€Kp,rjpia tovtcdv. 

avTLKa 8' vplv 7rpa>T kinSei^w tov dXtKTpvov , coy krvpavvzi 

r\pyi T€ Tleparwv irpcidTOv irdvTCdv Aapeiov kccl Meyafidgov, 

&cft€ KaXeiTctL UepaiKos opvis dirb Trjs dp\r\s er eKeivrjs. 485 

ET. Std tccvt dp* €)(coy teal vvv &airep (SacnXevs 6 jieyas SiafidorKec 

kirl TtJ9 K€(paXfj$ tj\v Kvpftacrlav toov opviOcov jiovos opOrjv. 

476. KecfraXfjorip] After each argument 
of Peisthetaerus, Euelpides " chips in " 
with his litle joke. Here, the KecpaXrj of 
the lark, he imagines, must be Kec^aXrj, 
an Attic deme, belonging to the tribe 
Acamantis. In the dative, the plural 
K6(j>a\rj(riv seems to have been commonly 
used. Thus Pausanias, runningthrough 
the notabilia of the smaller Attic demes, 

Says KecpaXrjo-i 8e ol Ai6o~Kovpoi vopLi^ovrai 

fidXia-ra Attica xxxi. 1. But there seems 
no doubt that its name was really 
Kec^aXr) ; and a burgher of the deme was 
said to be a man KecfiaXrjOev, that is, from 
Kecfoakr]. KecpaXrj, brjfios rrjs ' AKafiavribos' 
a(f> rjs 6 drjfiorrjs Xeyerai K€<paXr}6ev 
Harpocration. Kecj)aXr), S77/10P 'A/ca/xaj/ri- 
dos* Kai KecfiaXrjOev' itc rrjs avrrjs Photius. 
The deme is seldom mentioned, and we 
have no means of ascertaining its actual 

480. dpyKoXdn-rr]'] The woodpecker, liter- 
ally the oak-pecker. It is called bpvKo- 
Xd7TTTjs here, and in 979 infra, but more 

commonly it is called dpvoKoXdnrrjs. 
The oak was sacred to Zeus, whose most 
solemn oracles were delivered at Dodona 
eK 8pvbs vyjnKofioio. The woodpecker in 
attacking the oak might seem to be 
attacking Zeus himself, who would 
naturally be loth to surrender his 
sceptre to this puny assailant. The 
demonstration of the antiquity of the 
birds is now finished. Peisthetaerus 
next proceeds to prove their former 
sovereignty over mankind. He gives 
three instances. The Cock was the 
sovereign of Persia : the Kite, of Hellas : 
and the Cuckoo, of Egypt andPhoenice. 
483. €7ri§€i£oi> rbv aXeKTpvova] That is, 
inibei^co cos 6 dXeicrpvcov irvpdvpfi. The 
accusative is not really governed by 
eVidctl co. It represents the nominative 
to the verb in the second limb of the 
sentence, thrown back, by a common 
Attic idiom, before the conjunction, 
as an independent accusative. It 
is merely by accident that it finds 



Eu. So the sire of the lark, give me leave to remark, on the crest of an headland lies dead. 
Pel If therefore, by birth , ye are older than Earth, if before all the Gods ye existed, 

By the right of the firstborn the sceptre is yours ; your claim cannot well be resisted. 
Eu. I advise you to nourish and strengthen your beak, and to keep it in trim for a stroke. 

Zeus won't in a hurry the sceptre restore to the woodpecker tapping the oak. 
Pel In times prehistoric 'tis easily proved, by evidence weighty and ample, 

That Birds, and not Gods, were the Rulers of men, and the Lords of the world ; for example, 

Time was that the Persians were ruled by the Cock, a King autocratic, alone ; 

The sceptre he wielded or ever the rames " Megabazus/' " Daiius " were known ; 

And the " Persian " he still by the people is called from the Empire that once was his own. 
Eu. And thus, to this hour, the symbol of power on his head you can always detect : 

Like the Sovereign of Persia, alone of the Birds, he stalks with tiara erect. 

a transitive verb there. See the note 
on 167 supra; and see infra 652. 
As to the expression Uepo-tKos opvis, 
Bergler refers to 707 infra ; to Athe- 
naeuschap. ix. 16 (374D)who cites from 
the Horae of Cratinus 

&<nr€p 6 Uepcritcbs &pav iracrav 
Kavax&v oKocpojvos akifcrovp : 

and to the quotation in xiv. chap. 70 
(655 A) of the same writer from the 
treatise of Menodotus " On the Temple 
of the Samian Hera," who suggests 
that peacocks were originally natives of 
Samos, and thence spread into other 
lands, a>9 Kai ol akeitTpvoves iv rfj Ileporidi. 
See also infra 833. 

487. KVpftacrLav] The Kvpfiao~ia, or ridpa, 
or Kidapis, otherwise Ktrapis (for the 
three words mean the same thing), was 
the ordinary Persian head-dress. " Their 
arms are bows and a slight javelin" said 
Aristagoras to the Spartans, " and they 
go into battle wearing trousers, and 

with Kvpfiaoias on their heads." Hdt. v. 
49 ; cf. Id. vii. 61. But the Kvppao-ia of 
the ordinary Persian was rolled round 
the head and projected over the fore- 
head, whereas that of the Great King 
stood up erect, like the feather in 
a Highland chieftain's bonnet, rrjv pth 
€7t\ tjj Ke(f)a\r} riapav /3acriAei fiovco e£eo~Tiv 
opdrjv exew, Xen. Anab. ii. 5. 23. And 
hence Artaxerxes, when he proclaimed 
Darius his successor, rrjv KirapLv opdrju 
4>epeiv IS©**, Plutarch. Art. chap. 26. 
The Scholiast says irdcn ILipo-ais 
zgrjv rrjv ndpav <£ope«/, dXX' ovk opBrpf. 
piovoi 8e ol tgsv Hepo~(ov (3a(n\eis opBais 
expcbvTo. And again Kvpfiacrlap' rrjp <?V< 
Ke(j)a\rjs Kibapiv' €(Ttl beavrr], icada izpoevno- 
fiev, ridpa. toZs fiev aXXots eBos €7TTvyfX€Vr)v 
Ka\ 7rpo/3a\\ou(rai> els to fxera)7rou e^ay, rols 
he$ao-Ckev<jiv6p6riv. In the preceding line 
diafiao-Kei is commonly translated struts ; 
Shakespeare's " strutting chanticleer." 
More precisely, it means straddles. 



IIEI. ovrco 8' tayyk re Kal pkyas r\v rore Kal noXvs, Sar en Kal vvv 
vtto rfj? pooprjs rrj? tot kKeivrfS, qttotclv vopov opQpiov aery, 
dvaTTr]8o[)(TLv ir&VTes kn tpyov, yakKrjs, K€papr]s, aKvXoSi\jraL } 490 
o-KVTrjs, fiaXavrjs, dXc[)iTapoL(3ol, TopvevToXvpacnTL8oTTr]yoi' 
ol Se f$a8i£ovcr VTToSrjcrdpei/oL vvKT(x>p. ET. kpe tovto y kpd>Ta. 
yXaivav yap dircoXecr 6 po^6rjpo9 Qpvytcov kpicov Sia, tovtov. 
k$ SeKaTrjp yap noTe iraiSapcov KXrjdels vtt£ttivov kv acrTei, 
KapTL KaOevSov, Kal irplv Stiirveiv tovs aXXovs ovtos dp' fjcrev 495 
Kayoo vopicras opdpov ky&povv ' K